Section 1

Preview this deck

Napoleon Bonaparte

Front

Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%

0.0

0 reviews

5
0
4
0
3
0
2
0
1
0

Active users

0

All-time users

0

Favorites

0

Last updated

1 year ago

Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (93)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Napoleon Bonaparte

Front

1769-1821. Born on the island of Corsica. See notes. Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

Back

Louis XIV treatment of Huguenots

Front

Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. Huguenots were persecuted as a result by losing all their freedom to worship. Huguenot churches were torn down and some were forced to serve as galley slaves on French ships. All Protestant education was forbidden.

Back

Archduke Ferdinand

Front

Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28,1914, started World War I.

Back

Crimean War

Front

1854-56. First major international conflict after the defeat of Napoleon. Brittain, France & the Kingdom of Sardinia against Russia with her policy of expansion in the Near East where the Ottoman Empire was losing control. Brittain feared a Russian victory would upset the balance of power and threaten their control of the Mediterranean region. Russia lost and the major nations promised to keep the Ottoman Empire from being destroyed.

Back

Bill of Rights

Front

The first ten amendments that clearly define liberties and placed restraints on governmental interference.

Back

Socialism

Front

Four Types. 1. Utopian Socialism - direct result of the French Enlightenment. Believed that if the inequities in society could be abolished, man's natural goodness could be perfected. Consider the profit motive of capitalism to be the basic source of evil. 2. Marxism - Karl Marx believed that economic forces determine the course of history and that history would naturally progress toward perfection allowing man to "progress" to a higher stage of development. Once man reaches this perfect society where everyone is equal and gladly shares the fruit of his labor with others he called it communism. 3. Fabian Socialism - British socialists who sought to achieve a socialist society without revolution but by wearing down capitalism gradually by undermining it with gradual change. 4. Christian Socialism - Theological liberals who believed that Christianity and capitalism were incompatible. They believed that unregenerate society could and should live according to the Sermon on the Mount.

Back

John Locke

Front

English. 1632-1704. Believed in the philosophy of Empiricism (the idea that all knowledge comes through experience). He rejected the doctrine of original sin, choosing to believe that man is basically good. Advanced the idea that men possess certain natural and unalienable rights -- rights that cannot be transferred or surrendered.

Back

Nationalism

Front

A feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.

Back

Johann Sebastian Bach

Front

1685-1750. German Baroque Composer. Most of his career was spent in performing, conducting and composing music for the Lutheran church. One of his most famous compositions is the "Passion According to St. Matthew."

Back

Romanticism

Front

Given birth by the powerful feelings unleashed by the political revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This cultural movement gave literary and artistic expression to the concepts of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity." Romanticism was also a movement of reaction -- reaction against the restraint of the Age of Reason, the violence of the French Revolution, the repression following the Napoleonic Wars, and the often harsh working conditions caused by the rapid growth of the Industrial Revolution. In contrast to the Age of Reason, this age turned rationalism to idealism and from intellectual to emotional. Originality above imitation, self-fulfillment over common good. If it felt good it must be good. Went too far against all rules and laws of man and God. An artistic movement that focused on nature, feelings, and emotions.

Back

Enlightenment

Front

18th century intellectual movement that looked to human reason as the solution for all of life's problems. It was believed that "Reason" was the only sure source of knowledge and truth an attitude known as rationalism. Reason was their standard of truth: it was their guide to understanding the universe and the proper way to worship God. This new religion was called Deism. Deism was built upon mere human wisdom. The Bible warns against such error.

Back

Constitution

Front

Formally adopted in 1789, established a new nation -- the United States of America. A republican form of government modeled after the Roman Republic and divided the powers of government among three branches each with specific functions and checks on the other branches.

Back

Central Powers

Front

In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies. Other nations such as The Ottoman Empire and Bulgarians.

Back

Adam Smith

Front

Published in 1776 one of the most influential books on political economics "Wealth of Nations." Attacks mercantilism practiced by most European nations. Saying a nation's wealth should depend on productivity, not gold and silver. Advocated a "hands off" policy known as laissez-faire. The government should not interfere in business and trade, but provide a favorable climate for business activity. He proposed a policy of "free trade" among nations. A nation should manufacture what it can best and most efficiently produce.

Back

Boer War

Front

(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the dutch farmers (Boers) in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.

Back

Imperialism

Front

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.

Back

English Civil War

Front

Parliament (Roundheads) led by Oliver Cromwell supported by the Puritans, the lesser gentry, and the merchants VS. The King (Cavaliers) supported by the nobility. King Charles I lost and was beheaded (1649).

Back

The Thirty Years War

Front

1618-1648 Last Religious War. Protestant Bohemian Nobles vs. Catholic Emperor

Back

Simon Bolivar

Front

(1783-1830) Leader for independence, "the liberator," who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

Back

German Unification

Front

1866-1871 In the 19th-century, various independent German-speaking states, led by the chancellor of Prussia Otto von Bismarck, unified to create a Germanic state. The state expanded with von Bismarck's military exploits against Austria, France and Denmark. Unification was complete by 1871 with the Prussian king, Wilhelm, named the first leader of Germany.

