Section 1

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quandary

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (884)

Section 1

(50 cards)

quandary

Front

the state of not being able to decide what to do in a difficult situation

Back

moron

Front

an offensive way of referring to someone that you think is very stupid

Back

negate

Front

to stop something from having any effect

Back

arsenal

Front

a collection of weapons such as guns and explosives

Back

ravage

Front

to damage something badly

Back

strident

Front

having a loud, rough, and unpleasant sound

Back

in light of something

Front

after considering something

Back

moot

Front

unlikely to happen and therefore not worth considering

Back

articulate ( v, adj. )

Front

to express or explain your thoughts or feelings clearly in words

Back

maverick ( n, adj. )

Front

a person who does not behave or think like everyone else, but who has independent, unusual opinions

Back

align

Front

to arrange something in the correct position, or to be in the correct position, in relation to something else, especially in a straight line

Back

fallacy

Front

a false idea that many people believe is true

Back

cogent(adj.)

Front

strongly and clearly expressed in a way that influences what people believe

Back

nifty (informal)

Front

1. skillful and accurate 2. practical; working well

Back

smallpox

Front

a serious infectious disease (now extremely rare) that causes fever, leaves permanent marks on the skin, and often causes death, 천연두

Back

galactic

Front

relating to a galaxy

Back

periodical

Front

a magazine that is published every week, month, etc., especially one that is concerned with an academic subject

Back

triage

Front

(in a hospital) the process of deciding how seriously ill or injured a person is, so that the most serious cases can be treated first

Back

ensnare

Front

to make someone or something unable to escape from a difficult situation or from a person who wants to control them

Back

dilatory

Front

not acting quickly enough; causing delay

Back

layman

Front

a person who does not have expert knowledge of a particular subject

Back

blunder ( n, v )

Front

a stupid or careless mistake

Back

adjudicate

Front

[intransitive, transitive] to make an official decision about who is right in a disagreement between two groups or organizations

Back

voracious

Front

1. eating or wanting large amounts of food 2. wanting a lot of new information and knowledge

Back

rebut

Front

to say or prove that a statement or criticism is false

Back

in conjunction with

Front

together with

Back

sideswipe

Front

(of a vehicle) to hit the side of another vehicle that it is passing

Back

preclude

Front

to prevent something from happening or someone from doing something; to make something impossible

Back

solace

Front

a feeling of emotional comfort when you are sad or disappointed; a person or thing that makes you feel better or happier when you are sad or disappointed

Back

polemic

Front

a speech or a piece of writing that argues very strongly for or against something or someone

Back

savvy

Front

(informal) practical knowledge or understanding of something

Back

unfettered

Front

not controlled or restricted

Back

entomb

Front

to bury or completely cover someone or something so that they cannot get out, be seen, etc.

Back

incapacitate

Front

to make someone or something unable to live or work normally

Back

inchoate

Front

just beginning to form and therefore not clear or developed

Back

stake out

Front

to state your opinion, position, etc. on something very clearly, declare

Back

discomfit

Front

to make someone feel confused or embarrassed

Back

tangential

Front

(formal) having only a slight or indirect connection with something

Back

veritable

Front

a word used to emphasize that someone or something can be compared to someone or something else that is more exciting, more impressive, etc.

Back

infantilize

Front

to treat someone as though they are a child

Back

starlet

Front

a young woman actor who plays small parts and hopes to become famous

Back

elicit

Front

to get information or a reaction from someone, often with difficulty

Back

ad nauseam

Front

if a person says or does something ad nauseam, they say or do it again and again so that it becomes boring or annoying

Back

conformist ( n, adj.)

Front

a person who behaves and thinks in the same way as most other people and who does not want to be different

Back

discrepancy

Front

a difference between two or more things that should be the same

Back

esoteric

Front

likely to be understood or enjoyed by only a few people with a special knowledge or interest

Back

commute

Front

to travel regularly by bus, train, car, etc. between your place of work and your home

Back

automaton

Front

1. person who behaves like a machine, without thinking or feeling anything 2. a machine that moves without human control

Back

declaim

Front

to say something loudly; to speak loudly and with force about something you feel strongly about, especially in public, starts with "dec..."

Back

prose

Front

writing that is not poetry

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

deceptive

Front

likely to make you believe something that is not true

Back

recluse

Front

a person who lives alone and likes to avoid other people

Back

plumb ( v, adv. )

Front

1. to try to understand or succeed in understanding something mysterious, fathom 2. (used before prepositions) exactly

Back

ebb

Front

the period of time when the ocean flows away from the land

Back

panglossian

Front

an optimistic character

Back

sprinkle

Front

1. to shake small pieces of something or drops of a liquid on something 2. to include a few of something in something else

Back

excerpt ( n, v )

Front

a short piece of writing, music, film, etc. taken from a longer whole

Back

knotty

Front

1. complicated and difficult to solve 2. having parts that are hard and twisted together

Back

cursory

Front

done quickly and without giving enough attention to details

Back

sentimentality

Front

the quality of being too sentimental

Back

caveat

Front

a warning that particular things need to be considered before something can be done

Back

glean

Front

to obtain information, knowledge, etc., sometimes with difficulty and often from various different places

Back

crumble

Front

to break or break something into very small pieces

Back

feverish

Front

1. showing strong feelings of excitement or worry, often with a lot of activity or quick movements 2. suffering from a fever; caused by a fever

Back

splay

Front

to make fingers, legs, etc. become further apart from each other or spread out; to be spread out wide apart

Back

queasy

Front

1. feeling sick; wanting to vomit 2. slightly nervous or worried about something

Back

presumptive

Front

likely to be true, based on the facts that are available

Back

mordant

Front

critical and unkind, but funny

Back

jargon

Front

words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group of people, and are difficult for others to understand

Back

pat ( adj. )

Front

(of an answer, a comment, etc.) too quick, easy, or simple; not seeming natural or realistic

Back

citadel

Front

(in the past) a castle on high ground in or near a city, where people could go when the city was being attacked

Back

demonstrative

Front

showing feelings openly, especially feelings of affection

Back

replete (with something)

Front

filled with something; with a full supply of something

Back

hunch ( n. )

Front

a feeling that something is true even though you do not have any evidence to prove it

Back

smolder

Front

1. to burn slowly without a flame 2. to be filled with a strong emotion that you do not fully express

Back

vacillate

Front

to keep changing your opinion or thoughts about something, especially in a way that annoys other people

Back

arcane

Front

secret and mysterious, and therefore difficult to understand

Back

fawn ( v. )

Front

to try to please someone by praising them or paying them too much attention

Back

province

Front

1. one of the areas that some countries are divided into, with its own local government 2. (formal) a person's particular area of knowledge, interest, or responsibility

Back

jettison

Front

1. to throw something out of a moving plane or ship to make it lighter 2. to get rid of something or someone that you no longer need or want

Back

irascible

Front

becoming angry very easily

Back

sham

Front

1. a situation, feeling, system, etc. that is not as good or true as it seems to be 2. a person who pretends to be something that they are not

Back

caustic

Front

1. critical in a bitter or sarcastic way 2. (of a chemical substance) able to destroy or dissolve other substances

Back

warring ( adj. )

Front

involved in a war

Back

bloodshed

Front

the killing or wounding of people, usually during fighting or a war

Back

august(adj.)

Front

impressive; making you feel respect

Back

truce

Front

an agreement between enemies or opponents to stop fighting for an agreed period of time; the period of time that this lasts

Back

gobble

Front

to eat something very fast, in a way that people consider rude or greedy

Back

highfalutin ( adj. )

Front

(informal) trying to be serious or important, but in a way that often appears silly and unnecessary

Back

solipsism

Front

the theory that only the self exists or can be known

Back

decipher

Front

to succeed in finding the meaning of something that is difficult to read or understand

Back

dysfunctional

Front

not working normally

Back

eviscerate

Front

to remove the inner organs of a body

Back

emend

Front

to remove the mistakes in a piece of writing, especially before it is printed

Back

erudite

Front

having or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study

Back

harden

Front

to become or make something become firm, stiff, or solid

Back

commend

Front

1. to praise someone or something, especially publicly 2. (formal) to recommend someone or something to someone

Back

ooze

Front

1. if a thick liquid oozes from a place, or if something oozes a thick liquid, the liquid flows from the place slowly 2. if someone or something oozes a particular characteristic, quality, etc., they show it strongly

Back

recondite

Front

not known about or understood by many people

Back

faction

Front

1. a small group of people within a larger one, whose members have some different aims and beliefs to those of the larger group 2. opposition, disagreement, etc. that exists between small groups of people within an organization or political party

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

contemptuous

Front

feeling or showing that you have no respect for someone or something

Back

sporadic

Front

happening only occasionally or at intervals that are not regular, intermittent

Back

paucity

Front

a small amount of something; less than enough of something

Back

whoosh

Front

the sudden movement and sound of air or water rushing past

Back

supple

Front

able to bend and move parts of your body easily into different positions

Back

pedantic

Front

too worried about small details or rules

Back

formidable

Front

if people, things, or situations are formidable, you feel fear and/or respect for them, because they are impressive or powerful, or because they seem very difficult

Back

stoke

Front

1. to add fuel to a fire, etc. 2. to make people feel something more strongly 3. to make something increase or develop more quickly

Back

cut short

Front

갑자기 끝내다; 가로막다; 삭감하다.

