Grade 7 - Social Studies - Midterm

Grade 7 - Social Studies - Midterm

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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pueblo

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Last updated

2 years ago

Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (70)

Section 1

(50 cards)

pueblo

Front

home built of adobe by Native Americans (Cliffdwellers).

Back

Bartholomeu Dias

Front

Portuguese explorer sailed around the southern tip of Africa. Named the tip the Cape of Good Hope.

Back

First Crusade

Front

Turkish Muslims took over Jerusalem and banned Christians from entering the city. European Christians waged a war against Muslims for control of Jerusalem.

Back

Hunter-Gatherer

Front

People who hunted animals and gathered plants for a source of food. They frequently moved from place to place following herds of animals. This describes the lifestyle of early humans in the Paleolithic Era. Later humans practiced agriculture in the Neolithic Era.

Back

Leif Eriksson

Front

Norse (Viking) explorer who discovered North America and set up a settlement called Vinland. He was the first European to discover North America.

Back

Black Death

Front

Plague that ended feudalism. Killed one-fourth of the European population. It originated in China and was spread to Europe by traders.

Back

Monarchs

Front

ruler or head of a country. For example - a King or Queen

Back

Montezuma

Front

Ruler of Aztecs at the height of their power. Liked to be surrounded by riches and honor. Was disliked by many Aztecs. Overthrown by the Spanish invader Hernan Cortes with the help of locals conquered by the Aztec.

Back

Feudalism

Front

system where land was granted to people in return for service.

Back

African Empires

Front

Ghana Mali - has the city of Timbuktu Songhai - largest of the three empires Remember our mnemonic device - give me soda or great mind set

Back

Aztec

Front

located in central Mexico. Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City) was their capital. - farmed on floating gardens. - city of Tenochtitlan had causeways (raised highways) and aqueducts (raised waterways) - cities contained large pyramids used for religious purposes

Back

Portugal's Goals

Front

- Find a water route around Africa to Asia. - Find a source of Gold in Africa. - Spread Christianity

Back

Renaissance

Front

Means rebirth. Period of renewed interest in learning, knowledge, and the arts.

Back

What were the two major Native American cultures living in the present-day United States 2,000 years ago?

Front

- Mound Builders (Adena, Hopewell, Mississippians) -Cliff Dwellers (Anasazi)

Back

Prince Henry

Front

Prince of Portugal. - Established a School of Navigation. - Helped to make Portugal a leading sea power by building its navy - Led Portugal into the Age of Exploration

Back

Beringia

Front

Land bridge connecting Asia to North America. Hunter-gathers from Asia followed herds of animals and inadvertently, or accidentally, crossed into North America via this land bridge.

Back

Middle Class

Front

This was a new social class that developed at the end of the Middle Ages. Class made of merchants, lawyers, doctors, and government officials.

Back

Maya

Front

located on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. - farmed on terraces - cities contained large pyramids uses for religious purposes

Back

Christopher Columbus

Front

Italian navigator who sailed west from Portugal and landed in the Bahamas - North America. He discovered North America in 1492. Approximately 100 years after Vikings.

Back

Manor

Front

Large area of land owned by a lord. Often contained a castle and was ruled like a tiny kingdom.

Back

Specialization

Front

those who do only one type of work. For example, a jewelry maker. A surplus of food allows for this to occur.

Back

Inca

Front

Located in South America. - farmed on terraces - conquered subjects by mostly peaceful means. -was the largest of the Southern Empires.

Back

Lords

Front

large land owners. Their land was called a manor. They raised their own armies, collected taxes, and fought other lords.

Back

Cliffdwellers

Front

built houses on the walls of canyons and on the under hangs of caves.

Back

Maya Achievements in Science

Front

- Made accurate maps of the star groups. - Created two calendars. One was a 365 day calendar, the other was used for religious ceremonies.

Back

Middle Ages

Front

period from about 500-1500 with the fall of the Roman Empire. Feudalism replaced centralized government. Europe broke into hundreds of kingdoms.

