AP Chemistry Cumulative Review

AP Chemistry Cumulative Review

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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Solute

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Cards (528)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Solute

Front

Substance being dissolved in a solution (lower [ ])

Back

Oxidation is Loss Reduction is Gain

Front

OIL RIG

Back

0

Front

Oxidation # of Compounds

Back

Covalently w/in themselves, Ionicly bonded w/ each other

Front

Polyatomic Ions (bonding)

Back

Monoprotic

Front

Donates a single H+ Ion (... other prefixes also)

Back

+1, except if bonded to Alkali Metal -1

Front

Oxidation # of Hydrogen

Back

p+

Front

proton (symbol)

Back

Atomic Mass Unit

Front

The weighted average of all the isotopes that an atom can have (in g/mol)

Back

Acid + Base --> Salt + Water

Front

Neutralization Reaction (general format) (net ionic of which is always (H+) + (OH-) --> (H2O))

Back

precipitate

Front

A solid or gas that can be formed when 2 or more aqueous reactants come together

Back

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

Front

H + donor

Back

Molar Mass of Element/ Total Molar Mass

Front

% Composition Formula

Back

period

Front

Horizontals on the periodic table

Back

Molecule

Front

2 or more covalently bonded atoms

Back

actual yield/theoretical yield x 100%

Front

% yield

Back

End Point

Front

In a titration, the point where the indicator changes (just after moles of solid are equal to moles of base)

Back

Solvent

Front

Substance in which something is dissolved in a solution (higher [ ])

Back

Allotrope

Front

An element with several different forms, each with different properties (i.e. graphite & diamond)

Back

Bronsted-Lowry Base

Front

H+ Acceptor

Back

Ionic Compounds

Front

Compound in which there is a bond between two non-metals; when naming them you use the numerical prefixes (may NOT be reduced i.e. S2F4 may not become SF2)

Back

Arrhenius Base

Front

Ionizes to produce OH- Ions

Back

H2, F2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2

Front

Diatomic Molecules

Back

Molecular

Front

All (though really not all, but for our purposes all) ________ compounds are NOT electrolytes

Back

different # of neutrons

Front

Isotope

Back

Volume Metric Flask & Pipet

Front

Tools NEEDED for dilution

Back

Metalliods

Front

Elements on staircase on periodic table

Back

Ionic

Front

All _________ compounds are electrolytes

Back

n0

Front

neutron (symbol)

Back

Amphoteric

Front

a single substance that may be an acid or a base (i.e. water)

Back

Cation

Front

positive ion

Back

-2, with peroxide -1

Front

Oxidation # of Oxygen

Back

1) Assume percentages are g (where you have 100 g) 2) convert to moles 3) divide by lowest value 4) plug into compound

Front

How to Find an Empirical Formula Given Percentages

Back

Solution

Front

A homogeneous mixture with 1 phase

Back

1)Assign Oxidation #s 2) Half Reaction 3) Balance Moles 2) Balance add e- to balance Oxidation #s (RED-OX = reduction on left, Oxidation on right) 4) Add H+ or OH - to balance charge 5) Add H2O to balance hydrogens 4) Balance electrons by multiplying until half reactions are equal 5) Add together & check

Front

How to Balance a Redox Equation

Back

charge

Front

Oxidation # of Polyatomic Ions

Back

Anion

Front

negative ion

Back

1) Convert to moles 2) divide by lowest moles 3) if any halfs, double all values 4) plug into Compound

Front

How to Find an Empirical Formula Given Grams

Back

0

Front

Oxidation # of free elements

Back

# protons (atom is defined by this)

Front

Atomic #

Back

electrolyte

Front

Substance that, when dissolved, is conductive

Back

-1

Front

Oxidation # of Halogens

Back

e-

Front

electron (symbol)

Back

M1V1=M2V2

Front

Formula used when diluting stock solution (to find amount of water or stock needed)

Back

moles of solute/ L of solution

Front

Molarity (M)

Back

charge

Front

Oxidation # of Ions

Back

# protons + # neutrons

Front

Mass #

Back

Molecular Compounds

Front

Compound in which there is a bond between a metal and a non-metal; when naming, pay attention to ionic charges on periodic table (may be reduced)

Back

group

Front

Verticals on the periodic table

Back

1) multiply each AMU by the percentage that represents that isotopes occurrence in nature 2) then add all the AMUs together.

Front

How to Find a Weighted Average

Back

Arrhenius Acid

Front

Ionizes to produce H+ ions

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Oxidizing Agent

Front

The reactant in the reduction reaction that forces the oxidation reaction to occur

Back

Barometer

Front

Instrument used to measure the pressure of atmospheric gas

Back

Endothermic

Front

Absorbs/takes in heat (positive value)

Back

C=(mass)(specific heat)

Front

Heat capacity formula

Back

Open System

Front

Type of system in which the energy and mass may leave or enter

Back

8.314 J/K mol

Front

R in instances that pertain to energy

Back

Thermochemistry

Front

The heat changed in a chemical reaction.