Back

weary

Front

very tired, especially after you have been working hard or doing something for a long time

Back

panache

Front

the quality of being able to do things in a confident and elegant way that other people find attractive

Back

flinch

Front

to make a sudden movement with your face or body as a result of pain, fear, surprise, etc.

Back

etude

Front

a piece of music designed to give a player practice in technical skills

Back

vista

Front

1. a beautiful view of the countryside, a city, etc. 2. a range of things that might happen in the future

Back

mortar

Front

1. a mixture of sand, water, lime, and cement used in building for holding bricks and stones together 2. a heavy gun that fires bombs and shells high into the air; the bombs that are fired by this gun

Back

bumpy

Front

1. (of a surface) not even; with a lot of bumps 2. (of a journey) uncomfortable, with a lot of sudden, unpleasant movements caused by the road surface, weather conditions, etc.

Back

deafen

Front

to make someone unable to hear the sounds around them because there is too much noise

Back

proxy

Front

1. the authority that you give to someone to do something for you, when you cannot do it yourself 2. a person who has been given the authority to represent someone else

Back

coeval

Front

(of two or more things) having the same age or date of origin

Back

outpost

Front

1. a small military camp away from the main army, used for watching an enemy's movements, etc. 2. small town or group of buildings in a lonely part of a country

Back

minder

Front

a person whose job is to take care of and protect another person

Back

extant

Front

(of something very old) still in existence

Back

metronome

Front

Back

cub

Front

a young animal, such as a young bear, lion, fox, etc.

Back

viable

Front

that can be done; that will be successful

Back

fatigue

Front

1. a feeling of being extremely tired, usually because of hard work or exercise 2. (usually after another noun) a feeling of not wanting to do a particular activity any longer because you have done too much of it 3. weariness

Back

nuzzle

Front

to touch or rub someone or something with the nose or mouth, especially to show affection

Back

weather ( v )

Front

1. [intransitive, transitive] to change, or make something change, color or shape because of the effect of the sun, rain, or wind 2.[transitive] to come safely through a difficult period or experience

Back

tarmac

Front

a black material used for making road surfaces, that consists of small stones mixed with tar

Back

tax ( v )

Front

1. to put a tax on someone or something; to make someone pay tax 2. to need a great amount of physical or mental effort

Back

barrage

Front

the continuous firing of a large number of guns in a particular direction, especially to protect soldiers while they are attacking or moving toward the enemy

Back

phlegmatic

Front

not easily made angry or upset

Back

careen, career

Front

(of a person or vehicle) to move forward very quickly, especially in a way that is dangerous or uncontrolled

Back

thud

Front

a sound like the one which is made when a heavy object hits something else

Back

drone on

Front

to talk about something for a long time in a boring way

Back

aside ( n )

Front

1. a remark that is not directly connected with the main subject that is being discussed 2. a remark, often made in a low voice, that is not intended to be heard by everyone present

Back

souk

Front

a market in an Arab country

Back

monotonous

Front

never changing and therefore boring

Back

python

Front

비단뱀

Back

remission

Front

a period during which a serious illness improves for a time and the patient seems to get better

Back

militant ( adj., n )

Front

using, or willing to use, force or strong pressure to achieve your aims, especially to achieve social or political change

Back

upmarket, upscale ( adj., adv. )

Front

designed for or used by people who belong to a high social class or have a lot of money

Back

wasteland

Front

an area of land that cannot be used or that is no longer used for building or growing things on

Back

vestige

Front

a small part of something that still exists after the rest of it has stopped existing

Back

thrum

Front

When something such as a machine or engine thrums, it makes a low beating sound.

Back

sectarian

Front

connected with the differences that exist between groups of people who have different religious views

Back

edify

Front

to improve people's minds or character by teaching them about something

Back

fatality

Front

a death that is caused in an accident or a war, or by violence or disease

Back

prowess

Front

great skill at doing something

Back

casualty

Front

1. person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident 2. person who suffers or a thing that is destroyed when something else takes place

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

subsist

Front

to manage to stay alive, especially with limited food or money

Back

get on with something

Front

to continue doing something, especially after an interruption

Back

slip into obscurity

Front

차츰 세상에서 잊혀지다

Back

arrogance

Front

the behavior of a person when they feel that they are more important than other people, and are rude to them or do not consider them

Back

demeanor

Front

the way that someone looks or behaves

Back

squad

Front

1. a section of a police force that deals with a particular type of crime 2. (in sports) a group of players, runners, etc. from which a team is chosen for a particular game or match 3. a group of people who have a particular task

Back

acknowledge

Front

1. to accept that something is true 2. to tell someone that you have received something that they sent to you

Back

ward

Front

1. a separate room or area in a hospital for people with the same type of medical condition 2. one of the areas into which a city is divided for local government elections

Back

claim

Front

(of a disaster, an accident, etc.) to cause someone's death

Back

screech to a halt

Front

끽하는 소리를 내며 멈추다

Back

inveterate

Front

1. (of a person) always doing something or enjoying something, and unlikely to stop 2. (meof a bad feeling or habit) done or felt for a long time and unlikely to change

Back

hobble

Front

1. to walk with difficulty, especially because your feet or legs hurt 2. to tie together two legs of a horse or other animal in order to stop it from running away 3. to make it more difficult for someone to do something or for something to happen

Back

mercenary

Front

a soldier who will fight for any country or group that offers payment

Back

rubble ( n. )

Front

broken stones or bricks from a building or wall that has been destroyed or damaged

Back

raucous

Front

sounding loud and rough

Back

insatiable

Front

always wanting more of something; not able to be satisfied

Back

magnanimous

Front

kind, generous, and forgiving, especially toward an enemy or a rival

Back

compromise ( n, v )

Front

an agreement made between two people or groups in which each side gives up some of the things they want so that both sides are happy at the end

Back

pellucid

Front

extremely clear

Back

rattle ( informal verb )

Front

1. to make a series of short loud sounds when hitting against something hard; to make something do this 2. (of a vehicle) to make a series of short loud sounds as it moves somewhere

Back

strew

Front

1. to cover a surface with things 2. to be spread or lying over a surface

Back

abstruse

Front

difficult to understand

Back

at your/somebody's disposal

Front

available for use as you prefer/someone prefers

Back

grinding ( adj. )

Front

(of a difficult situation) that never ends or improves

Back

disposal ( n )

Front

1. the act of getting rid of something 2. the sale of part of a business, property, etc

Back

lead the way

Front

앞장 서다, 솔선하다; 안내하다

Back

pastor

Front

a minister in charge of a church or group in some Christian Protestant Churches Check pronunciation

Back

staunch

Front

strong and loyal in your opinions and attitude, faithful

Back

outrage

Front

1. a strong feeling of shock and anger 2. an act or event that is violent, cruel, or very wrong and that shocks people or makes them very angry

Back

redundancy

Front

the state of not being necessary or useful

Back

peril

Front

1. serious danger 2. peril (of something) ; the fact of something being dangerous or harmful

Back

authoritarian ( adj., n )

Front

believing that people should obey authority and rules, even when these are unfair, and even if it means that they lose their personal freedom

Back

lay ( adj. )

Front

not having expert knowledge or professional qualifications in a particular subject

Back

denounce

Front

1. to strongly criticize someone or something that you think is wrong, illegal, etc. 2. to tell the police, the authorities, etc. about someone's illegal political activities

Back

makeshift ( adj. )

Front

used temporarily for a particular purpose because the real thing is not available, improvised, provisional

Back

press on with

Front

...을 강행하다, ...을 강력히 추진하다.

Back

relate to something/somebody

Front

1. to be connected with something or someone; to refer to something or someone 2. to be able to understand and have sympathy with someone or something (phrasal verb)

Back

withstand

Front

to be strong enough not to be hurt or damaged by extreme conditions, the use of force, etc.