Back

Leonardo da Vinci

Front

Italian Renaissance painter, architect, inventor, and student of all things scientific. Is known for painting the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.

Back

Age of Exploration

Front

Occurred during the 1400s and 1500s during which Europeans sailed the oceans and mapped the world more accurately than had ever been done. Portugal led Europe into this age.

Back

Michelangelo

Front

Italian Renaissance artist known for painting the Sistine Chapel. Think "angel"

Back

William Shakespeare

Front

English Renaissance author of many famous plays. For example, Romeo and Juliet.

Back

Similarities Among Native American Nations

Front

1) Spoke the same language 2) Had several leaders to make decisions for the entire group 3) The most important division is the clan (groups of families with a common ancestor)

Back

Civilization

Front

a highly developed culture with a system of writing, organized government, religion, and social classes.

Back

Mound Builders

Front

Early Native American culture that settled in the present-day midwestern United States 2,700 years ago. Received their name from the monuments of dirt and earth that they built. These monuments were mainly used for burials and religious ceremonies. Groups include: the Adena, the Hopewell, the Mississippians.

Back

Maya Achievements in Mathematics

Front

- Developed system of numbers. - Created symbol for the number zero.

Back

Marco Polo

Front

At the age of 17 went with his family to Cathay and met the Khan. Traveled throughout Asia and wrote a book of his travels. This book inspired Europeans to know more about the world. Influenced the Renaissance.

Back

Inca Method of Conquering

Front

Mostly peaceful. They sent an ambassador to ask if they wanted to join the Incan Empire. If they refused, they would wage war to conquer them.

Back

How did the Aztec become wealthy and powerful?

Front

- Conquering - Trading. Conquered people would have to pay a tribute (tax).

Back

Iroquois League

Front

Band of Iroquois nations set up by Hiawatha., formed a powerful league/confederation in present-day New York.

Back

Vasco de Gama

Front

Portuguese explorer who headed south along the coast of Africa. He rounded the Cape of Good Hope and made it to India.

Back

Tribute

Front

A tax that conquered people would have to pay.

Back

Monopoly

Front

Having complete control over a market or good. ex. being the only company that makes a certain product.

Back

Technology of the Age of Exploration

Front

Compass - instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of the magnetic north. Astrolabe - used to find the position of the sun or the north star. They then consulted tables to find out their location in the ocean. Caravel - Sturdy, fast ship. Its triangular sails allowed the ship to sail against the wind