Back

q

Front

Symbol for Total Heat absorbed or released

Back

Calorimeter

Front

A device used to measure Delta H

Back

System

Front

What is defined by you taken from the whole universe

Back

PV=nRT

Front

Ideal Gas Law Formula

Back

rate gas A/rate gas B = square root (mm gas B/ mm gas A)

Front

Rate of Diffusion/Effusion formula

Back

Pressure of H2O must be Subtracted

Front

In ideal gas law problem, when it says "atmospheric" ...

Back

AH

Front

Symbol for the heat absorbed or lost molecularly (PER MOLE)

Back

Exothermic

Front

Releases/gives off heat (negative value)

Back

Manometer

Front

Instrument used to measure the pressure of a not-atmospheric gas (open or closed system)

Back

Reducing Agent

Front

The reactant in the oxidizing reaction that forces the reduction reaction to occur

Back

Temperature

Front

Measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance

Back

Force = mass x acceleration

Front

Newton's Second Law

Back

yellow --> green

Front

Colors of Reaction when (Cr2O7 2-) --> (Cr 3+)

Back

Surroundings

Front

Everything in the universe that is not defined by you as part of the system

Back

rate gas A/rate gas B = square root (mm A/ mm B)

Front

Speed of Diffusion/Effusion formula

Back

Heat Capacity (C)

Front

The amount of energy/heat required to raise some substance 1 degree C

Back

0.0821 atm L/mol K

Front

R in ideal gas law

Back

q H2O = msAT

Front

q H2O = ?

Back

Constant Pressure

Front

Coffee Cup Calorimeter

Back

force x distance = work done

Front

Energy (definition)

Back

high pressure, low temperature

Front

Non-Ideal Gas Conditions

Back

Constant Volume

Front

Bomb Calorimeter

Back

Equivalence Point

Front

In a titration, the point where moles of acid are equal to moles of base (just before the indicator changes color)

Back

P1V1/N1T1=P2V2/N2T2

Front

Combined Gas Law Formula

Back

Closed System

Front

Type of system in which the energy may escape, but the mass is conserved

Back

Average KE = 1/2(mass)(average speed of all particles)

Front

Average Kinetic Energy Formula

Back

Atmospheric Pressure

Front

the weight exerted by a column of air or the pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere

Back

P of a =(X of a)(total pressure)

Front

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures (to find partial pressure formula)

Back

Delta H or Enthalpy Change

Front

Measure of the change in enthalpy

Back

0

Front

If heat capacity isn't mentioned, you can assume that q of cal is = ?

Back

M = square root (3RT/mm)

Front

Kinetic Energy of an individual particle formula

Back

0 degrees C, 1 atm

Front

STP

Back

PEACe 1)each molecule is a Point in space 2)Elastic collisions 3) no force of Attraction 4) no energy lost or gained to Collisions

Front

Idea Gas Law (actual rules)

Back

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 101.3 kPa

Front

Pressure Units/Conversions

Back

Specific Heat (s)

Front

The energy required to raise 1 g of substance 1 degree C

Back

Temperature

Front

Kinetic Energy is proportional to ______

Back

q cal = CAT

Front

q cal = ?

Back

q rxn = -(q of H2O + q of cal)

Front

q rxn = ?

Back

purple --> pink

Front

Colors of Reaction when (MnO4 -) --> (Mn2+)

Back

X of a = moles a/total moles

Front

Mole Fraction

Back

Calorimetry

Front

The measurement of heat changes

Back

Isolated System

Front

Type of system in which nothing is transfered (no mass or energy); ideal

Back

H

Front

Symbol for Enthalpy

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

State Functions

Front

Function in which it doesn't matter HOW the changes take place, only that they do; you can use to formula Final - Initial ( i.e. energy, pressure, volume, temperature, sort of moles)

Back

Positive work value; work done on system

Front

When gas compresses ...

Back

London dispersion forces

Front

larger molecules which have higher mass and therefore electron density have stronger...

Back

+ ∆S

Front

diatomic molecules forming mixed molecules, e.g. H2 + I2 -> 2HI, means...

Back

w =-(P)(Change in V)

Front

work = ?

Back

0

Front

AH of formation for a substance in its stablest form (how it is found in nature)

Back

see-saw

Front

AX4E

Back

AH = q/moles

Front

Delta H (AH) = ?

Back

vapor pressure

Front

stronger IMF= lower... weaker IMF= higher...