Back

discount

Front

1. to think or say that something is not important or not true 2. to take an amount of money off the usual cost of something; to sell something at a discount

Back

inscrutable

Front

if a person or their expression is inscrutable, it is hard to know what they are thinking or feeling, because they do not show any emotion

Back

scrape by (on something)

Front

to manage to live on the money you have, but with difficulty

Back

revolt ( n )

Front

a protest against authority, especially that of a government, often involving violence; the action of protesting against authority, uprising

Back

grievance

Front

something that you think is unfair and that you complain or protest about

Back

insurgent

Front

a person fighting against the government or armed forces of their own country, rebel

Back

degrade

Front

1. to show or treat someone in a way that makes them seem not worth any respect or not worth taking seriously 2. to change or make something change to a simpler chemical form

Back

encumbrance

Front

a person or thing that prevents someone from moving easily or from doing what they want

Back

derelict

Front

(especially of land or buildings) not used or cared for and in bad condition

Back

smack of something

Front

to seem to contain or involve a particular unpleasant quality

Back

venture ( v )

Front

1. to go somewhere even though you know that it might be dangerous or unpleasant 2. to say or do something in a careful way, especially because it might upset or offend someone

Back

platter

Front

a large plate that is used for serving food

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

reversion

Front

the act or process of returning to a former state or condition

Back

tantamount to something(formal)

Front

having the same bad effect as something else

Back

afflict

Front

to affect someone or something in an unpleasant or harmful way

Back

berate

Front

to criticize or speak angrily to someone because you do not approve of something they have done

Back

clad ( adj. )

Front

(often used after an adverb or in compounds) wearing a particular type of clothing

Back

contrite ( adj. )

Front

very sorry for something bad that you have done, remorseful

Back

perennial

Front

1. continuing for a very long time; happening again and again 2. (of plants) living for two years or more

Back

detract from something detract something from something

Front

(not used in the progressive tenses) to make something seem less good or enjoyable

Back

tier

Front

1. a row or layer of something that has several rows or layers placed one above the other 2. one of several levels in an organization or a system

Back

vanquish

Front

to defeat someone completely in a competition, war, etc., conquer

Back

palatable

Front

1. (of food or drink) having a pleasant or acceptable taste 2. pleasant or acceptable to someone

Back

foment

Front

to create trouble or violence or make it worse

Back

remonstrate

Front

to protest or complain about something or someone

Back

reticent

Front

unwilling to tell people about things

Back

vascular

Front

Vascular is used to describe the channels and veins through which fluids pass in the bodies of animals and plants

Back

obsequious

Front

trying too hard to please someone, especially someone who is important, servile

Back

hinge on/upon

Front

(of an action, a result, etc.) to depend on something completely

Back

heresy

Front

1. a belief or an opinion that is against the principles of a particular religion; the fact of holding such beliefs 2. a belief or an opinion that disagrees strongly with what most people believe

Back

gait

Front

a way of walking

Back

lionize

Front

to treat someone as a famous or important person

Back

reprehensible

Front

morally wrong and deserving criticism

Back

affidavit

Front

a written statement that you swear is true, and that can be used as evidence in court

Back

prescient

Front

knowing or appearing to know about things before they happen

Back

apathy

Front

the feeling of not being interested in or enthusiastic about anything

Back

corroborate

Front

to provide evidence or information that supports a statement, theory, etc.

Back

mete (something) out (to somebody)

Front

to give someone a punishment; to make someone suffer bad treatment

Back

squelch

Front

1. to make a wet sucking sound 2. to stop something from growing, increasing, or developing

Back

competent

Front

1. having enough skill or knowledge to do something well or to the necessary standard 2. of a good standard but not very good

Back

intelligence

Front

secret information that is collected, for example about a foreign country, especially one that is an enemy; the people that collect this information

Back

protagonist

Front

the main character in a play, movie, or book

Back

prolix

Front

(of writing, a speech, etc.) using too many words and therefore boring

Back

cavil

Front

to make unnecessary complaints about something, quibble

Back

ephemera

Front

things that are important or used for only a short period of time

Back

top brass

Front

(informal) the people who are in the most important positions in a company, an organization, etc.

Back

lapse

Front

1. a small mistake, especially one that is caused by forgetting something or by being careless 2. a period of time between two things that happen

Back

empirical

Front

based on experiments or experience rather than ideas or theories

Back

ostracize

Front

to refuse to let someone be a member of a social group; to refuse to meet or talk to someone, shun

Back

mannerism

Front

a particular habit or way of speaking or behaving that someone has but is not aware of

Back

defendant

Front

the person in a trial who is accused of committing a crime, or who is being sued by another person

Back

(hold/keep) (somebody/something) at bay

Front

to prevent an enemy from coming close or a problem from having a bad effect

Back

heinous

Front

morally very bad, the image of Joker

Back

assure

Front

1. to tell someone that something is definitely true or is definitely going to happen, especially when they have doubts about it 2. to make something certain to happen

Back

endear somebody/yourself to somebody

Front

to make someone/yourself popular

Back

diagnose

Front

to say exactly what an illness or the cause of a problem is

Back

eccentricity

Front

1. behavior that people think is strange or unusual; the quality of being unusual and different from other people 2. an unusual act or habit

Back

garrulous

Front

talking a lot, especially about unimportant things

Back

onset

Front

the beginning of something, especially something unpleasant

Back

misanthropic

Front

hating and avoiding other people

Back

dementia

Front

a serious mental disorder caused by brain disease or injury that affects the ability to think, remember, and behave normally

Back

withdrawal

Front

1. the act of moving or taking something away or back 2. the act of no longer taking part in something or being a member of an organization

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

menace

Front

1. a person or thing that causes, or may cause, serious damage, harm, or danger 2. an atmosphere that makes you feel threatened or frightened

Back

deify

Front

to treat or worship someone as a god

Back

stencil

Front

a thin piece of metal, plastic, or card with a design cut out of it, that you put onto a surface and paint over so that the design is left on the surface; the pattern or design that is produced in this way

Back

embankment

Front

1. a wall of stone or earth made to keep water back or to carry a road or railroad over low ground 2. a slope made of earth or stone that rises up from either side of a road or railroad

Back

wand

Front

Back

connotation

Front

an idea suggested by a word in addition to its main meaning

Back

harbinger

Front

a sign that shows that something is going to happen soon, often something bad

Back

degeneration

Front

the process of becoming worse or less acceptable in quality or condition

Back

dubious

Front

1. (of a person) not certain and slightly suspicious about something; not knowing whether something is good or bad 2. (disapproving) probably not honest

Back

abysmal

Front

extremely bad or of a very low standard, terrible

Back

initiative

Front

1. a new plan for dealing with a particular problem or for achieving a particular purpose 2. the ability to decide and act on your own without waiting for someone to tell you what to do

Back

litter

Front

1. small pieces of garbage such as paper, cans, and bottles, that people have left lying in a public place 2. a number of things that are lying in a messy way

Back

mural ( n, adj. )

Front

a painting, usually a large one, done on a wall, sometimes on an outside wall of a building

Back

chafe

Front

1. if skin chafes, or if something chafes it, it becomes sore because the thing is rubbing against it 2. to feel annoyed and impatient about something, especially because it limits what you can do

Back

prophetic

Front

correctly stating or showing what will happen in the future

Back

dodge

Front

1. to move quickly and suddenly to one side in order to avoid someone or something 2. to avoid doing something, especially in a dishonest way

Back

swamp (v)

Front

1. to make someone have more of something than they can deal with 2. to fill or cover something with a lot of water

Back

murky

Front

1. (of a liquid) not clear; dark or dirty with mud or another substance 2. (of air, light, etc.) dark and unpleasant because of smoke, fog, etc.