Back

Cliffdweller Group

Front

Anasazi

Back

Native American Beliefs

Front

1) No one owned land 2) There are spirits found in nature

Back

Summary

Front

The first Americans had a very different environment and lifestyle from humans today. Environment: The Earth was in the grip of an Ice Age. An Ice Age is a period of global cooling. This caused glaciers to cover much of the North. Landbridges formed... A landbridge called Beringia connected Asia to North America. People from Asia followed herds of animals across this land bridge and ended up in North America. These were the first Americans. Lifestyle: People during this time were hunter gathers. They hunted animals and gathered whatever plants they could find. These first Americans would become Native Americans. Different cultures developed. There were two main Native American cultures: - Mound Builders (Adena, Hopewell, Mississippians) built monuments of earth. - Cliff Dwellers (Anasazi) built homes out of adobe called pueblos. Over time more and more cultures existed... This created a variety of Native American tribes/nations. There are similarities among Native American nations: 1) Spoke same language 2) Believed spirits were in nature 3) No one person owned land 4) Several leaders made decisions for the nation 5) Important division was the clan The Iroquois were located in New York. Hiawatha formed this powerful alliance of nations called the Iroquois League. A civilization is an advanced society with systems of government, writing, education, and specialization. There were three great Native American civilizations further south: - Maya - Aztec - Inca (they had the largest empire) Maya: Location - Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Achievements - Scientific achievements included making maps of the star groups, two calendars. Mathematic achievements included developing a system of numbers and a symbol for zero. Aztec: Location - Central Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. Achievements - They gained their wealth from conquest and trade. Conquered people had to pay a tribute. Decline: Montezuma was the unpopular ruler during the Aztec decline. Hernan Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire. Inca: Location - South America. Capital was Cusco. Achievement - They peacefully convinced neighboring nations to join their empire. If they did not join, then they went to war and conquered them forcibly. The Inca empire became the largest of the three southern empires. At around the same time across the ocean... Europe was in its Middle Ages, or a period of decline, after the fall of the powerful Roman Empire. Some groups, such as the Vikings, thrived though. Middle Ages - period from 500-1500 where feudalism was dominant. Trade, education, and the arts declined. Europe was made up of many Kingdoms, or small countries, ruled by monarchs. Monarch - King or Queen. Feudalism - a system where land is granted to people in return for service or goods. Manor - was a large piece of land owned by a Lord. Vikings did well during the Middle Ages because European was divided into smaller kingdoms after the fall of the massive Roman Empire. Vikings often raided these kingdoms. Vikings were also expert shipbuilders and sent out ships to explore the world. The Viking, Leif Eriksson, was the first person to discover North America. During the Middle Ages a terrible disease, called the Black Death/Plague, devastated Europe. 25% of Europe's population perished. The Black death helped to end Feudalism. A wealthy middle class emerged. These people were merchants, lawyers, and doctors. Trade began to increase. Causes of Increased Trade: - Marco Polo - Crusades Marco Polo, a member of a middle class merchant family, went on a voyage to Asia. He learned much about the culture and goods of Asia and he brought this information back to Europe. This caused interest in Asian goods and trading increased. The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims. They fought over the holy land of Jerusalem. When European soldiers went to Jerusalem they came in contact with new Asian goods and brought them back to Europe. People became very interested in these new goods and trade increased. Italian merchants gained a monopoly on Asian goods. This means they completely controlled the trading of these goods. Increase of trade led to an interaction of cultures and it sparked a desire to learn. Europe began to emerge from the Middle Ages into a golden age called the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a period of increased trade, learning, wealth, art, and science. Famous individuals of the Renaissance: Michelangelo - Italian artist. One of his achievements was painting the Sistine Chapel. Leonardo da Vinci - Italian Renaissance painter, architect, inventor, and student of all things scientific. Is known for painting the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. William Shakespeare - English writer. Known for famous works such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, etc. The increased trade and demand of Asian goods during the Renaissance encouraged explorers to find better trade routes. Portugal led Europe into the Age of Exploration, a period where Europeans explored and mapped the world. Using technology such as the compass and caravel, explorers found a trade route to Asia. Bartholameu Dias - traveled to the southern tip of Africa and named it the Cape of Good Hope. Vasco de Gama - sailed around Africa and arrived in Asia. He discovered a water trade route to Asia! Other nations in Europe joined the Age of Exploration. Spain hired Christopher Columbus to find a water route to Asia. Christopher Columbus believed that he could reach Asia by sailing West from Europe. In 1492 Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue and landed in the Bahamas on an island called San Salvador. Columbus "rediscovered" North America. Columbus' arrival in the Americas led to an exchange of ideas and goods between the "Old World" and the "New World." This exchange of goods was called the Columbian Exchange. After discovering the rich resources of the Americas... Countries began to create colonies in the Americas. These colonies existed to make the home country rich. Spain was the most successful at claiming land and creating colonies, or lands ruled by the home country, at first. Spanish colonies were mainly located in Central and South America. Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, defeated the Aztec and Inca Empires. They were aided by their superior technology and the spread of disease. Hernan Cortez - defeated the Aztec. Francisco Pizarro - defeated the Inca. The Spanish had a bad relationship with the Native Americans due to the encomienda system which forced Natives to work for landowners. France claimed a large area of land and set up their colony in present-day Canada, North America. Jacques Cartier - claimed the land for the French. Samuel de Champlain - established Quebec, created a great relationship with the Natives, and explored the Great Lakes. He is known as the Father of New France for these achievements. The French and the Native Americans had a good relationship. The French and Native Americans were partners in the profitably fur trade. The fur trade was France's main source of riches in the colonies. The Dutch became interested in the fur trade and set Henry Hudson to claim land for the Netherlands. The Dutch established their colony in present-day New York and created a settlement on Manhattan Island called New Amsterdam.