Back

∆H | ∆S is spontaneous...at low temperatures

Front

- | -

Back

An = (moles of products that are gasses) - (moles of reactants that are gasses)

Front

Change in moles (An) =?

Back

N=N.(0.5)^time/time half-life

Front

half-life equation

Back

Multiplying

Front

When _____ significant digits, round answer to least significant digit

Back

∆H | ∆S is spontaneous...never

Front

+ | -

Back

square planar

Front

AX4E2

Back

trigonal bipyramidal

Front

AX5

Back

AE = q + w

Front

Change in Energy (AE) = ? (in terms of work)

Back

are not

Front

For significant digits, leading zeros ____ significant

Back

∆H | ∆S is spontaneous...at high temperatures

Front

+ | +

Back

octahedral

Front

AX6

Back

AH rxn = (Sum of AH of formation of products) - (Sum of AH of formation of reactants)

Front

Dirrect Method Formula

Back

AE= AH - RTAn

Front

Change in Energy = ? (in terms of constant pressure; for gasses)

Back

endless

Front

Significant Digits of counted things

Back

viscosity

Front

thickness

Back

+ ∆S

Front

greater # of moles of gas formed and greater volume formed cause...

Back

are

Front

For significant digits, trailing zeros _____ significant

Back

London dispersion forces

Front

universal IMF for nonpolar molecules

Back

Dipole-dipole forces

Front

IMF that exists in polar molecules

Back

effects of IMF

Front

boiling point, melting point, viscosity, vapor pressure, surface tension

Back

Hydrogen bonding

Front

IMF that occurs with FON

Back

isothermal

Front

change that occurs at constant temperature

Back

T-shape

Front

AX3E2

Back

∆H | ∆S is spontaneous...always

Front

- | +

Back

boiling point

Front

point at which vapor pressure=air pressure above

Back

Adding

Front

When ____ significant digits, round answer to least decimal place

Back

+ ∆S

Front

gas > liquid > solid and (aq)>(s) cause...

Back

∆Hvap

Front

energy needed to vaporize a mole of a liquid

Back

bond energy

Front

energy needed to break a bond

Back

critical point

Front

temperature-pressure point after which gas can no longer form liquid

Back

Negative work value; work done by system

Front

When gas expands ...

Back

triple point

Front

temperature-pressure combination at which solid, liquid, and gas states appear

Back

sublimation

Front

phase change from solid to gas

Back

solid CO2

Front

chemical composition of dry ice

Back

square pyramidal

Front

AX5E

Back

adiabatic

Front

change without heat transfer between the system and its surroundings

Back

equilibrium

Front

happens at lines in phase change charts

Back

deposition

Front

phase change from gas to solid

Back

fusion

Front

melting

Back

endless

Front

Significant Digits of Conversion Factors

Back

methods of increasing rate

Front

raising heat, adding catalyst, heighten concentration, bigger surface area

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

-ous acid

Front

if anion ends in -ite, acid name ends in...

Back

rate law

Front

this MUST be determined experimentally

Back

g solute/g solvent x 100

Front

mass percent

Back

blue-green

Front

when n=4 ->2, color=

Back

s (fourth quantum number)

Front

variable for spin of electron (+.5 or -.5)

Back

hept-

Front

(organics) seven carbons

Back

violet

Front

when n=6 ->2, color=

Back

p

Front

l=1

Back

non-

Front

(organics) nine carbons

Back

oct-

Front

(organics) eight carbons

Back

Balmer Series

Front

spectrum of light when an electron drops to energy level n=2

Back

4.184

Front

specific heat of water

Back

hex-

Front

(organics) six carbons

Back

but-

Front

(organics) four carbons

Back

prop-

Front

(organics) three carbons

Back

hydro-ic acid

Front

if anion ends in -ide, acid name ends in

Back

f

Front

l=3

Back

eth-

Front

(organics) two carbons

Back

Diffusion

Front

mixing of gases

Back

spontaneous

Front

If K>1, then Gº<0 and reaction will be...at chemical equilibrium

Back

p orbitals

Front

these orbitals are perpendicular

Back

d

Front

l=2

Back

dec-

Front

(organics) ten carbons

Back

Boltzmann distribution

Front

states molecules at a given temp. vary in kinetic energy along a bell-curve of molecular velocities

Back

d orbitals

Front

these orbitals are diagonal

Back

m (third quantum number)

Front

variable for orientation of orbital (-1 through +1)

Back

not spontaneous

Front

If K<1, then Gº>0 and reaction will be...at chemical equilibrium

Back

blue-violet

Front

when n=5 ->2, color=

Back

third

Front

AP doesn't deal with ...-order reaction, don't pick it!