Back

lament

Front

to feel or express great sadness or disappointment about someone or something

Back

predilection

Front

if you have a predilection for something, you like it very much

Back

patina

Front

1. a green, black, or brown layer that forms on the surface of some metals 2. a thin layer that forms on other materials; the shiny surface that develops on wood or leather when it is polished

Back

injunction

Front

1. an official order given by a court that demands that something must or must not be done 2. (formal) a warning or an order from someone in authority

Back

requisition

Front

(noun) a formal, official written request or demand for something (verb) a formal, official written request or demand for something

Back

ecstasy

Front

1. a feeling or state of very great happiness 2. an illegal drug, taken especially by young people at parties, clubs, etc.x

Back

plaque

Front

1. a flat piece of stone, metal, etc., usually with a name and dates on, attached to a wall in memory of a person or an event 2. a soft substance that forms on teeth and encourages the growth of harmful bacteria

Back

grueling

Front

1. very difficult and tiring, needing great effort for a long time

Back

timely

Front

happening at exactly the right time

Back

suckle

Front

1. (of a woman or female animal) to feed a baby or young animal with milk from the breast or udder 2. (of a baby or young animal) to drink milk from its mother's breast or udder

Back

travertine

Front

온천의 침전물

Back

juggernaut

Front

a large and powerful force or institution that cannot be controlled

Back

boot camp

Front

a training camp for new members of the armed forces, where they have to work hard

Back

turbulent

Front

1. in which there is a lot of sudden change, confusion, disagreement, and sometimes violence 2. (of air or water) changing direction suddenly and violently

Back

grime

Front

dirt that forms a layer on the surface of something

Back

filthy

Front

very dirty and unpleasant

Back

voracity

Front

noun form of voracious

Back

incongruous

Front

strange, and not suitable in a particular situation

Back

encampment

Front

a group of tents, huts, etc. where people live together, usually for only a short period of time

Back

catalyst

Front

1. (chemistry) a substance that makes a chemical reaction happen faster without being changed itself 2. a person or thing that causes a change

Back

legion

Front

a large group of soldiers that forms part of an army, especially the one that existed in ancient Rome

Back

impairment

Front

the state of having a physical or mental condition that means that part of your body or brain does not work correctly; a particular condition of this sort

Back

governance

Front

the activity of governing a country or controlling a company or an organization; the way in which a country is governed or a company or institution is controlled

Back

materialize

Front

1. (usually used in negative sentences) to take place or start to exist as expected or planned 2. to appear suddenly and/or in a way that cannot be explained

Back

inanimate

Front

not alive in the way that people and animals are

Back

bureaucracy

Front

1. (often disapproving) the system of official rules and ways of doing things that a government or an organization has, especially when these seem to be too complicated 2. a system of government in which there are a large number of state officials who are not elected; a country with such a system

Back

abut

Front

(of land or a building) to be next to something or to have one side touching the side of something

Back

confound

Front

1. to confuse and surprise someone 2. to prove someone or something wrong

Back

procession

Front

1. a line of people or vehicles that move along slowly, especially as part of a ceremony; the act of moving in this way 2. a number of people who come one after the other

Back

inattention

Front

lack of attention

Back

prod

Front

1. to push someone or something with your finger or with a pointed object 2. to try to make someone do something, especially when they are unwilling

Back

hurdle

Front

1. 사진 2. a problem or difficulty that must be solved or dealt with before you can achieve something

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

at long last

Front

오랜 시간이 흐른 후[마침내]

Back

iconoclastic

Front

criticizing popular beliefs or established customs and ideas

Back

allegation

Front

a public statement that is made without giving proof, accusing someone of doing something that is wrong or illegal

Back

disembark

Front

to leave a vehicle, especially a ship or an aircraft, at the end of a journey

Back

acumen

Front

the ability to understand and decide things quickly and well

Back

debunk

Front

to show that an idea, a belief, etc., is false; to show that something is not as good as people think it is

Back

arthritis

Front

관절염

Back

copious

Front

in large amounts

Back

milieu

Front

the social environment that you live or work in

Back

persona

Front

the aspects of a person's character that they show to other people, especially when their real character is different

Back

finesse (n, v)

Front

(noun) great skill in dealing with people or situations, especially in a delicate way (verb) to deal with something in a way that is skillful but slightly dishonest

Back

affable

Front

pleasant, friendly, and easy to talk to

Back

fortuitous

Front

happening by chance, especially a lucky chance that brings a good result

Back

scathing

Front

criticizing someone or something very severely

Back

obnoxious

Front

extremely unpleasant, especially in a way that offends people

Back

didactic

Front

1. designed to teach people something, especially a moral lesson 2. (usually disapproving) telling people things rather than letting them find out for themselves

Back

novel (adj.)

Front

different from anything known before; new, interesting, and often seeming slightly strange

Back

vocal ( adj. )

Front

1. connected with the voice 2. telling people your opinions or protesting about something loudly and with confidence

Back

preternatural

Front

that does not seem natural; that cannot be explained by natural laws

Back

excrete

Front

to pass solid or liquid waste matter from the body

Back

unprincipled

Front

without moral principles

Back

pesticide

Front

a chemical used for killing pests, especially insects

Back

fastidious

Front

being careful that every detail of something is correct

Back

equitable

Front

fair and reasonable; treating everyone in an equal way

Back

prodigy

Front

a young person who is unusually intelligent or skillful for their age

Back

unqualified

Front

1. not having the right knowledge, experience, or qualifications to do something 2. complete; not limited by any negative qualities

Back

acerbic

Front

(of a person or what they say) critical in a direct and rather cruel way

Back

feud

Front

an angry and bitter argument between two people or groups of people that continues over a long period of time

Back

acuity

Front

the ability to think, see, or hear clearly

Back

erroneous

Front

not correct; based on wrong information

Back

uplifting

Front

making you feel happier or giving you more hope

Back

convoy

Front

a group of vehicles or ships traveling together, especially when soldiers or other vehicles travel with them for protection

Back

exacting

Front

needing or demanding a lot of effort and care about details

Back

capricious

Front

showing sudden changes in attitude or behavior

Back

in unison (with somebody/something)

Front

1. if people do or say something in unison, they all do it at the same time 2. if people or organizations are working in unison, they are working together, because they agree with each other

Back

demanding

Front

1. (of a piece of work) needing a lot of skill, patience, effort, etc. 2. (of a person) expecting a lot of work or attention from others; not easily satisfied

Back

bogus

Front

pretending to be real or genuine

Back

capacious

Front

having a lot of space to put things in, roomy, spacious

Back

lend

Front

1. to give something to someone or allow them to use something that belongs to you, which they have to return to you later 2. (formal) to give a particular quality to a person or a situation

Back

rhetoric

Front

1. speech or writing that is intended to influence people, but that is not completely honest or sincere 2. the skill of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences or entertains people

Back

dispersal

Front

the process of sending someone or something in different directions; the process of spreading something over a wide area

Back

reverence

Front

a feeling of great respect or admiration for someone or something

Back

expend

Front

to use or spend a lot of time, money, energy, etc.

Back

phony

Front

not real or true; false, and trying to trick people

Back

be at odds (with somebody) (over/on something)

Front

to disagree with someone about something

Back

vindictive

Front

trying to harm or upset someone, or showing that you want to, because you think that they have harmed you

Back

flora

Front

the plants of a particular area, type of environment, or period of time

Back

agonize

Front

to spend a long time thinking and worrying about a difficult situation or problem

Back

dispensary

Front

a place in a hospital, store, etc. where medicines are prepared for patients

Back

dichotomy

Front

the separation that exists between two groups or things that are completely opposite to and different from each other

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

stingy

Front

not given or giving willingly; not generous, especially with money

Back

ridden

Front

(usually in compounds) full of a particular unpleasant thing, a disease-ridden slum

Back

genocide

Front

the murder of a whole race or group of people

Back

grave ( adj. )

Front

1. (of situations, feelings, etc.) very serious and important; giving you a reason to feel worried 2. (of people) serious in manner, as if something sad, important, or worrying has just happened

Back

crusade

Front

a long and determined effort to achieve something that you believe to be right or to stop something that you believe to be wrong

Back

plutocrat

Front

a person who is powerful because of their wealth

Back

flounder

Front

1. to have a lot of problems and to be in danger of failing completely 2. to struggle to move or get somewhere in water, mud, etc. 3. to struggle to know what to say or do or how to continue with something

Back

allusion

Front

something that is said or written that refers to or mentions another person or subject in an indirect way

Back

malevolent

Front

having or showing a desire to harm other people

Back

rage (v)

Front

1. to show that you are very angry about something or with someone, especially by shouting 2. (of a storm, a battle, an argument, etc.) to continue in a violent way

Back

loyalty

Front

1. the quality of being faithful in your support of someone or something 2. a strong feeling that you want to be loyal to someone or something

Back

complete with something

Front

[not before noun] including something as an extra part or feature

Back

frugal

Front

1. using only as much money or food as is necessary 2. (of meals) small, plain, and not costing very much

Back

pariah

Front

a person who is not acceptable to society and is avoided by everyone

Back

entity

Front

something that exists separately from other things and has its own identity

Back

banter

Front

friendly remarks and jokes

Back

botch

Front

to spoil something by doing it badly, bungle

Back

pundit

Front

a person who knows a lot about a particular subject and who often talks about it in public

Back

defect

Front

(noun) a fault in something or in the way it has been made that means that it is not perfect (verb) to leave a political party, country, etc. to join another that is considered to be an enemy

Back

glee

Front

a feeling of happiness, usually because something good has happened to you, or something bad has happened to someone else

Back

hunky

Front

(of a man) big, strong, and sexually attractive

Back

miserly

Front

1. (of a person) hating to spend money 2. (of a quantity or amount) too small

Back

sanction

Front

1. an official order that limits trade, contact, etc. with a particular country, in order to make it do something, such as obeying international law 2. official permission or approval for an action or a change

Back

remorse

Front

the feeling of being extremely sorry for something wrong or bad that you have done

Back

combative

Front

ready and willing to fight or argue

Back

inordinate

Front

far more than is usual or expected

Back

bust ( v )

Front

1. to break something 2. (of the police) to suddenly enter a place and search it, or arrest someone 3. (in compound adjectives) used to show that something is being prevented or stopped, a crime-busting superhero

Back

boo ( n., v )

Front

a sound that people make to show that they do not like an actor, speaker, etc.

