Unit 6: Modern America

Unit 6: Modern America

Mihir Ranjan (lvl 10)
A New Conservative Movement

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Who were the Conservative Coalition and what were their main concerns

Front

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May 5, 2021

Cards (63)

A New Conservative Movement

(16 cards)

Who were the Conservative Coalition and what were their main concerns

Front
  • Conservative groups that formed an alliance, consisting of business leaders, middle class voters, and fundamentalist Christian Groups
  • They argued moral values from right and wrong*
Back

Why did the national debt climb?

Front

Federal Spending outstripped the Federal revenue

Back

What are the main ideas behind "supply-side" (2 ideas)

 

Front
  • If people paid fewer taxes, they would save money
  • Banks could loan money to business with could invest the money in resources to improve productivity and the supply of goods would then drive down prices
Back

What factors led to Reagan's victory?

Front
  • He was charismatic and calm
  • He was a Conservative Republican
  • He had 51% American votes and won 89 electoral votes 
Back

How was the Environmental Protection Agency affected?

Front

Budget cuts

Back

How did budget cuts fit into Reagan's plan

Front

Reagan planned to downsize the federal government by decreasing the federal spending on social programs

Back

What is Deregulation and why did Reagan approve of it

Front
  • Cutting back of Federal regulation of industries
  • Allows more competition between business
Back

What type of constitutional issues were addressed during the Reagan presidency?

Front

Discrimination, abortion, and affirmative action ; narrowed rights of arrested persons

Back

How did Ronald Reagan become the presidential nominee?

Front

Lost the nomination against Gerald Ford but won in 1980 

Back

Who are the Conservatives

Front

They look to businesses and individuals to solve problems and want to keep traditional moral values 

Back

What was the agenda of the New Right? (3 major)

Front
  • Focused on controversial social issues (abortion, blocking the ERA, evading bus court order)
  • Called for return of school prayer
  • Criticized the policy of affirmative action that employers and educational institutes give special consideration to women, African-Americans, and other minorities if they were not qualified 
Back

How did Regan use nominations to reshape the Supreme Court?

Front

The judicial powers shifted to the right by electing conservatives in the court

Back

What were the effects of "Reaganomics"

Front
  • From July  1981 to November 1982, America had a serve recession
  • Consumer went on a spending spree in 1983 and were blusterd by tax cuts; decline of interest rates --> lowered inflation
  • Tax cuts helped the rich while social welfare cuts hurt the poor
Back

Who are the Liberals

Front

They look to government to solve political, economic, and social issues and accept social change

Back

Why did Reagan increase Defense Spending

 

Front

He wanted to develop a defense system for Americans called the Strategic Defense Initiative, costed $1 trillion 

Back

Why did conservatives want to make cuts to entitlement programs

Front

The government spending was nearly $300 billion annually on these programs and the fraudulent benefits caused resentment among taxpayers. 

 

 

Back

The Watergate Scandal

(12 cards)

What was the Watergate Scandal?

Front

When the Nixon Administration attempted to cover up a burglary on the Democratic National Committee(DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington D.C.

Back

What triggered the Senate Investigations? (Hint Date, That dude who is connections Watergate and CPR)

Front

On March 20th, before the burglars were scheduled to be sentenced, James McCord sent a letter to the judge stating he had lied underoath and hinted that the powerful members of the Nixon Administration had been involved in the Watergate break-in

 

(Revelation that the White House were involved caused Senate Investigation)

Back

What were the long-term effects of Watergate? (3 major ones)

Front

Americans lost faith in the government, president reputation was damaged, new laws and acts were created to limit presidents power

Back

What argument did Nixon use to try to prevent the release of the tapes?

Front

Nixon argued that it would violate national security and the courts lacked the power to compel production of the tapes

Back

What steps did the White House take to cover its involvement in the Watergate break-in?(Hint 3 major actions)

Front
  • Workers shredded the documents in Holdermans' office that linked him to the burglary
  • White House with Nixon's consent asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop the investigation into the Watergate burglary on the grounds of national security
  • CRP passed $450000 to the Watergate burglars to buy their silence
Back

What was the Saturday Night Massacre, what was the goal and was it successful

Front
  • Saturday Night Massacre was on  October 20th, 1973 when Nixon fired Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox after Cox ordered the president to have over the tapes. Nixon also accepted the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after both refused order to fire Cox
  • The goal was for Nixon not to hand over the tapes
  • It was not successful, replacement Lion Gewarki was determined to get the tapes; House Judiciary Committee began examining an impeachment hearing
Back

What happened at the Watergate Burglary? (Date, Where, Plan of Action, Cause)

Front

On June 17th 1972, 5 men broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters and planned to photograph documents of strategies and place wire taps on telephones. This was caused because Nixon did not like to lose elections.