Back

heat capacity

Front

amount of heat needed to change a system by 1˚C

Back

-ic acid

Front

if anion ends in -ate, acid name ends in...

Back

like

Front

like dissolves...

Back

specific heat

Front

heat needed to change 1 g of substance to 1˚C

Back

meth-

Front

(organics) one carbon

Back

zero

Front

[A] vs. time is a ...-order reaction

Back

first

Front

ln[A] vs. time is a ...-order reaction

Back

n (first quantum number)

Front

variable for energy of e-, goes from 1,2,3 on up

Back

C + 273

Front

calculation from K to C

Back

red

Front

when n=3 ->2, color=

Back

Effusion

Front

passage of gas through tiny orifice

Back

s orbitals

Front

these orbitals are spherical

Back

entropy (S)

Front

degree of disorder in a system

Back

moles solute/kg solvent

Front

molality =

Back

increasing

Front

entropy in the universe is always...

Back

l (second quantum number)

Front

variable for type of orbital

Back

second

Front

1/[A] vs. time is a ...-order reaction

Back

ionic

Front

... compounds are most conductive

Back

s

Front

l=0

Back

pent-

Front

(organics) five carbons

Back

electron affinity

Front

energy involved in gaining an electron to become a negative ion

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

red

Front

color of Li (flame test)

Back

-oic acid

Front

carboxylic acid ending

Back

Ag+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, Ba2+

Front

all cations are soluble with sulfate EXCEPT

Back

yellow

Front

color of Na (flame test)

Back

Arrhenius equation

Front

to find activation energy use the...

Back

Alkaline earth metals

Front

Group 2 metals

Back

hydrocarbons

Front

carbon & hydrogen compounds

Back

insoluble

Front

hydroxides are soluble or insoluble?

Back

phosphate, sulfide, carbonate, sulfate

Front

generally insoluble anions (names)

Back

-oate

Front

ester suffix

Back

0

Front

∆Hº of pure elements=

Back

purple

Front

color of K (flame test)

Back

red

Front

color of Sr (flame test)

Back

allotrope

Front

different form of same element

Back

-ol

Front

ending for alcohols

Back

alkane

Front

(organics) single-bonded compound

Back

acid

Front

nonmetal oxide + H2O ->

Back

geometric isomers

Front

two molecules with identical connectivity but different geometries

Back

Alkali metals

Front

Group 1 metals

Back

hydrolysis

Front

organic reaction in which water breaks apart a molecule (splitting into two hydroxides)

Back

blue

Front

color of Cs (flame test)

Back

condensation

Front

organic reaction in which two functional groups come together, resulting in the release of water

Back

Limiting reactant

Front

reactant that's completely used up in a chemical reaction

Back

diamagnetic

Front

elements which have all electrons paired and relatively unaffected by magnetic fields

Back

base

Front

metal oxide + H20 ->

Back

amine

Front

organic w/ -NH2

Back

-one

Front

ketone suffix

Back

ether

Front

organic w/ -O-

Back

carbohydrates

Front

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen compounds

Back

oxide gas and water

Front

oxoacid solution (such as HSO4-) forms...

Back

Ag+, Pb2+, Hg2+

Front

all cations are soluble with bromide, chloride and iodide EXCEPT

Back

Law of Conservation of Mass

Front

mass reactants= mass products

Back

ln (k1/k2) = (Ea/R)(1/T2-1/T1)

Front

equation to find Ea from reaction rate constants at two different temperatures

Back

Transition metals

Front

elements in groups 3-12

Back

red/orange

Front

color of Ca (flame test)

Back

k=Ae^(-Ea/RT)

Front

Arrhenius equation

Back

alkyne

Front

(organics) triple-bonded compound

Back

activated complex (transition state)

Front

peak of energy diagram

Back

complex ions

Front

transition metals with ammonia, hydroxide, cyanide or thiocyanate form...

Back

Law of Multiple Proportions

Front

atoms combine in fixed whole # ratios

Back

paramagnetic

Front

elements which have unpaired electrons and highly affected by magnetic fields

Back

Density

Front

mass/volume

Back

Amino-

Front

amine prefix

Back

alcohol

Front

organic w/ -OH group

Back

base and hydrogen gas

Front

pure metal or metal hydride + H20 ->

Back

mol

Front

6.022x10^23

Back

methoxy-

Front

ether prefix

Back

alkene

Front

(organics) double-bonded compound

Back

-al

Front

aldehyde suffix

Back

green/yellow

Front

color of Ba (flame test)