Back

hard currency

Front

money that is easy to exchange for money from another country, because it is not likely to lose its value

Back

egalitarian ( adj., n )

Front

based on, or holding, the belief that everyone is equal and should have the same rights and opportunities

Back

conduit

Front

1. a pipe, channel, or tube through which liquid, gas, or electrical wire can pass 2. a person, an organization or a country that is used to pass things or information to other people or places

Back

overcast

Front

covered with clouds; dull

Back

thrift ( n )

Front

(approving) the habit of saving money and spending it carefully so that none is wasted

Back

staggering

Front

so great, shocking, or surprising that it is difficult to believe, astounding

Back

in no sense

Front

결코 ...이 아닌

Back

ephemeral

Front

lasting or used for only a short period of time, short-lived

Back

1. deal (somebody/something) a blow 2. deal a blow (to somebody/something)

Front

1. to be very shocking or harmful to someone or something 2. to hit someone or something

Back

mercurial

Front

1. (literary) often changing or reacting in a way that is unexpected 2. (literary) lively and quick

Back

overturn

Front

1. if something overturns, or if someone overturns it, it turns upside down or on its side 2. to officially decide that a legal decision etc. is not correct, and to make it no longer valid

Back

fanciful

Front

1. (disapproving) based on imagination and not facts or reason 2. (of things) decorated in an unusual style that shows imagination

Back

quintessence

Front

1. the perfect example of something 2. the most important features of something

Back

unremitting

Front

never stopping

Back

notorious

Front

well known for being bad

Back

convoluted

Front

1. extremely complicated and difficult to follow 2. (formal) having many twists or curves synonymous with knotty

Back

novice

Front

a person who is new and has little experience in a skill, job, or situation, newbie, begginer

Back

lugubrious

Front

sad and serious

Back

diffident

Front

not having much confidence in yourself; not wanting to talk about yourself

Back

menial

Front

(of work) not skilled or important, and often boring or badly paid

Back

unhitch

Front

to undo something that is tied to something else

Back

mutter

Front

1. to speak or say something in a quiet voice that is difficult to hear, especially because you are annoyed about something 2. to complain about something, without saying publicly what you think

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

bog down

Front

1. to make something sink into mud or wet ground 2. to prevent someone from making progress in an activity

Back

embezzle

Front

to steal money that you are responsible for or that belongs to your employer

Back

felony

Front

the act of committing a serious crime such as murder or rape; a crime of this type

Back

morass

Front

1. an unpleasant and complicated situation that is difficult to escape from 2. a dangerous area of low, soft, wet land

Back

recession

Front

1. a difficult time for the economy of a country, when there is less trade and industrial activity than usual and more people are unemployed 2. (formal) the movement backward of something from a previous position

Back

rip

Front

1. to tear something or to become torn, often suddenly or violently 2. to remove something quickly or violently, often by pulling it

Back

infidelity

Front

the act of not being faithful to your wife, husband, or partner, by having sex with someone else

Back

imminent

Front

(especially of something unpleasant) likely to happen very soon

Back

sap (v)

Front

to make something or someone weaker; to destroy something gradually

Back

fizzle out

Front

to gradually become less successful and end in a disappointing way

Back

sedentary

Front

1. (of work, activities, etc.) in which you spend a lot of time sitting down 2. (of people) spending a lot of time sitting down and not moving 3. (technology) (of people or animals) that stay and live in the same place or area

Back

sinister

Front

seeming evil or dangerous; making you think something bad will happen

Back

sabotage (n, v)

Front

1. the act of doing deliberate damage to equipment, transportation, machines, etc. to prevent an enemy from using them, or to protest about something 2. the act of deliberately spoiling something in order to prevent it from being successful

Back

dethrone

Front

to remove a king or queen from power; to remove someone from a position of authority or power

Back

toll

Front

1. money that you pay to use a particular road or bridge 2. the amount of damage or the number of deaths and injuries that are caused in a particular war, disaster, etc.

Back

underplay

Front

to make something seem less important than it really is, downplay, play under

Back

ordinance

Front

a law or rule made by a government or someone in a position of authority

Back

shaky

Front

1. shaking and feeling weak because you are sick, emotional, or old 2. not firm or safe; not certain 3. not seeming very successful; likely to fail

Back

amicable

Front

done or achieved in a polite or friendly way and without arguing

Back

batter

Front

to hit someone or something hard many times, especially in a way that causes serious damage

Back

under the sun

Front

used to emphasize that you are talking about a very large number of things, of any kind; in the world

Back

ill will

Front

악감정

Back

go for broke

Front

(informal) to risk everything in one determined effort to do something

Back

ramp up

Front

to make something increase in amount (phrasal verb)

Back

contend

Front

1. (formal) to say that something is true, especially in an argument 2. to compete against someone in order to gain something

Back

barrel (v)

Front

to move very fast in a particular direction, especially in a way that you cannot control

Back

bullish

Front

1. feeling confident and positive about the future 2. (finance) causing, or connected with, an increase in the price of shares

Back

wrap up

Front

1. (slang) usually used as an order to tell someone to stop talking or causing trouble, etc. 2. (informal) to complete something such as an agreement or a meeting in an acceptable way

Back

interim

Front

1. intended to last for only a short time until someone or something more permanent is found 2. calculated before the final results of something are known

Back

gear up

Front

to prepare yourself/someone or something to do something (phrasal verb)

Back

unscathed

Front

not hurt

Back

avid

Front

very enthusiastic about something (often a hobby)

Back

etymology

Front

1. the study of the origin and history of words and their meanings 2. the origin and history of a particular word

Back

premier

Front

(adj.) most important, famous, or successful (noun) used especially in newspapers, etc. to mean "prime minister"

Back

prefabricated

Front

(especially of a building) made in sections that can be put together later

Back

stockpile

Front

a large supply of something that is kept to be used in the future if necessary

Back

complacency

Front

a feeling of satisfaction with yourself or with a situation, so that you do not think any change is necessary; the state of being complacent

Back

bitumen

Front

a black sticky substance obtained from oil, used for covering roads or roofs

Back

eke out

Front

1. to make a small supply of something such as food or money last longer by using only small amounts of it 2. to manage to live with very little money (phrasal verb)

Back

deficit

Front

1. (economics) the amount by which money spent or owed is greater than money earned in a particular period of time 2. the amount by which something, especially an amount of money, is too small or smaller than something else

Back

vein

Front

a particular style or manner 1. A number of other people commented in a similar vein. 2. "And that's not all," he continued in angry vein.

