Developmental: Ch. 1

Developmental: Ch. 1

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Section 1

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Theory

Front

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Cards (42)

Section 1

(42 cards)

Theory

Front

And orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.

Back

Charles Darwin

Front

His observations about prenatal development while working on the Theory of Evolution prompted more research into the field of child development and behavior.

Back

Information processing perspective

Front

The human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows. From the time information is presented to the senses at input until it emerges as a behavioral response at output, information is actively coded, transformed, and organized. Development is viewed at continuous.

Back

Applied behavior analysis

Front

Consists of observations of relationships between behavior and environmental events, followed by systematic changes in those events based on procedures of conditioning and modeling. The goal is to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.

Back

Medieval Times

Front

Children seen as separate from adults. Manuals offering advice on many aspects of childcare were common, and there were laws protecting children, and leniency from the courts due to age.

Back

Behaviorism

Front

Directly observable events-stimuli and responses-are the appropriate focus of study. North American behaviorism began in the early 20th century with the work of psychologist John Watson

Back

Psychosexual stages of development

Front

1. Oral Stage (birth to 1) 2. Anal Stage (1-3) 3. Phallic Stage (3-6) 4. Latency Stage (6-11) 5. Genital Stage (adolescence)

Back

Psychosocial Stages of Development

Front

1. Basic trust vs. mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. Initiative vs. guilt 4. Industry vs. inferiority 5. Identity vs. role confusion 6. Intimacy vs. isolation 7. Generativity vs. stagnation 8. Integrity vs. despair

Back

3 domains of development

Front

Physical, cognitive, and emotional/social

Back

Psychosexual Theory

Front

Emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development

Back

Periods of development

Front

1. Prenatal: conception to birth 2. Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years 3. Early childhood: 2 to 6 years 4. Middle childhood: 6 to 11 years 5. Adolescence: 11 to 18 years 6. Emerging adulthood: 18 to mid- to late-20's

Back

Sigmund Freud

Front

Came up with the psychosexual theory. He developed the three parts of the personality - the Id, Ego, and Superego. Developed the psychosexual stages of development.

Back

3 basic issues of developmental theories

Front

1. Continuous or discontinuous? 2. One course or many? 3. Nature vs. Nurture

Back

John Watson

Front

Inspired by Pavlov's Classical Conditioning. The Little Albert Experiment - conditioned a baby to fear a white rat by pairing it with a loud noise. He concluded that adults could shape children's behavior by carefully controlling stimulus-response associations. He viewed development as continuous.

Back

Continuous development

Front

A process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with.

Back

Cognitive development

Front

Changes in intellectual abilities including attention, memory, academic and every day knowledge, problem-solving, imagination, creativity, and language.

Back

Social Learning Theory

Front

Devised by Albert Bandura, it emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a power source of development.

Back

Nature-nurture controversy

Front

What's more important in influencing development: genetics or environment?

Back

Plasticity

Front

Openness to change in response to influential experiences.

Back

The Enlightenment: Jean-Jacques Rouseau

Front

Children are "noble savages," naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth. Four stages: infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence. Two influential concepts: maturation and stages. Children determine their own destiny, development is a discontinuous stagewise process that follows a single, unified course mapped out by nature

Back

Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory

Front

Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world, as opposed to their development depending on reinforcers.

Back

Clinical method of psychoanalysis

Front

Open-ended clinical interviews, in which a patient's initial response to a task served as the basis for the next question.

Back

Child development

Front

An area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence.

Back

Discontinuous development

Front

A process by which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.

Back

Self-efficacy

Front

The belief that one's own abilities and characteristics will help them succeed.

Back

Physical development

Front

Changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health

Back

Contexts

Front

Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change.

Back

Stages

Front

Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development.

Back

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

Front

Back

The Enlightenment: John Locke

Front

Tabula Rasa "blank slate." Children begin with nothing and are entirely shaped by experience. Continuous development, nurture is most important, many courses of development, and high plasticity at later ages. Children are passive in their own destiny.

Back

Emotional/social development

Front

Changes in emotional communication, self-understanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior.

Back

G. Stanley Hall

Front

Founder of the child-study movement. He and his assistant, Arnold Gesell, regarded development as a maturation process. Came up with the normative approach.

Back

Stability vs. Plasticity

Front

Some theorists think characteristics remain stable over a lifetime while others believe our characteristics are constantly changing in response to the environment.

Back

Normative approach

Front

Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.

Back

The Reformation

Front

Children born evil, must be civilized. Harsh, restrictive child-rearing practices.

Back

Psychoanalytic Perspective

Front

Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson contributed to this perspective.

Back

Case Study method

Front

Also called the clinical method. Synthesizes information from a variety of sources into a detailed picture of the personality of a single child

Back

Erik Erikson

Front

Developed Psychosocial Theory. He was first to look at development from the lifespan perspective, and also as something that is relative to culture. Came up with the 8 psychosocial stages of development, adding 3 adult stages to Freud's theory.

Back

Resilience

Front

The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development.

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Developmental science

Front

A larger, interdisciplinary field, which includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan.

Back

Alfred Binet

Front

Constructed first successful intelligence test. The English version was called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. He defined intelligence as good judgement, planning, and critical reflection. Differences in test scores inspired a lot of research.

Back

Maturation

Front

A genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.

Back