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

% error

Front

theoretical yield-experimental yield/theoretical yieldx100

Back

√3kT/m

Front

speed per molecule of gas

Back

Strong acid weak base rxn

Front

H⁺+NH₃→NH₄

Back

end point

Front

point at which the titrated solution changes color

Back

linear

Front

AX₂, AX₂E₃

Back

titrant

Front

buret solution used in titration

Back

oxidizing agent

Front

the reactant that is being reduced, brings about oxidation

Back

Pressure

Front

force per unit area

Back

strong bases

Front

Group 1 and heavier Group 2 bases

Back

Molality

Front

mol/kg of solvent, used in calculating colligative properties

Back

3.0x10⁸m/s

Front

speed of light, C

Back

Theoretical yield

Front

amount of product produced when limiting reactant is used up

Back

1/2mv²

Front

Kinetic Energy per molecule

Back

E

Front

#NAME?

Back

soluble

Front

Group 1, Ammonium, Nitrates, Acetates, Sulfates, Halides

Back

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Front

each orbital can hold two e⁻s each w/ opposite spins

Back

wavelength

Front

determined by the formula h/m(in kg)v, (v=velocity)

Back

indicator

Front

a weak acid that changes color at or near the equivalence point

Back

Molarity

Front

mol/L, concentration of a solution

Back

3/2RT

Front

Kinetic Energy per mol

Back

Aufbau Principle

Front

e⁻s fill the lowest energy orbital first, then work their way up

Back

analyte

Front

solution in flask being titrated

Back

% yield

Front

experimental yield/theoretical yieldx100

Back

√3RT/M(in kg)

Front

average speed of gas

Back

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Front

0.00°C, 1 atm

Back

reduction agent

Front

the reactant that is being oxidized, brings about reduction

Back

tetrahedral

Front

AX₄

Back

strong acids

Front

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, HClO₄, H₂SO₄

Back

strong acid strong base rxn

Front

H⁺+OH⁻→H₂O

Back

weak acid strong base rxn

Front

HF+ OH⁻→H₂O

Back

Graham's Law

Front

effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass

Back

insoluble

Front

Carbonates, Hydroxides, Oxides, Phosphates, Sulfides

Back

standard solution

Front

a solution used in titrations whose concentration is known

Back

6.63x10⁻³⁴Js

Front

Planck's constant, used to calculate energy w/frequency

Back

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Front

we cannot simultaneously determine an atom's exact path or location

Back

oxidation

Front

loss of electrons, increase in oxidation #

Back

mol Fraction

Front

mols A/ total mols, XA

Back

1 atm

Front

760 mmHg, 760 torr

Back

equivalence point

Front

point where acid completely neutralizes base

Back

trigonal planar

Front

AX₃

Back

excess reactant

Front

reactant which doesn't get used up completely in a chemical reaction

Back

lambda

Front

wavelength symbol

Back

22.4L

Front

volume of gas @STP

Back

r₁/r₂

Front

=√M₂/M₁

Back

Dalton's Law

Front

Ptotal=Pa+Pb+Pc....

Back

reduction

Front

gain of electrons, decrease in oxidation #

Back

Hund's Rule

Front

within a sublevel, place one e⁻ per orbital before pairing them

Back

nu

Front

frequency symbol

Back

1.38x10⁻²³J/K

Front

Boltzmann constant, used in calculating speed of gas per molecule

Back

experimental yield

Front

the actual amount of product produced in an experiment

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

heat of vaporization

Front

energy required for liquid→gas

Back

square pyramidal

Front

AX₅E

Back

trigonal bipyramidal

Front

AX₅

Back

deposition

Front

gas to solid

Back

work

Front

all forms of energy except for heat

Back

ΔTf= kf x molality

Front

freezing point depression formula

Back

condensation

Front

gas to liquid

Back

0.512°C

Front

kb of water

Back

melting

Front

solid to liquid

Back

supercritical fluid

Front

substances above the critical temperature and pressure in which the pressure is so high that density and flowing ability of a "gas" resembles that of a liquid

Back

pi=(nRT)/v

Front

osmotic pressure formula

Back

permanent gases

Front

substances w/ critical temperatures below 25°C

Back

boiling point

Front

point at which liquid→gas occurs

Back

surroundings

Front

the rest of the universe (in thermodynamics)

Back

triple bond

Front

1 sigma bond, 2 pi bonds

Back

P₁= X₁P₁°

Front

Raoult's Law, relations between vapor pressure and concentrations

Back

1.86°C

Front

kf of water

Back

cohesion

Front

molecules' tendency to stick to one another

Back

seesaw

Front

AX₄E

Back

single bond

Front

1 sigma bond

Back

Colligative properties

Front

vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmotic pressure

Back

freezing

Front

liquid to solid

Back

vaporization

Front

liquid to gas

Back

Bond enthalpy

Front

ΔH when 1 mol of bonds is broken in the gaseous state

Back

melting point

Front

point at which solid→liquid occurs

Back

catalyst

Front

lowers activation energy

Back

system

Front

the part of the universe one is focused upon (in thermodynamics)