Back

royalty

Front

1. one or more members of a royal family 2. a sum of money that is paid to someone who has written a book, piece of music, etc. each time that it is sold or performed 3. a sum of money that is paid by an oil or mining company to the owner of the land that they are working on

Back

dose

Front

n1. an amount of a medicine or a drug that is taken once, or regularly over a period of time n2. (informal) an amount of something v. to give someone/yourself a medicine or drug

Back

deputy

Front

a person who is the next most important person below a business manager, a head of a school, a political leader, etc. and who does the person's job when he or she is away

Back

numismatics

Front

the study of coins and medals

Back

sneak up

Front

to move toward someone very quietly so that they do not see or hear you until you reach them

Back

sooner rather than later

Front

after a short time rather than after a long time

Back

more often than not

Front

자주, 대게

Back

bevy

Front

(informal) a large group of people or things of the same kind

Back

finale

Front

1. the last part of a show or a piece of music 2. (after an adjective) an ending to something of the type mentioned

Back

Section 10

(50 cards)

nurture

Front

1. to care for and protect someone or something while they are growing and developing 2. to help someone or something to develop and be successful 3. to have a feeling, an idea, a plan, etc. for a long time and encourage it to develop

Back

exert

Front

1. to use power or influence to affect someone or something 2. (exert yourself) to use power or influence to affect someone or something

Back

parlance

Front

a particular way of using words or expressing yourself, for example one used by a particular group

Back

depose

Front

to remove someone, especially a ruler, from power ( starts with 'd' )

Back

smitten

Front

1. (especially humorous) suddenly feeling that you are in love with someone 2. severely affected by a feeling, disease, etc.

Back

dispute

Front

(noun) an argument or a disagreement between two people, groups, or countries; discussion about a subject where there is disagreement (verb1) to question whether something is true and valid (verb2) to argue or disagree strongly with someone about something, especially about who owns something

Back

put/set somebody straight (about/on something)

Front

(~에 대해) ~의 생각[실수]을 바로잡아 주다

Back

crude

Front

1. simple and not very accurate but giving a general idea of something 2. (of objects or works of art) simply made, not showing much skill or attention to detail 3. (of people or the way they behave) offensive or rude, especially about sex

Back

violate

Front

1. (formal) to go against or refuse to obey a law, an agreement, etc. 2. (formal) to disturb or not respect someone's peace, privacy, etc.

Back

defy

Front

1. to refuse to obey or show respect for someone in authority, a law, a rule, etc. 2. to be impossible or almost impossible to believe, explain, describe, etc.

Back

shed (v)

Front

1. (often used in newspapers) to get rid of something that is no longer wanted 2. (formal) to let something fall; to drop something 3. to send light over something; to let light fall somewhere

Back

debase

Front

to make someone or something less valuable or respected

Back

sting

Front

1. (of an insect or plant) to touch your skin or make a very small hole in it so that you feel a sharp pain 2. to feel, or to make someone feel, a sharp pain in a part of their body 3. to make someone feel angry or upset

Back

palatial

Front

(of a room or building) very large and impressive, like a palace

Back

testify

Front

1. to make a statement that something happened or that something is true, especially as a witness in court 2. to say that you believe something is true because you have evidence of it

Back

platoon

Front

a small group of soldiers that is part of a company and commanded by a lieutenant(중위)

Back

entourage

Front

a group of people who travel with an important person

Back

heady

Front

1. having a strong effect on your senses; making you feel excited and confident 2. (of a person) excited in a way that makes you do things without worrying about the possible results

Back

unsettle

Front

to make someone feel upset or worried, especially because a situation has changed

Back

unabated

Front

without becoming any less strong

Back

octogenarian

Front

a person between 80 and 89 years old

Back

amid

Front

1. in the middle of or during something, especially something that causes excitement or fear 2. surrounded by something

Back

zero in on (somebody/something)

Front

to fix all your attention on the person or thing mentioned

Back

intimidate

Front

to frighten or threaten someone so that they will do what you want

Back

up-close

Front

클로즈업의, 근거리에서의

Back

gala

Front

a special public celebration or entertainment

Back

relay

Front

1. to receive and send on information, news, etc. to someone 2. to broadcast television or radio signals

Back

podium

Front

a small platform that a person stands on when giving a speech or conducting an orchestra, etc.

Back

boarding

Front

the arrangement by which school students live at their school, going home during the holidays

Back

matrimonial

Front

connected with marriage or with being married

Back

garret

Front

a room, often a small, dark, unpleasant one, at the top of a house, especially in the roof

Back

megalopolis

Front

a very large city or group of cities where a great number of people live

Back

opine

Front

to express a particular opinion

Back

fixated

Front

always thinking and talking about someone or something in a way that is not normal

Back

lewd

Front

referring to sex in an offensive way, obscene

Back

lofty

Front

1. (of buildings, mountains, etc.) very high and impressive 2. (approving) (of a thought, an aim, etc.) deserving praise because of its high moral quality

Back

blur

Front

(noun) a shape that you cannot see clearly, often because it is moving too fast (verb1) if the shape or outline of something blurs, or if something blurs it, it becomes less clear and sharp (verb2) if something blurs your eyes or vision, or your eyes or visionblur, you cannot see things clearly

Back

yielding

Front

1. (of a substance) soft and easy to bend or move when you press it 2. (of a person) willing to do what other people want

Back

retract

Front

1. (formal) to say that something you have said earlier is not true or correct, or that you did not mean it 2. (formal) to refuse to keep an agreement, a promise, etc. 3. (technology) to move back into the main part of something; to pull something back into the main part of something

Back

impersonal

Front

1. (usually disapproving) lacking friendly human feelings or atmosphere; making you feel unimportant 2. not referring to any particular person

Back

fleeting

Front

lasting only a short time, ephemeral

Back

compulsive

Front

1. (of behavior) that is difficult to stop or control 2. (of people) not being able to control their behavior 3. that makes you pay attention to it because it is so interesting and exciting

Back

demur

Front

to say that you do not agree with something or that you refuse to do something

Back

momentous

Front

very important or serious, especially because there may be important results

Back

monogamy

Front

the fact or custom of being married to only one person at a particular time

Back

soiree

Front

a formal party in the evening, especially at someone's home

Back

gracious

Front

1. (of people or behavior) kind, polite, and generous, especially to someone of a lower social position 2. showing the comfort and easy way of life that wealth can bring

Back

(be/stand) in awe of

Front

to admire someone or something and be slightly frightened of them/it

Back

advance

Front

3. money paid for work before it has been done or money paid earlier than expected 4. [plural] attempts to start a sexual relationship with someone

Back

grope

Front

1. to try and find something that you cannot see, by feeling with your hands 2. to try to reach a place by feeling with your hands because you cannot see clearly 3. (informal) to touch someone sexually, especially when they do not want you to

Back

Section 11

(50 cards)

fiddle

Front

1. (informal) to play music on the violin 2. to keep touching or moving something with your hands, especially because you are bored or nervous

Back

overt

Front

done in an open way and not secretly, opposite to covert

Back

twitch

Front

1. if a part of your body twitches, or if you twitch it, it makes a sudden quick movement, sometimes one that you cannot control 2. to give something a short sharp pull; to be pulled in this way

Back

pensive

Front

thinking deeply about something, especially because you are sad or worried

Back

cowardice

Front

fear or lack of courage

Back

dialysis

Front

a process for separating substances from a liquid, especially for taking waste substances out of the blood of people with damaged kidneys

Back

deposition

Front

1. (law) a formal statement, taken from someone and used in court 2. (technology) the natural process of leaving a layer of a substance on rocks or soil; a substance left in this way 3. the act of removing someone, especially a ruler, from power

Back

bully

Front

to frighten or hurt a weaker person; to use your strength or power to make someone do something

Back

haunt

Front

1. if the ghost of a dead person haunts a place, people say that they have seen it there 2. if something unpleasant haunts you, it keeps coming to your mind so that you cannot forget it

Back

hail

Front

(v1) to describe someone or something as being very good or special, especially in newspapers, etc. (v2) to signal to a taxi or a bus, in order to get the driver to stop (v3) (literary) to call to someone in order to say hello to them or attract their attention (n1) 우박 (n2) a large number or amount of something that is aimed at someone in order to harm them

Back

recuperate

Front

1. to get back your health, strength, or energy after being sick, tired, injured, etc. 2. to get back money that you have spent or lost

Back

biblical

Front

1. connected with the Bible; in the Bible 2. very great; on a large scale

Back

staffer

Front

a member of the staff of a big organization

Back

stumble

Front

1. to hit your foot against something while you are walking or running, and almost fall 2. to walk or move in an unsteady way 3. to make a mistake or mistakes and stop while you are speaking, reading to someone, or playing music

Back

personnel

Front

1. the people who work for an organization or one of the armed forces 2. the department in a company that deals with employing and training people

Back

declare

Front

1. to say something officially or publicly 2. to state something firmly and clearly

Back

maternity

Front

the state of being or becoming a mother

Back

objectify

Front

to treat someone or something as an object

Back

vanish

Front

1. to disappear suddenly and/or in a way that you cannot explain 2. to stop existing

Back

gurney

Front

a type of cart which is used for moving patients in a hospital

Back

bid (noun)

Front

1. an offer by a person or a business company to pay a particular amount of money for something 2. an offer to do work or provide a service for a particular price, in competition with other companies, etc. 3. (used especially in newspapers) an effort to do something or to obtain something

Back

treasurer

Front

a person who is responsible for the money and accounts of a club or an organization

Back

begrudge

Front

1. to feel unhappy that someone has something because you do not think that they deserve it 2. to feel unhappy about having to do, pay, or give something

Back

impromptu

Front

(adj.) done without preparation or planning

Back

aggravate

Front

1. to make an illness or a bad or unpleasant situation worse 2. to annoy someone, especially deliberately

Back

insecure

Front

1. not confident about yourself or your relationships with other people 2. not safe or protected

Back

loot

Front

to steal things from stores or buildings after a riot, fire, etc.