Back

Ice Age

Front

Period of time, 2 million years to 10,000 years ago, where large sheets of ice called glaciers covered the northern hemisphere. This caused the ocean levels to drop, exposing land bridges such as Beringia.

Back

Mound Builder Groups

Front

Groups include the Adena, the Hopewell, the Mississippians.

Back

Aztec Decline

Front

The Spaniard invaders allied themselves with locals who were conquered by the Aztecs. With their help, the Spanish defeated the Aztecs.

Back

Hernan Cortez

Front

Spanish conquistador who overthrew Montezuma and conquered the Aztec Empire.

Back

Causes of Increased Trade

Front

1) Crusaders brought back new goods. This created a demand for these goods. 2) Merchants helped to end wars to make trade routes safe.

Back

Section 2

(20 cards)

Ponce de Leon

Front

Spanish conquistador who: - Established the first settlement on Puerto Rico. - Discovered Florida.

Back

New Amsterdam

Front

Settlement created by the Dutch on present day Manhattan Island.

Back

Columbus' Plan to Reach Asia

Front

Columbus knew the world was round. If he SAILED WEST FROM EUROPE he believed that he could reach Asia. Columbus believed that this was the fastest and easiest route to Asia. Columbus did not know that North and South America existed.

Back

What was the economy of New France based on?

Front

The fur trade. The French traded with the Native Americans for furs. Furs were highly prized for making hats and coats. Upper class Europeans were eager to buy them. Fur traders could make a lot of money. The French, Dutch, and the Swedes were all involved and competed with each other in the fur trade.

Back

Columbian Exchange

Front

Exchange of goods and ideas between the people of Europe, Asia, and Africa and the Americas. It introduced new products, animals, and plants, and ideas to the people.

Back

Amerigo Vespucci

Front

Italian explorer who the Americas were named after. A German map-maker read about his journey to this uncharted land. When he created a map of the uncharted land he named it America.

Back

Samuel de Champlain

Front

Known as the Father of New France - Established Quebec, the first permanent French settlement. - He explored the Great Lakes. He explored New York and found a large lake. Named it Lake Champlain. -

Back

Columbus Landing in North America

Front

Columbus landed on on the island of San Salvador which is part of the Bahamas.

Back

Algonquin Native Americans and the French.

Front

Great relationship! The French tried to learn the Native American culture (language and customs). The French formed trading partners and allies with the Algonquin Native Americans.

Back

Indies

Front

Area consisting of southern Asia and the islands off the coast of Asia.

Back

Spanish Relationship with Native Americans

Front

Bad relationship! The Spanish "enslaved" Native Americans with the encomienda system.

Back

Columbus and Spain

Front

Columbus asked the Spanish monarchs Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand to fund his trip west to Asia. They said yes (si).

Back

Henry Hudson

Front

Sailed for the Dutch and discovered the Hudson River. Claimed the land along the Hudson River for the Dutch (Netherlands).

Back

Encomienda System

Front

Important Spanish citizens were given land. Native Americans who lived on the land had to work for the landowner.

Back

Casta System

Front

Strict social hierarchy based on race. The higher you are on the hierarchy the more power you had.

Back

Quebec

Front

City that Samuel de Champlain established. It was the first permanent French settlement, near the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River.

Back

Francisco Pizzaro

Front

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire.

Back

Hernan Cortez

Front

Spanish conquistador who overthrew Montezuma and conquered the Aztec Empire.

Back

Date of Columbus' Voyage

Front

In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue.

Back

Locate French Colonies Locate Spanish Colonies

Front

Back