Section 1

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Moliere

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (63)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Moliere

Front

Comic actor and playwright who wrote comedies that were satire on French Society and wrote Thartuffe, The Miser, The Misanthrope, and The School for Wives. He was given grants by Louis XIV in Versailles.

Back

Frederick II

Front

King of the Prussians who saw his friend beheaded. He attacked Maria Theresa breaking the Pragmatic Sanction and starting the war of Austrian Succession. He helped Prussia become great by capturing Silesia and allying with Britain.

Back

Louis XIV

Front

The (Sun King) ruler of France who created versailles and lived luxuriously. He used Versailles to get nobels to give up their luxuriuos life style, and be his servant. He was absolute ruler.

Back

Peter the Great

Front

King of Russia who modernized the country by changing th calendar and gave women rights and he also improved its economy drastically. He favoured mercantilism and was an absolute ruler. He built St. Petersburg because he needed a warm water port for trading which helped improve the economy.

Back

Henry VIII

Front

The king of England who separated from the pope. He wanted a divorce from his wife, who couldn't give him a male heir. The pope didn't grant him this, so He seperated from the pope, and made a new church, the English or Anglican church. It was finalized by the Act of Supremacy and the reformation parliament. He closed the monasteries.

Back

Tariff

Front

Tax on imported goods coming into the country. Earned money for France, and other mercantilist countries.

Back

Cavaliers

Front

Those who were loyal to King Charles in the civil war in England.

Back

Divine Right

Front

The theory that the kings power came from God.

Back

Mary Stuart Queen of Scots

Front

Was Catholic and was caught by Elizabeth plotting to overthrow her. She was beheaded shortly after by Elizabeth.

Back

Subsidy

Front

A grant of money from the government and tax benefits for companies to increase economic growth and stability.

Back

Stuart

Front

The dynasty that succeeded the Tudors. Started by James I, this dynasty ruled during the turbulent English Civil war and included James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, and Mary & her husband, William of Orange.

Back

Hohellenzerns

Front

Rulers of Prussia who owned Brandenburg( one of the most important states.)

Back

The Great Northern War

Front

The war against Sweden that Peter fought, for a warm water port on the Baltic sea. Peter won, and built his new capital, St. Petersburg, on his newly acquired lands.

Back

Burgesses

Front

The middle class in which Edward I the king at the time used them to raise his taxes because they were experiencing the growth of towns and trade.

Back

Nation State

Front

France and England started to form their own borders and the Kings & Middle Class gained more power. They were united under one government and one cultural status.

Back

Mazarin

Front

Cardinal who held most of the power in France since Louis was 10 and he represented France at the peace conference after the 30 year war. He had harsh policies which led to the Frond since nobles thought he was stripping away their privilages and power. He was eventually replaced by Louis XIV.

Back

Junkers

Front

Prussias landowning nobility. Frederick was able to gain and maintain control by promoting them in the army.

Back

Edict of Nantes

Front

Protected the religious freedom of the Huguenots and when Louis XIV destroyed it they could no longer go to church or school, and they were imprisoned as enemies of the state. They fled the country because of this and France lost many skilled workers, losing many of the people in their chief export, luxury goods.

Back

Seven Years War

Front

The war that was participated in by almost all the major countries of the world, started by Prussia vs Austria. It was Austria, France, and Russia against Britain and Prussia. Britain and Prussia won, but the only people the war profited were the brits, who got Gibraltar, and all of France's colonies and much more. Established Britain as the world superpower, even they were not absolutist.

Back

Queen Elizabeth

Front

The last of the tudor dynasty. She was a great ruler who was so great, her rule is called the Elizabethan age. She defeated King Philip and the Spanish Armada, establishing Britain as the best naval power, and the world superpower.

Back

Spanish Armada

Front

The "invincible" armada put together by King Philip of Spain. It was defeated by Elizabeth and her sea dogs, establishing Britain as the naval power and superpower of the world.

Back

Henry VII

Front

He got lots of money from imported goods. He encourages trade and he made treaties to open up more business opportunities. Didn't go into expensive wars to avoid losing money. He also limited nobles power of military might. Henry also created a court where people were tortured and many bad things occurred there.

Back

Colbert

Front

Louis XIV's minister of finance who believed in Mercantilism. He wanted to improve France's economy by making it a trading hub. He improved manufacturing, commerce, colonies, and created a navy and ships to export. He wanted to import more than he exported and imposed tariffs. He also granted subsidies.

Back

Elizabethan Age

Front

What Elizabeth's reign was called. It was a golden age when people were patriotic about England, and they made a lot of money and gained a lot of power.

Back

William Shakespear

Front

A playwright who lived during Elizabeth and James I's rules. He wrote many plays and helped grow the culture of Britain.

Back

Maria Theresa

Front

Queen of the Hapsburgs who was attacked by many countries for being a woman and she had many allies and gave a speech to win over the hungarians. She stopped the armies from taking over Austria, stopping the crushing of her country bu the Prussians.

Back

Limited Monarchy

Front

main idea of the Magna Carta and showed up in later years with Charles II(Petition of Rights) and with the Bill of Rights.

Back

King John

Front

Terrible military leader and lost multiple lands to Philip Augustus. Kept taxing barons high amounts to pay for his costly wars that he kept losing. Barons gots mad and made him sign the Magna Carta which limited the King's power but took another 300 years to actually come into effect. The Magna Carta took the away King's power to randomly tax people meaning No taxation without representation. Clause 39 due process of the law.

Back

Magna Carta

Front

The document that the nobles made King John sign, which stated that taxes could only be levied with the consent of England, the right to trial by jury, and, most importantly, the idea of limited monarchy, which meant that the king was not and absolute ruler.