Back

untold

Front

1. used to emphasize how large, great, unpleasant, etc. something is 2. (of a story) not told to anyone

Back

reindeer

Front

a large deer with long antlers (= horns shaped like branches), that lives in cold northern regions

Back

diabetes

Front

a medical condition that makes the patient produce a lot of urine and feel very thirsty.

Back

await

Front

1. to wait for someone or something 2. to be going to happen to someone

Back

intravenous

Front

(of drugs or food) going into a vein

Back

settle

Front

1. to put an end to an argument or a disagreement 2. to decide or arrange something finally 3. (v.i.) to make a place your permanent home

Back

lush

Front

(of plants, gardens, etc.) growing thickly and strongly in a way that is attractive; covered in healthy grass and plants

Back

resurrect

Front

1. to bring back into use something, such as a belief, a practice, etc., that had disappeared or been forgotten 2. to bring a dead person back to life

Back

onslaught

Front

a strong or violent attack

Back

skimp

Front

to try to spend less time, money, etc. on something than is really needed

Back

retrieval

Front

(formal) the process of getting something back, especially from a place where it should not be

Back

polarize

Front

to separate or make people separate into two groups with completely opposite opinions

Back

handcuffs

Front

a pair of metal rings joined by a chain, used for holding the wrists of a prisoner together

Back

testament

Front

a thing that shows that something else exists or is true, testimony

Back

toddler

Front

a child who has only recently learned to walk

Back

log

Front

1. to put information in an official record or write a record of events 2. to travel a particular distance or for a particular length of time

Back

unravel

Front

1. if you unravel threads that are twisted, woven, or knit, or if they unravel, they become separated 2. (of a system, plan, relationship, etc.) to start to fail or no longer stay together as a whole 3. to explain something that is difficult to understand or is mysterious; to become clearer or easier to understand

Back

microcosm

Front

a thing, place, or group that has all the features and qualities of something much larger

Back

designate

Front

1. to say officially that someone or something has a particular character or name; to describe someone or something in a particular way 2. to choose or name someone for a particular job or position

Back

succeed

Front

to come next after someone or something and take their/its place or position ex) Who succeeded Kennedy as President?

Back

mishap

Front

a small accident or piece of bad luck that does not have serious results

Back

plead

Front

1. to ask someone for something in a very strong and serious way 2. to state in court that you are guilty or not guilty of a crime 3. to give something as an explanation or excuse for something

Back

cradle

Front

1. a small bed for a baby that can be pushed gently from side to side 2. the place where something important began

Back

Section 12

(50 cards)

deplore

Front

to strongly disapprove of something and criticize it, especially publicly

Back

snout

Front

the long nose and area around the mouth of some types of animals, such as pigs

Back

pitfall

Front

a danger or difficulty, especially one that is hidden or not obvious at first

Back

anus

Front

항문

Back

acorn

Front

도토리

Back

listless

Front

having no energy or enthusiasm

Back

brittle

Front

1. hard but easily broken 2. a brittle mood or state of mind is one that appears to be happy or strong but is actually nervous and easily damaged 3. (of a sound) hard and sharp in an unpleasant way

Back

electrocute

Front

to injure or kill someone by passing electricity through their body

Back

trafficker

Front

someone who does illegal trade in something

Back

reportedly

Front

according to what some people say

Back

snatch

Front

1. to take something quickly and often rudely or roughly 2. to take someone or something away from a person or place, especially by force; to steal something

Back

stoned

Front

not behaving or thinking normally because of the effects of a drug such as marijuana

Back

destitute

Front

1. without money, food, and the other things necessary for life 2. (formal) lacking something

Back

play date

Front

an arrangement that parents make for their children to play together at a particular time and place

Back

livelihood

Front

a means of earning money in order to live

Back

traffic

Front

illegal trade in something

Back

dote on

Front

to feel and show great love for someone, ignoring their faults(pv)

Back

ditch

Front

1. (informal) to get rid of something or someone because you no longer want or need it/them 2. if a pilot ditches an aircraft, or if it ditches, it lands in the ocean in an emergency 3. (informal) to stay away from school without permission

Back

suffocate

Front

1. to die because there is no air to breathe; to kill someone by not letting them breathe air 2. if it is suffocating, it is very hot and there is little fresh air

Back

on hand

Front

available, especially to help

Back

carcass

Front

the dead body of an animal, especially of a large one or of one that is ready for cutting up as meat

Back

foolproof

Front

of a plan, machine, method, etc.) very well designed and easy to use so that it cannot fail and you cannot use it wrongly, infallible

Back

appalling

Front

1. shocking; extremely bad 2. (informal) very bad

Back

plummet

Front

to fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position

Back

chestnut

Front

밤, 밤나무

Back

back-alley

Front

happening or done secretly, often illegally

Back

feral

Front

(of animals) living wild, especially after escaping from life as a pet or on a farm

Back

deplorable

Front

very bad and unacceptable, often in a way that shocks people

Back

carcinogen

Front

a substance that can cause cancer

Back

harass

Front

1. to annoy or worry someone by putting pressure on them or saying or doing unpleasant things to them 2. to make repeated attacks on an enemy

Back

revenue

Front

the money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization, etc. receives from its business

Back

parliament

Front

the group of people who are elected to make and change the laws of a country

Back

batch

Front

1. a number of people or things that are dealt with as a group 2. an amount of food, medicine, etc. produced at one time

Back

condiment

Front

a sauce, etc. that is used to give flavor to food, or that is eaten with food

Back

be fed up with

Front

~에 진저리가 나다. (phrasal verb)

Back

jam-packed

Front

very full or crowded

Back

projection

Front

1. an estimate or a statement of what figures, amounts, or events will be in the future, or what they were in the past, based on what is happening now 2. the act of putting an image of something onto a surface; an image that is shown in this way 3. something that sticks out from a surface 4. the act of making your voice, a sound, etc. audible (= able to be heard)

Back

strike a deal(bargain)

Front

to make an agreement with someone in which both sides have an advantage

Back

cacophony

Front

a mixture of loud unpleasant sounds

Back

cramped

Front

1. a cramped room, etc. does not have enough space for the people in it 2. (of people) not having room to move freely 3. (of someone's writing) with small letters close together and therefore difficult to read

Back

plight

Front

a difficult and sad situation

Back

feces

Front

solid waste material that leaves the body through the anus

Back

edible

Front

fit or suitable to be eaten; not poisonous

Back

delegate

Front

a person who is chosen or elected to represent the views of a group of people and vote and make decisions for them

Back

on the move

Front

1. moving or travelling from one place to another 2. very active or busy (pv)

Back

sort out

Front

1. (informal) to organize the contents of something; to make something neater 2. to organize something successfully 3. to separate something from a larger group (phrasal verb)

Back

paw

Front

the foot of an animal that has claws or nails

Back

split (something) down the middle

Front

to divide something into two equal parts

Back

snail

Front

달팽이

Back

mangle

Front

1. to crush or twist something so that it is badly damaged 2. to spoil something, for example a poem or a piece of music, by saying it wrongly or playing it badly

Back

Section 13

(50 cards)

bloc

Front

a group of countries that work closely together because they have similar political interests

Back

lawsuit

Front

a claim or complaint against someone that a person or an organization can make in court

Back

gore

Front

(of an animal) to wound a person or another animal with a horn or tusk

Back

injudicious

Front

not sensible or wise; not appropriate in a particular situation

Back

spontaneity

Front

the quality of being spontaneous

Back

tranquil

Front

quiet and peaceful, serene

Back

scurry (v, n)

Front

to run with quick, short steps

Back

disabuse

Front

to tell someone that what they think is true is, in fact, not true

Back

implement

Front

(verb) to make something that has been officially decided start to happen or be used (noun) a tool or an instrument, often one that is quite simple and that is used outdoors

