Section 1

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selectively permeable

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (77)

Section 1

(50 cards)

selectively permeable

Front

allows: small, unchanged, polar molecules; hydrophobic molecules blocks: large polar molecules; ions

Back

ion channels

Front

ions; gated channels

Back

adhesion proteins

Front

attaches cells to cells; provides anchors for filaments

Back

recognition proteins

Front

unique identification; glycoproteins EX: blood types

Back

chloroplasts

Front

(plant cells only) carry out photosynthesis; two membranes

Back

plasma membrane

Front

separates internal metabolic event; controls mvmnt of materials

Back

smooth ER

Front

w/o ribosomes; synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolizes CHO, detoxification

Back

rough ER

Front

w/ ribosomes; synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins, produces new membrane

Back

lysosomes

Front

(animal cells only) vesicles from Golgi with hydrolytic enzymes; break down material in cytosol for recycling; low pH

Back

mitochondria

Front

carry out cellular respiration; two membranes allow separation of metabolic processes

Back

chromosomes

Front

DNA becomes rod-shaped as cell begins division; includes 2 long DNA molecules and histone proteins

Back

receptor proteins

Front

provide binding sites; activates specific cell response

Back

chromatin

Front

DNA spread through nucleus like web

Back

golgi apparatus

Front

collect, modify, and package proteins, CHO and lipids

Back

gated channels

Front

open and close in response to stimuli EX: nerve and muscle cells

Back

transport proteins

Front

use ATP (active transport) EX: sodium-potassium pump

Back

centrioles

Front

(animal cells only) microtubule organizing centers; create spine apparatus in cell division

Back

nuclear envelope

Front

2 bilipid layers; bounded to nucleus, continuous with ER

Back

peripheral proteins

Front

attached to membrane surface

Back

organelles

Front

bodies within cytoplasm; chemical rxns isolated, able to take place w/o interference; large surface areas to max. space for rxns

Back

cholesterol

Front

stability to animal cells; @ high T=maintain firmness, @ low T=allows flexibility

Back

contractile vacuoles

Front

collect and pump water in cell

Back

microfilaments

Front

made of protein actin; found in cells that move by shape change, e.g. muscle cells; cell motility

Back

carrier proteins

Front

specific molecules bind, changing protein shape

Back

transport vesicles

Front

move materials btwn organelles

Back

histones

Front

organize long DNA

Back

intermediate filaments

Front

support for cell shape

Back

free ribosomes

Front

in cytosol; proteins made function within cell EX: enzymes that catalyze sugar breakdown

Back

cilia

Front

short, many, back-and-forth mvmnt; 9+2 microtubule EX: line respiratory tract

Back

extracellular matrix

Front

(animal cells only) mechanical support, helps bind adjacent cells

Back

aquaporins

Front

channel proteins; increase rate of H20 passage

Back

integral proteins

Front

imbedded in bilipid layer

Back

nucleosomes

Front

coiling of DNA by histones

Back

cell junctions

Front

anchor cells together for cellular exchange

Back

ribosome

Front

2 RNA subunits + proteins; free v bound; protein synthesis

Back

tight junctions

Front

(animals) seal that prevents cellular exchange

Back

unsaturated fatty acid membrane

Front

not packed tight; flexible membrane

Back

nuclear pores

Front

passageway for proteins and RNA

Back

food vacuoles

Front

receive nutrients; usually merge with lysosomes

Back

saturated fatty acid membrane

Front

packed tight; rigid membrane

Back

peroxisomes

Front

animals: breakdown H202, fatty acids, AAs; plants: modify by-products of photosynthesis

Back

nucleus

Front

contains DNA and nucleoli; site of cell division

Back

nucleoli

Front

concentrations of DNA in process of manufacturing ribosomes

Back

channel proteins

Front

passage for hydrophillic substances

Back

anchoring junctions

Front

(animals) protein attachments between cells EX: desmosome

Back

cell walls

Front

(plant cells only) support

Back

bound ribosomes

Front

attached to ER or nuclear envelope; proteins made function within cell membrane or exported from cell

Back

central vacuoles

Front

(plant cells only) contain most of plant cell interior; exert tugor when full for cell rigidity; functions specialized: 1) store starch, nutrients, waste, etc. 2) lysosome function 3) cell growth by absorbing H20 4) renders large SA-to-V ratio

Back

microtubules

Front

made of protein tubulin; found in spindle apparatus (guides chromosome mvmnt in cell division); support and motility for cell activity

Back

flagella

Front

long, few, snake-like mvmnt; 9+2 microtubule EX: sperm

Back

Section 2

(27 cards)

passive transport

Front

[higher] to [lower]; increases w/ increase in [x], temp., smaller particle size

Back

pressure potential

Front

measurement of pressure, in an open container usually = 0

Back

phagocytosis

Front

cellular eating; undissolved material enters cell; forms phagocytic vesicle

Back

hypertonic

Front

solute hypertonic to solution=higher [solutes]

Back

water potential

Front

movement of water from where there is high potential to low potential; based upon solute and pressure components

Back

gap junctions

Front

(animals) (communication) narrow tunnels; basically channel protein connecting 2 cells

Back

electrochemical gradient

Front

combo. of concentration and electrical voltage gradients of ions

Back

plasmolysis

Front

osmosis out of cell

Back

diffusion

Front

random mvmnt leads to net mvmnt from [high] to [low]

Back

endocytosis

Front

capture substance outside cell, fuse w/ membrane, release contents into cell; 3 types: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated

Back

solute potential

Front

=-iCRT i = ionization constant (NaCl = 2, glucose = 1) C = concentration (M) R = constant (0.0831 mol-liters/bar K) T = temperature (K) more solute = lower overall potential

Back

facilitated diffusion

Front

diffusion through channel or carrier proteins

Back

communication junctions

Front

allow chemical and electrical signal passage

Back

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Front

specific molec. (ligands) binds to site, resulting in pinocytosis

Back

exocytosis

Front

fuse w/ membrane, release contents outside cell

Back

osmosis

Front

diffusion of water across selectively permeable mmbrn

Back

hypotonic

Front

solute hypotonic to solution=lower [solutes]

Back

turgor pressure

Front

osmosis into cell

Back

plasmodesmata

Front

(plants) (communication) narrow tunnels; like gap junctions

Back

cell lysis

Front

swelling of cell b/c excess turgor pressure

Back

pinocytosis

Front

cellular drinking; dissolved material enters cell; forms liquid vesicle

Back

cotransport

Front

protein that allows downhill mvmt to drive another uphill; E for uphill from [gradient] from downhill

Back

vesicular transport

Front

uses vesicles to move substances across plasma mmbrn

Back

active transport

Front

[lower] to [higher]; requires use of E (usually ATP)

Back

isotonic

Front

[solute]=[solution]

Back

prokaryotes

Front

plasma membrane, DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, cell wall

Back

bulk flow

Front

collective movement in response to pressure

Back