 

Back

What was the relationship between the President & Congress (3 bullet points)

Front
  • As Nixon took office, Executive Branch became the most powerful branch of government due to WWII, Great Depression, and the Cold War
  • Imperial Presidency by Arthur Schlesinger stated by the time Nixon became president, the executive branch would have supreme authority
  • Nixon sought to expand the power of the presidency with little thought to constitutional checks (impounded funds from federal programs, troops to Cambodia) 
Back

Why is the connection between the CRP & the Watergate break-in important?(Hint: the head of the burglarly)

Front

Head of the Watergate burglary, James McCord was a former CIA BUT also the security coordinator for a group known as the Committee to Re-elect the President(CRP)

Back

Who and What did they say at the testimony of the Senate Investigation

Front
  • John Dean, former advisor of the president, answered "What did the President know and when did he know it" that Nixon had been deeply involved in the cover up
  • Alexander Butterfield revealed that the Nixon taped all of his presidential conversations; began the struggle to the the audio tapes
Back

Who were the president's advisors(hint: 3 people and what they thought they were)

Front
  • H. R. Holderman
  • John Ehrlichman
  • John Mitchell

All of them thought they were above the law and caused them to cover-up their role in the Water-gate break-in and fuel the scandal

Back

What caused Nixon to resign?

Front

The House Judiciary Committee approved to impeach Nixon under three articles, obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress for refusing to obey congressional subpoena to release the tapes

Back

Foreign Policy After the Cold War

(11 cards)

How did Reagan's build up of the SDI affect the Soviet Union?

Front

It pressued the economy of the Soviet Union by preventing the Soviets from receiving Western trade, loans, and technological aid

Back

The Iran Contra Scandal

Front

In 1983, terrorist group loyal to Iran took Americans hostage in Lebanon, which Reagan denounced Iran and urged allies not to sell  arms to Iran for its war against Iraq. However, Regan approved sales of arms to Iran in exchange to release the hostages but used the profits to fund the Contras in Nicaragua, violating the Boland Amendment

Back

Nicaragua and American Foreign Policy 

Front

In 1977 - 1979,  Civil War in Nicaragua between Somoza’s(dictator) national guard and the Sandentas. The Sandentas toppled Somoza’ son, President Carter sent $83 million in economic aid along in Cuba. Regan cut all aid  to the Sandentas government due to ties with Cuba and funded the Contras who were against the Sandetas. 1983 Contras armies grew to nearly 10,000 men and CIA had stationed themselves to direct without congressional approval → Boland Amendment that outlawed aid to the Contras for two years. 1990, Daniel Ortega held free elections and Violeta Chamorro(Contras supported) was elected the new president

 

Back

The _______ _______ _______ cut the US nuclear arsenal by 2/3 

Front

Starter Two Pack

Back

Pamana and American Foreign Policy

Front

In 1989 Bush sent soldiers to Panmana to overthrow and arrest Manuel Antonio Noriega on charges of drug trafficking. He had been receiving money from the CIA in 1960 but involved in international drug trade and was indicted to by US military to fly to Miami to stand trial 

Back

Ending the policy of ________ in the Cold War, Reagan accelerated the building of US military

Front

détente

Back

What happened in Tiananmen Square in 1989?

Front

When the Chinese military was ordered to slaughter Chinese protestors after they were demonstrations to end communism and move towards democracy

Back

What were the two programs President Gorbachev initiates?

Front
  • Glasnost: Openness; allowed open criticism of Russian government and took steps to creating a free press
  • Perestroika: Restructure Soviet Society, called for less control over the economy and having a democratic government and reform economy and military spending
Back

Persian Gulf War

Front

On August 2nd 1990, Saddam Hussein ordered Iraqi troops to invade Kuwait, loot Kuwait, head towards Saudi Arabia, known as ½ of the world's oil reserves, which would threaten US oil supplies. With help Congress and United Nations, President Bush launched Operation Desert Storm to librate Kuwait from Iraqi control. On January 16th 1991, US staged air assault on Iraq and on February 1991, launched successful ground offensive from Saudi Arabia. By end of February, Operation Desert Storm was over and Kuwait was liberated

Back

Grenada and American Foreign Policy

Front

US used military force after noting that Grenada was developing ties to Communist Cuba and Regan sent 2,000 troops to the island in 1983 and overthrew pro-Cuban government and replaced by one friendlier to the United States claiming it was necessary for security

Back

What signaled the end of the Cold War

Front
  • In 1988, Gorbachev reduced the number of Soviet troops in Eastern Europe and allowed non satellite countries to organize like East Germany and Poland(encourage satellite countries to move towards democracy)
  • 1989, East Germany reputed their communist government & East Germany opened the Berlin wall allowing free passage between the East and West Germany
  • 1990, East Germany held free elections and West and East were reunited
Back

Globalization

(8 cards)

How is transportation related to globalization?