Back

heat capacity

Front

heat required to raise the system 1°C

Back

adhesion

Front

molecules' tendency to stick to the container

Back

Q<K

Front

forward rxn occurs when

Back

trigonal pyramidal

Front

AX₃E

Back

LeChatelier's Principle

Front

If a system @equilibrium is stressed, the system will shift so as to reestablish equilibrium

Back

square planar

Front

AX₄E₂

Back

Q>K

Front

reverse rxn occurs when

Back

endothermic

Front

positive enthalpy, heat flows into system

Back

Cg=kPg

Front

Henry's Law, solubility of gases is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas

Back

rate

Front

how fast or slow a reaction occurs, becomes slower as it reaches equilibrium

Back

Van't Hoff factor

Front

for colligative properties for electrolytes, the # of mols of ions/ mols of solute

Back

exothermic

Front

negative enthalpy, heat flows into surroundings

Back

ΔTb= kb x molality

Front

boiling point elevation formula

Back

activation energy

Front

the minimum energy that molecules must possess for collisions to be effective, Ea

Back

t-shape

Front

AX₃E₂

Back

London dispersion forces

Front

weakest IMFs, found in all molecules

Back

bent

Front

AX₂E, AX₂E₂

Back

double bond

Front

1 sigma bond, 1 pi bond

Back

Hydrogen bonding

Front

unusually strong dipole forces found when H is bonded to N, O, or F

Back

heat of fusion

Front

energy required for melting to occur

Back

viscosity

Front

resistance to flow

Back

sublimation

Front

solid to gas

Back

octahedral

Front

AX₆

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

nitrate

Front

NO₃¹⁻

Back

chloride

Front

Cl¹⁻

Back

carbonate

Front

CO₃²⁻

Back

no precipitate forms

Front

if Q<Ksp

Back

bromate

Front

BrO₃¹⁻

Back

a precipitate forms

Front

if Q>Ksp

Back

Weight

Front

amount of gravitational force exerted on an object

Back

96,500

Front

Faraday's constant

Back

sulfite

Front

SO₃²⁻

Back

2nd law of thermodynamics

Front

the total entropy is always increasing, all systems tend towards maximum entropy

Back

cyanide

Front

CN¹⁻

Back

ammonium

Front

NH₄¹⁺

Back

Buffer

Front

a solution that resists a change in pH, contains both a weak acid and its conjugate base

Back

1st law of thermodynamics

Front

the total energy of the universe is constant, all systems tend towards minimum energy

Back

chromate

Front

CrO₄²⁻

Back

conjugate acid

Front

the chemical formed when a base accepts a proton

Back

phosphate

Front

PO₄³⁻

Back

chlorate

Front

ClO₃²⁻

Back

3rd law of thermodynamics

Front

the entropy of a pure perfectly formed crystal @0K is 0

Back

Scientific Method

Front

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

Back

dichromate

Front

Cr₂O₇²⁻

Back

voltaic cells

Front

uses a spontaneous redox rxn to generate electrical energy, consists of 2 half cells

Back

Law of Conservation of Mass

Front

matter can't be created nor destroyed

Back

chlorite

Front

ClO₂¹⁻

Back

acetate

Front

C₂H₃O₂¹⁻

Back

hydroxide

Front

OH¹⁻

Back

sulfate

Front

SO₄²⁻

Back

conjugate base

Front

the chemical formed when an acid donates a proton

Back

iodide

Front

I¹⁻

Back

oxide

Front

O²⁻

Back

Nernst Equation

Front

Ecell= E°cell -RT/nF x lnQ

Back

cathode

Front

half cell in which reduction occurs

Back

sulfide

Front

S²⁻

Back

Arrhenius base

Front

puts OH⁻ into solution

Back

nitrite

Front

NO₂¹⁻

Back

flouride

Front

F¹⁻

Back

Bronsted-Lowry acid

Front

proton donors

Back

Mass

Front

a measure of resistance of an object to a change in its state of motion

Back

anode

Front

half cell in which oxidation occurs

Back

Arrhenius acid

Front

puts H⁺ into solution

Back

permanganate

Front

MnO₄¹⁻

Back

5% rule

Front

x can be ignored when % ionization is <5%

Back

1.0x10⁻¹⁴

Front

Kw

Back

entropy

Front

a measure of randomness or disorder

Back

Bronsted-Lowry base

Front

proton acceptors, must have an unshared pair of e⁻s

Back

Matter

Front

anything occupying space and with mass

Back

perchlorate

Front

ClO₄¹⁻

Back

salt bridge

Front

connects the 2 half cells in a voltaic cell

Back

oxalate

Front

C₂O₄²⁻

Back

spontaneity

Front

the likelihood that a rxn will occur "by itself"