Back

Monroe Doctrine

Front

1823. US President James Monroe in a speech to the US Congress warned the European nations that any attempt to establish or reestablish colonies in the Western Hemisphere would be considered an "unfriendly" act of aggression. Although the US did not have the power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine, the British navy was able to block any attempt on the part of the European alliance.

Back

Eli Whitney

Front

An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged. 1765-1825

Back

Scientific Method

Front

Back

William Wilberforce

Front

A British statesman and reformer; leader of the abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to the end of the English slave trade in 1807. Also had a goal to produce children with education in reading, hygiene, and religion.

Back

The Restoration

Front

1660. The reestablishment of the Stuart monarchy with Charles II as the new king. The kings power was very limited with Parliament retaining much of the power it had won earlier. Succeeded by his brother James II.

Back

Albert Einstein

Front

German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.

Back

Great Awakening

Front

1740-42. While the Methodist revival progressed in the British Isles, America experienced the climax of a tremendous revival known as the Great Awakening. Through the preaching of Whitefield and other traveling evangelists, thousands of people heard the message of salvation. Local pastors were the key such as Jonathan Edwards who faithfully ministered to the needs of their own congregations.

Back

William Carey

Front

1761-1834. Father of Modern Missions, established the Baptist Missionary Society, missionary in India

Back

Communist Manifesto

Front

1848. Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes. It explains socialism and the belief that the proletariat (oppressed workers) would overthrow the bourgeoisie (factory owners).

Back

Industrial Revolution

Front

Social and economic change that began in England in the 1760s when the industrial geography of England changed significantly and later diffused to other parts of western Europe. In this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped. Coal was the leading energy source fueling the industrial revolution in England's textile-focused industrial explosion.

Back

Isaac Newton

Front

English. 1642-1727. Astronomer who, like Galileo, contributed to several other fields such as physics and math. Demonstrated with a prism that "white light" is actually composed of many different colors. Developed calculus, invented the reflecting telescope. Remembered best for his discovery of the Laws of Gravity.

Back

Allies

Front

In World War I the alliance of Russia, Serbia, and France, later joined by Great Britain, Italy, America, China, Japan and others.

Back

Rembrandt van Rijn

Front

1606-69. Dutch Baroque Painter. Paintings usually filled with gold tones and warm browns. Most famous "The Night Watch". Many of his themes were inspired by biblical stories such as "The Storm on the Sea of Galilee" and "The Return of the Prodigal Son". He attempted to give a visual interpretation of Scripture.

Back

Declaration of Independence

Front

July 4th, 1776. A declaration by the colonists to preserve their freedom and to secure independence from Britain was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Continental Congress.

Back

David Livingstone

Front

Among the first European explorers to travel the interior of Africa. As a medical missionary, he endured great physical hardship but was devoted to opening up Africa to the gospel and in the process wanted to bring an end to the slave trade. He was gone for so long once that a New York newspaper hired Henry Stanley to find him. When found Stanley greeted him with the famous "Dr. Livingstone, I presume."

Back

Waterloo

Front

June 8, 1815 the allied forces, under the leadership of the British Duke of Wellington won a decisive victory against Napoleon on the plains of Waterloo (today is Belgium). Napoleon was banished to St. Helena, a little island in the middle of the South Atlantic.

Back

Nobel Peace Prize

Front

This is a type of award given to someone who promotes peace; it was named after a Swedish Chemist by the name of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite

Back

Salvation Army

Front

A group created in 1865 by William Booth to spread Christian teaching and offer food and shelter to the poor.

Back

Henry Ford

Front

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production; proponent of the Assembly Line and Standardization; invented the Model T with production in 1908; workers paid salary high enough to buy products they made. By 1913 Ford workers were able to assemble a car in ninety-three minutes.

Back

Mayflower Compact

Front

1620. A temporary agreement drafted aboard the "Mayflower" establishing civil authority for the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. The Pilgrim leaders realized the need for discipline to maintain order among themselves.

Back

Divine Right of Kings

Front

The kings used religion to justify their power saying that God made them king so that gave them the absolute authority and that they were not bound by any manmade law for their actions.

Back

Laissez Faire Economics

Front

Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.

Back

Mercantilism

Front

Economic policy that focuses on making $ for the mother country. It favors a positive balance of trade for the mother country and the accumulation of gold and silver.

Back

Louisiana Purchase

Front

1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.

Back

Wright Brothers

Front

1903. Two brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, carried out the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Back

French Revolution

Front

See notes and chart on pg. 401 The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799. 1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.

Back

Galileo

Front

Italian. 1564-1642. Best-known astronomer in history. Suggested the use of the pendulum to measure time. He improved the telescope, confirmed the heliocentric theory and agreed with Kepler that the planets move in elliptical orbits. Was made to retract that before the Roman Catholic church but according to legend as he rose muttered, "But it does move!"