Front

Globalization requires transportation. It boosts trade in goods and contributes to the global economy through air, railway, trucks, sea, etc.

Back

How is communication related to globalization?

Front

This is an important factor of globalization. It allows individuals from different countries, ethnicities, languages, cultural attitudes and other variations must understand one another and express themselves to another effectively in order to work together

Back

How is international markets and globalization related?

Front

Globalization resulted in the greater inter-connectedness among markets around the world and has increase communication and awareness of business opportunities.

Back

How is free trade/trade barriers related to globalization?

Front

Free trade promotes global economic growth; creates jobs, make companies more competitive, and lowers prices for consumers

 

Trade barriers like taxes on imports in developed economies lead to overproduction and dumping on world markets.

Back

How are global and international trade related to globalization?

Front

The increase of international trade has been a result of globalization. International trade stimulates economic growth of countries that are interconnected by globalization.

Back

What is globalization?

Front

An economic process that involves interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. This can advance transportation and communication technology with the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture.  However conflicts and diplomacy arise from this

Back

How is cultural homogenization related to globalization?

Front

Cultural homogenization is an aspect of cultural globalization and is listed as one of its characteristics. Cultural homogenization refers to the reduction of cultural diversity through popularization and diffusion of a wide array of cultural symbols(ideas and values)

Back

How is immigration and globalization related?

Front

Globalization has made immigration easier through better communications and information through mass media and improved transportation among others

Back

The War on Terrorism

(16 cards)

What was the War on Terror?

Front

It called for aggressive military action to combat terrorism, leading to controversial wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

Back

What was the War in Iraq?

Front

March 2003: U.S. forces invaded Iraq. In 2003 Saddam was captured, later executed  and in 2005, free election took place for 1st time, but war dragged on and support in U.S. decline with WMD never found

Back

What was the aftermath of 9/11

Front

The Bush administration shifted attention toward combat terrorism. Many Americans willing to give up freedom for increased security since there was a new sense of vulnerability 

Back

What was the War in Afghanistan?

Front

After 9/11, Bush asked Taliban to turn over bin Laden but they refused, so the U.S. formed coalition to overthrow Taliban and capture bin Laden. In October 2001, U.S. and British forces bombed Al Qaeda sites along with Anti-Talilban

Back

Islamic extremist

Front
  • Believed in Jihad: Muslim faith against Western corruption
  • Banded together to form groups to advance belief 
  • Many used terrorism to combat Western influence
Back

What did the  U.S. do to respond to the terrorist attacks

Front
  • Launched  missile strikes against terrorist camps
  • Went after suspect
  • Action did not deter terrorist
Back

What was the resentment that bin Laden had towards the U.S.

Front

Against U.S. soldiers stationed in Middle East and U.S. supported Israel

Back

What impact did the new domestic security measures have on Americans? 

Front
  • Many questioned how much freedom to give up for security. 
  • The Patriot Act limited some privacy protections(1st amendment and 4th amendment violated)
  • The Department of Homeland Security was created
Back

What were the 9/11 attacks?

Front

Al Qaeda hijacked 4 commercial airliners with 2 planes striking the World Trade Center. The 3rd plane struck the Pentagon and 4th plane crashed in field near Pittsburgh, PA. It killed about 3,000 people at Twin Towers, nearly 200 at the Pentagon, and 40 on the plane that crash in PA

Back

Islamic extremist attacks

Front
  • 1993: set off bomb beneath World Trade Center
  • 1998: bombed U.S. embassies in Kenya, Tanzania
  • 2000: attacked USS Cole off coast of  Yemen
Back

What was the USA PATRIOT ACT

Front

Sought to protect the US from future acts of terror by expanding domestic surveillance programs and permitting the use of enhanced interrogation techniques to extract information from detainees after 9/11.

Back

What did bin Laden declare in 1988?

Front

He stated that Muslims had duty to kill Americans & their allies and did not represent Muslims, but spoke to feeling  of many Muslims that U.S. did not respect them

Back

Who were the Taliban?

Front

They ruled Afghanistan since Soviets left in 1980s. They are ultra-conservative Muslim fundamentalist

Back

Who was Osama bin Laden

Front

He was the leader of Al Qaeda and a wealth Saudi Arabian, Islamic extremist  who had been in Afghanistan in the 1980s during Soviet Invasion but felt betray by U.S. after Afghan-Soviet war. He ran Al Qaeda from Afghanistan

Back

What were the "Axis of Evil" occurring to President Bush? 

Front

They were Iraq, Iran, and North Korea since they had WMD: biological, chemical, nuclear weapons. Iraq's Saddam Hussein refused entry to UN weapons inspectors --> War on terror expanded to Iraq

Back

What impacts did 9/11 have on the U.S. 

Front

Many questioned safety, ralled and support one another, and a new sense of patriotism

Back