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

Acids

Front

substances that form H+ when dissolved in water; proton donors

Back

First-Order Rate Law

Front

r=k[A]

Back

A monoatomic cation takes name from

Front

its element

Back

Law of Multiple Proportions

Front

when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to whole numbers

Back

Integrated First-Order Rate Law

Front

ln[A]=-kt + ln[A]0

Back

Normality

Front

(N) number of equivalents per liter of solution

Back

R=

Front

0.0826Latm/Kmol

Back

Percent Yield

Front

Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield*100%

Back

R=

Front

8.31J/Kmol

Back

Law of Definite Proportion

Front

a given compound always has exactly the same proportion of elements by mass

Back

Net Ionic Equation

Front

only contains ions that change in reaction

Back

Finding Empirical Formulas

Front

1.Calculate moles of each atom in molecule 2.Divide each mole number by smallest mole number 3.If necessary, multiply every mole number to get a whole number 4.Moles of each atom is subscript in empirical formula

Back

Molality

Front

mol of solute/kg of solvent

Back

Overall Reaction Order

Front

n+m (these are orders of reactants)

Back

Beta Particles-

Front

high-speed electrons

Back

Chemical Kinetics

Front

studies the rate at which a chemical process occurs and sheds light on its reaction mechanism

Back

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

Front

Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+...

Back

STP

Front

0°C and 1 atm

Back

Second-Order Half Life

Front

1/([A]0*k)

Back

Root Mean Square Velocity

Front

u(rms)=(3RT/M)^1/2

Back

Decrease Volume and Increase Temperature

Front

Increase Pressure

Back

1atm=?mmHg/Torr

Front

760mmHg/Torr

Back

Integrated Zero-Order Rate Law

Front

[A]=-kt + [A]0

Back

In covalent bonds, prefixes are used to tell

Front

amount of atoms present

Back

Alpha Particles-

Front

2+ charge

Back

Molal BP Elevation Constant

Front

▲T=k*m(solute)

Back

Molal FP Depression Constant

Front

▲T=k*m(solute)

Back

Osmotic Pressure

Front

Osmotic pressure=MRT

Back

A monoatomic anion is named by taking

Front

its root and adding -ide

Back

First-Order Half Life

Front

.69/k

Back

Molarity

Front

moles of solute/volume of soln(L)

Back

Zero-Order Half Life

Front

[A]0/2k

Back

1atm=?Pa

Front

101,325 Pa

Back

Gamma Ray-

Front

high-energy light

Back

Ideal Gas Law

Front

PV=nRT

Back

Radioactivity

Front

Spontaneous emission of radiation

Back

Integrated Rate Law

Front

expresses how the concentrations depend on time

Back

Zero-Order Rate Law

Front

r=k

Back

Bases

Front

Substances that form OH- when dissolved in water; proton acceptors

Back

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

Front

Cation first, anion second

Back

van't Hoff Factor

Front

i=moles of particles/moles of solute dissolved

Back

Enthalpy of Solution

Front

▲Hsoln=▲H1+▲H2+▲H3+...

Back

Isotopes

Front

atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

Back

Increase Temperature

Front

Increase Volume

Back

Integrated Second-Order Rate Law

Front

1/[A]=kt + 1/[A]0

Back

Chemical Bonds

Front

Force that holds atoms together

Back

Joule

Front

SI unit of energy; Kg*m^2/s^2

Back

Kinetic Molecular Theory-FOR IDEAL GASES!!!

Front

1.Volume of individual particles can be assumed to be zero 2.The particles are in constant motion, which causes pressure 3.Particles exert no forces on each other 4.The average kinetic energy of the particles is directly affected by temperature(K)

Back

Second-Order Rate Law

Front

r=k[A]^2

Back

If needed, indicate charge of metal(cation) by

Front

a Roman numeral

Back

Section 10

(50 cards)

Speed of light

Front

c=2.9979*10^8 m/s

Back

Equilibrium constant

Front

K

Back

Q>K

Front

shift to left (Q?K)

Back

Principal Quantum Number

Front

(n) has values 1,2,3,...; tells energy levels

Back

▲Ssurr

Front

-▲H/T

Back

Work

Front

force acting over distance

Back

Heat

Front

the transfer of energy between two objects due to temperature difference

Back

Reaction Quotient

Front

(Q) does the same as equilibrium expression, except it uses initial concentrations