Back

Roundheads

Front

Puritans and merchants who supported Parliament and were against Charles.

Back

Francis Drake

Front

Was called a sea dog and pretty much is a pirate who raided Spanish fleets filled with gold and silver due to Spain's discoveries in South America. Was the second man to sail around the world and came back with 600000 pounds.

Back

Holy Synod

Front

Created by Peter the Great and was a group of High Priests that were the new church since Peter destroyed the Patriarch.

Back

Serfs

Front

Lowest class in Russian society who worked on the boyars' estates and were basically slaves.

Back

Export

Front

To ship your goods to other countries for money.

Back

King Henry II

Front

was the king of England and owned more than half of France. Married Eleanor of Aquitaine which helped him to gain lots of riches

Back

Boyars

Front

Russian landowning families of nobility

Back

King James I

Front

The king who succeeded Elizabeth and clashed a lot with Parliament. He believed in the divine right of kings, and thought he only had to answer to god, not the people. His son, Charles I, was just like him.

Back

The Frond

Front

Violent riots in Paris that spread through the countryside for 5 years. Broke into Louis XIV's home when he was a boy, possibly contributing to the kind of ruler he became.

Back

Tudor

Front

The dynasty that ruled England for many years. Ended with Elizabeth, who had no tudor relatives. Gave way to the Stuart dynasty.

Back

Charles I

Front

The son of James I, who caused civil war in England. He had too much pride and not enough common sense. He always got into it with parliament, and dissolved them for many years, before putting them back together to get money for a war he started with Scotland because William Laud restricted their religious freedoms. He didn't like that they started to restrict his power, and tried to get him to sign the petition or right, which was a reiteration of the magna carta. He got angry, and tried to arrest parliament. They found out, escaped, and went to war with him, and he fled to the north of Scotland, where he had followers because of his dad. He lost the war, and he was beheaded in London.

Back

Joint Stock Company

Front

Created by Elizabeth to help her financial problems. People bought shares of a company and if the company went bankrupt, the people lost their money. If the company did well, you were entitled to some profit.

Back

War of Spanish Succession

Front

War fought against France and Spain because they were linked by blood and people felt threatened that they would have to much power. At the end Spain could keep its ruler but France and Spain could never rule together. Helped by the balance of Power.

Back

House of Lords

Front

A house in parliament that was made up of nobles and bishops .

Back

House of commons

Front

A house in parliament that was made up of knights and burgesses(common people)

Back

Racine

Front

Wrote Tragedies with Corneille based on Greek playwrights and was loved by Louis XIV, who gave him grants.

Back

Mercantilism

Front

The theory of exporting more goods, then you import, and imposing tariffs on goods passing through. Also, giving subsidies to workers to develop more good, and establishing colonies for raw materials and money.

Back

Hapsburgs

Front

Ruling family of Austria who lost a lot of land in the 30 year war but gained a lot in the war of Spanish Succession. There large empire was able to last because they had a Hapsburg ruler always. They

Back

Import

Front

To bring goods from other countries

Back

Act of Uniformity

Front

The law put in by Elizabeth which set up a single church that she was the head of. People were forced to attend. She did this to eliminate religious conflict in England. She made it a compromise from all sects of Christianity.

Back

Parliament

Front

Two burgesses from every country and two knights and this made up the Model Parliament. Knights and burgesses were in the House of Commons and nobles and bishops were in the house of Lords.

Back

Section 2

(13 cards)

Oliver Cromwell

Front

Leader of the Roundheads and former member of the House of Commons. He won the war, and became the Lord Protector, which was basically a dictator position. He was a bad leader, who was super puritan and abolished fun.

Back

Thomas Hobbes

Front

wrote Leviathan. he was convinced that all humans were naturally wicked and governments were created to protect people from selfishness. He believed an absolute monarchy is the best government to keep things from falling into disorder.

Back

Charles II

Front

King of England who restored the monarchy and culture in England and he was a lenient ruler who didn't push his power. He created the Habeas Corpus Act. When he face religious and financial problems, he turned to Louis XIV to get money in exchange for being Catholic.

Back

Restoration

Front

Period When Charles the 2nd ruled since he restored the monarchy in England and culture.

Back

English Bill Of Rights

Front

the same thing as the Magna Carta and the Petition of Rights, which limited royal power and listed all the things they could not do.

Back

James II

Front

son of Charles I who asserted his power to rule with divine right. At first the Tories supported him but then joined the whigs in protest. then did three things: Government posts would be open to Catholics and Protestants, stationed 13000 troops outside London, and lastly he had given birth to a son. Whigs and Tories then asked William and Mary to overthrow In 1688 William brought his army and no one stopped him. James then sailed to France(had Catholic King) and stayed there until his death.

Back

John Milton

Front

A writer who lost his eyesight writing propaganda for Charles 2nd and he wrote Paradise Lost (christian philosophy) which explains how God justifies human pain and suffering.

Back

Habeas Corpus Act

Front

Literally means "you have the body". Gave prisoners right to see a judge and a right to trial. Meaning the king couldn't throw people into jail for no reason. We see this today in the US and England.

Back

John Locke

Front

believed people had gift of reason. Governments were formed to protect three human rights: right to life, liberty, and property. He believed that if government abused these rights then people had the right to rebel. His ideas were used later in history during the American revolution.

Back

Tories

Front

The political party who supported James. Their name means Irish Bandits

Back

William and Mary

Front

Invited by the Whigs and Tories to overthrow James for the sake of Protestantism.

Back

New Model Army

Front

Army created by Oliver Cromwell that defeated the kings forces and took control of Parliament so they could be more Puritan.

Back

Whigs

Front

The political party who opposed James. Their name means Assassins.

Back