Back

Robert Raikes

Front

founder of British Sunday school who sought to reach the poor, illiterate, working-class children and teach them about Jesus and how to read and write

Back

Hudson Taylor

Front

1832-1905. A British Protestant missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission; known for his sensitivity to Chinese culture (and immersion into it) and his zeal for evangelism.

Back

George Mueller

Front

formed the best-known orphanages in Bristol, England

Back

Section 2

(43 cards)

Benito Mussolini

Front

Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945) founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.

Back

Birth of State of Israel

Front

1948.

Back

V-J Day

Front

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945. Officially ending WWII.

Back

Mao Zedong

Front

(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.

Back

Vatican II

Front

1962-1965. Called by Pope John XXIII. The previous Council was called because of problems, but this one was called to look at itself. It produced many documents and was the first council to have worldwide representation, women observers, immediate press release, and non-Catholic members.

Back

United Nations

Front

An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.

Back

Korean War

Front

1950-53. Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.

Back

Fascists

Front

Members of a political party in Italy who preached that the nation and the race were more important than the individual. A political party supporting brutally oppressive dictatorial control of speech and civil rights and enforcing inhumane laws. In Germany Hitler was the leader. In Italy, Benito Mussolini was the leader

Back

Apartheid

Front

A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites.

Back

Bolsheviks

Front

A Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. They eventually seized power in Russia in 1917.

Back

Iron Curtain

Front

A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. A term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations.

Back

The Gestapo

Front

The official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. Hermann Göring formed the unit in 1933.

Back

Great Depression

Front

(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world's economy due to the United State's stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and the decline in the need for raw materials from non-industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.

Back

Warsaw Pact

Front

A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.

Back

Chiang Kai-shek

Front

General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.

Back

Third World

Front

A term applied to a group of "developing" or "underdeveloped" countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War. Also known as developing nations; nations outside the capitalist industrial nations of the first world and the industrialized communist nations of the second world; generally less economically powerful, but with varied economies.

Back

Stalin

Front

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).

Back

New Deal

Front

(1933 - 1936) President Franklin D Roosevelt's plan to end the Great Depression. 3 major goals were what FDR called his 3 R's - Relief, Recovery, and Reform. Many were put back to work, but the Depression was ended when America entered WW II.

Back

Lenin

Front

Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Back

Fifth Column

Front

A subversive group of civilians working secretly within their own country to turn it over to an invading army. Refers to individuals within a country who secretly aid the enemy by spying, spreading enemy propaganda, and committing sabotage.

Back

Balfour Declaration

Front

A statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.

Back

Lusitania

Front

British passenger ship that sunk off the coast of Ireland in 1915 by German U-Boats killing 1,198 people (128 American). It was decisive in turning public favor against Germany and bringing America into WWI.

Back

Battle of the Bulge

Front

December 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30-mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Back

Marshal Tito

Front

Communist leader, opposed Nazi control, emerged as the leader of Yugoslavia after WWII. Able to avoid domination by USSR.

Back

World Council of Churches

Front

Included different denominations and promoted dialogue between Christians with headquarters located in Amsterdam.

Back

Iron Lady

Front

1979. The nickname that was given to the former Great Britain Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, as a result of her staunch opposition to the Soviet Union and socialism.

Back

Zionist Movement

Front

A nationalist movement among the Jews to establish a home land in Palestine

Back

Tiananmen Square

Front

Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military firing on the students with tanks resulting many deaths.

Back

Neville Chamberlain

Front

British Prime Minister prior to WWII who signed a peace treaty with Germany which promised "Peace in our time." Hitler did not honor the treaty, attacked Britain, and Winston Churchill replaced Chamberlain. The prime minister of Britain from 1937 to 1940, who advocated a policy of appeasement toward the territorial demands of Nazi Germany. This appeasement policy essentially turned a blind eye to Germany's 1938 annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland.

Back

Civil Rights Movement

Front

A social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.

Back

V-E Day

Front

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

Back

Third Reich

Front

Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945. The Third Republic of Germany.

Back

D-Day

Front

(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.

Back

Cold War

Front

(1945-1991) The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991.

Back

NATO

Front

1949. North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries.

Back

Holocaust

Front

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Back

Treaty of Versailles

Front

Treaty between the Allies and Germany 1918, Created by the leaders of the victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.

Back

The Yalta Conference

Front

This February 1945 meeting of FDR, Churchill, and Stalin in the USSR made decisions regarding the treatment of Germany following its WWII defeat -- They agreed on unconditional surrender, the division of Germany into occupation zones, denazification, German reparations payments to the Allies, and free elections in Poland.

Back

League of Nations

Front

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson during his Fourteen Points, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.

Back

Mein Kampf

Front

"My Struggle" Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923-1924. The book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non-Aryans.

Back

Vietnam War

Front

A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who was supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who was supported by the United States.

Back

Containment

Front

A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.

Back

The Maginot Line

Front

A zone of heavy defensive fortifications erected by France along its eastern border in the years preceding World War II, but outflanked in 1940 when the German army attacked through Belgium.

Back