Back

Le Chatelier's Principle

Front

if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce that change

Back

Equilibrium Expression

Front

K=[C]^l[D]^m/[A]^j[B]^k; products/reactants; solids don't count

Back

Law of Conservation of Energy

Front

energy can't be created nor destroyed

Back

Theory of Relativity

Front

E=mc^2

Back

Buffered Solution

Front

a solution that resists a change in its pH

Back

Hess's Law

Front

in going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps

Back

Nodes

Front

where there are no electrons

Back

▲E

Front

q+w

Back

Molar Heat Capacity

Front

J/°Cmol or J/Kmol

Back

Quantum Numbers

Front

describe various properties of one orbital

Back

▲G°

Front

▲H°-T▲S°

Back

Volt

Front

unit of electrical potential; J/C

Back

ℓ=0

Front

s orbital

Back

▲Suniv

Front

▲Ssys+▲Ssurr

Back

Electron Spin Quantum Number

Front

(msubs) can only be +1/2 or -1/2

Back

Q=K

Front

at equilibrium (Q?K)

Back

Galvanic Cell

Front

a device in which chemical energy is changed to electrical energy

Back

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Front

in a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers

Back

Acid Dissociation Constant

Front

Ka=[products]^m/[reactants]^n

Back

▲H°reaction

Front

Σn▲H°(products)-Σn▲H°(reactants)

Back

Cell Potential

Front

(Ecell) driving force of the electrons

Back

w(max)

Front

=▲G (work)

Back

Solubility Product

Front

(Ksp) an equilibrium expression

Back

ℓ=1

Front

p orbital

Back

Quantum Model

Front

electrons in a hydrogen atom move around the nucleus only in circular orbits

Back

ℓ=4

Front

g orbital

Back

G

Front

G°+RTln(Q)

Back

c=

Front

λv

Back

Hund's Rule

Front

the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the max number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli principle in a set of degenerate orbitals

Back

ℓ=3

Front

f orbital

Back

Entropy

Front

(S) the driving force for a spontaneous is an increase in entropy of the universe

Back

Q<K

Front

shift to right (Q?K)

Back

▲G

Front

▲H-T▲S

Back

Quantum Mechanical Model

Front

involves quantum numbers

Back

pH=

Front

=log[H+]

Back

Cathode

Front

where reduction occurs

Back

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

Front

(ℓ), has values from 0 to (n-1); tells shape of atomic orbitals

Back

Anode

Front

where oxidation occurs

Back

Specific Heat Capacity

Front

J/°Cg or J/Kg

Back

Aufbau Principle

Front

as protons are added to the nucleus, electrons are similarly added

Back

Magnetic Quantum Number

Front

(mℓ) has values from -ℓ to ℓ, including zero; tells orientation of the orbital relative to other orbitals

Back

ℓ=2

Front

d orbital

Back

Section 11

(28 cards)

Faraday

Front

96,485 C/mol e-

Back

Pi Bond

Front

occupies the space above and below a sigma bond

Back

Valence Electrons(assigned)

Front

(# of lone pair e-)+1/2(# of shared e-)

Back

Trigonal Bipyramidal

Front

90°&120°, dsp^3

Back

Formal Charge

Front

(# of valence e- on free atom) - (# of valence e- assigned to atom in molecule)

Back

Resonance

Front

when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule; represented by double-headed arrows

Back

Antibonding Molecular Orbital

Front

higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed

Back

Dipole Moment

Front

a molecule having a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge

Back

Hybridization

Front

the mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding

Back

Bonding Pairs

Front

electron pairs found in the space between the atoms

Back

Linear

Front

180°, sp

Back

Bond Energy

Front

energy required to break a bond

Back

Sigma Bond

Front

the line running between the atoms

Back

Polar Covalent Bond

Front

bond in which atoms aren't so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough that unequal sharing occurs

Back

Electronegativity

Front

ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself

Back

Lone Pair

Front

pairs of electrons localized on an atom

Back

Ampere

Front

(A), C/s

Back

London Dispersion Forces

Front

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

Back

Molecular Orbitals (MOs)

Front

similar to atomic orbitals, except between molecules

Back

Counterions

Front

anions or cations as needed to produce a compound with non net charge

Back

Bond Order

Front

# bonding e- - # antibonding e-/2

Back

▲H

Front

Σ(bonds broken)-Σ(bonds formed)

Back

Tetrahedral

Front

109.5°, sp^3

Back

Octahedral

Front

90°, d^2sp^3

Back

Ligand

Front

a neutral molecule/ion having a lone e- pair that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion

Back

Trigonal Planar

Front

120°, sp^2

Back

Coordination Compound

Front

consists of a complex ion, a transition metal with attached ligands, and counterions

Back

LE Model

Front

assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms

Back