Back

sour

Front

(adj.) having a taste like that of a lemon or of fruit that is not ready to eat (v1) (of relationships, attitudes, people, etc.) to change so that they become less pleasant or friendly than before; to make something do this (v2) if milk sours or if something sours it, it becomes sour and has an unpleasant taste or smell

Back

tenuous

Front

1. so weak or uncertain that it hardly exists 2. extremely thin and easily broken

Back

hone

Front

1. to develop and improve something, especially a skill, over a period of time 2. to make a blade sharp or sharper

Back

accede ( to something )

Front

1. to agree to a request, proposal, etc. 2. to achieve a high position, especially to become king or queen

Back

belie

Front

1. to give a false impression of someone or something 2. to show that something cannot be true or correct

Back

bypass

Front

(n1) a medical operation on the heart in which blood is directed along a different route so that it does not flow through a part that is damaged or blocked; the new route that the blood takes (n2) a road that passes around a town or city rather than through the center (v1) to go around or avoid a place (v2) to ignore a rule, an official system, or someone in authority, especially in order to get something done quickly

Back

prophecy

Front

1. a statement that something will happen in the future, especially one made by someone with religious or magic powers 2. (formal) the power of being able to say what will happen in the future

Back

down(or along) the road

Front

at some time in the future

Back

ranger

Front

a person whose job is to take care of a park, a forest, or an area of countryside

Back

whitewash

Front

(n1) a mixture of chalk or lime and water, used for painting houses and walls white (n2) (disapproving) an attempt to hide unpleasant facts about someone or something (v1) to cover something such as a wall with whitewash (v2) (disapproving) to try to hide unpleasant facts about someone or something; to try to make something seem better than it is

Back

unrest

Front

a political situation in which people are angry and likely to protest or fight

Back

turmoil

Front

a state of great anxiety and confusion

Back

reckless(n2)

Front

showing a lack of care about danger and the possible results of your actions

Back

pluck

Front

1. to pull out hairs with your fingers or with tweezers 2. to pull the feathers off a dead bird, for example a chicken, in order to prepare it for cooking 3. to play a musical instrument, especially a guitar, by pulling the strings with your fingers

Back

attuned

Front

familiar with someone or something so that you can understand or recognize them or it, and act in an appropriate way

Back

sentiment

Front

1. (formal) a feeling or an opinion, especially one based on emotions 2. (sometimes disapproving) feelings of sympathy, romantic love, sadness, etc. that may be too strong or not appropriate

Back

trample

Front

1. to step heavily on someone or something so that you crush or harm them/it with your feet 2. to ignore someone's feelings or rights and treat them as if they are not important

Back

vigilant

Front

very careful to notice any signs of danger or trouble

Back

florid

Front

1. (usually disapproving) having too much decoration or detail 2. (of a person's face) red

Back

maritime

Front

1. connected with the ocean or ships 2. (formal) near the ocean

Back

fizzle

Front

when something, especially something that is burning, fizzles, it makes a sound like a long "s", hiss

Back

bison

Front

a large wild animal of the cow family that is covered with hair. The N. American bison is also called a buffalo

Back

binge

Front

(n) a short period of time when someone does too much of a particular activity, especially eating or drinking alcohol (v) to eat or drink too much, especially without being able to control yourself

Back

ideology

Front

1. a set of ideas that an economic or political system is based on 2. a set of beliefs, especially one held by a particular group, that influences the way people behave

Back

euthanize

Front

to kill a sick or injured animal or person by giving them drugs so that they die without pain

Back

brothel

Front

a house where people pay to have sex with prostitutes

Back

adversity

Front

a difficult or unpleasant situation

Back

satiate

Front

to give someone so much of something that they do not feel they want any more

Back

bilateral

Front

1. involving two groups of people or two countries 2. (medical) involving both of two parts or sides of the body or brainx

Back

fixation

Front

1. a very strong interest in someone or something, that is not normal or natural 2. (technology) the process of a gas becoming solid

Back

ballistics

Front

the scientific study of things that are shot or fired through the air, such as bullets and missiles

Back

chagrin

Front

a feeling of being disappointed or annoyed

Back

vehement

Front

showing very strong feelings, especially anger

Back

shaggy

Front

1. (of hair, fur, etc.) long and messy 2. having long messy hair, fur, etc.

Back

vinegar

Front

a liquid with a sour taste made from wine or apples, used to add flavor to food or to preserve it

Back

atrocity

Front

a cruel and violent act, especially in a war

Back

be down on

Front

...을 미워하다[싫어하다], ...에 적의를[반감을] 품다; ...을 참지 못하다; [일]에 반대하다, 편견을 갖다 (phrasal verb)

Back

euphemism

Front

an indirect word or phrase that people often use to refer to something embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable than it really is

Back

calf

Front

1. the back part of the leg between the ankle and the knee 2. a young cow 3. a young animal of some other type, such as a young elephant or whale

Back

disquieting

Front

causing worry and unhappiness

Back

secede

Front

(of a state, country, etc.) to officially leave an organization of states, countries, etc. and become independent

Back

Section 14

(50 cards)

recant

Front

to say, often publicly, that you no longer have the same belief or opinion that you had before, renounce

Back

mesh

Front

1. 그림 2. a complicated situation or system that it is difficult to escape from

Back

adversary

Front

a person that someone is opposed to and competing with in an argument or a battle

Back

accursed

Front

having a curse (= a bad magic spell ) on it

Back

dexterous

Front

skillful with your hands; skillfully done

Back

augment

Front

to increase the amount, value, size, etc. of something

Back

intractable

Front

(of a problem or a person) very difficult to deal with

Back

socialite

Front

a person who goes to a lot of fashionable parties and is often written about in the newspapers, etc.

Back

tang

Front

a strong, sharp taste or smell

Back

warped

Front

1. (disapproving) (of a person) having ideas that most people think are strange or unpleasant 2. bent or twisted and not in the normal shape

Back

assuage

Front

to make an unpleasant feeling less severe, allay

Back

fountain pen

Front

만년필

Back

mess

Front

1. a condition in which things are dirty or not neat 2. a situation that is full of problems, usually because of a lack of organization or because of mistakes that someone has made

Back

belligerent

Front

unfriendly and aggressive, hostile

Back

indulgence

Front

1. the state or act of having or doing whatever you want; the state of allowing someone to have or do whatever they want 2. something that you allow yourself to have even though it is not essential 3. (formal) willingness to ignore the weaknesses in someone or something

Back

abscess

Front

a swollen and infected area on your skin or in your body, full of a thick yellow liquid

Back

eugenics

Front

the study of methods to improve the mental and physical characteristics of the human race by choosing who may become parents

Back

intimate (v)

Front

to let someone know what you think or mean in an indirect way

Back

foreboding (n,adj.)

Front

a strong feeling that something unpleasant or dangerous is going to happen

Back

peripheral

Front

1. (formal) not as important as the main aim, part, etc. of something 2. (technology) connected with the outer edge of a particular area

Back

monocle

Front

Back

for better or (for) worse

Front

used to say that something cannot be changed, whether the result is good or bad

Back

tome

Front

a large heavy book, especially one dealing with a serious topic

Back

commingle

Front

to mix two or more things together or to be mixed, when it is impossible for the things to be separated afterward

Back

voluble

Front

1. talking a lot, and with enthusiasm, about a subject 2. expressed in many words and spoken quickly

Back

fad

Front

something that people are interested in for only a short period of time

Back

renounce

Front

to state publicly that you no longer have a particular belief or that you will no longer behave in a particular way synonymous with recant

Back

precept

Front

a rule about how to behave or what to think

Back

clandestine

Front

done secretly or kept secret

Back

imperious

Front

expecting people to obey you and treating them as if they are not as important as you

Back

court ruling

Front

(법원의)판결

Back

austerity

Front

1. a situation when people do not have much money to spend because there are bad economic conditions 2. the quality of being austere 3. something that is part of an austere way of life

Back

pertain to

Front

to be connected with something or someone (pv)

Back

unsparing

Front

1. not caring about people's feelings 2. giving or given generously

Back

futile

Front

having no purpose because there is no chance of success

Back

bungle

Front

to do something badly or without skill; to fail at something, botch

Back

prodigal

Front

too willing to spend money or waste time, energy, or materials

Back

penitential

Front

showing that you are sorry for having done something wrong

Back

adoring

Front

showing much love and admiration

Back

impetuous

Front

acting or done quickly and without thinking carefully about the results, impulsive, rash

Back

austere

Front

1. simple and plain; without any decorations 2. (of a person) strict and serious in appearance and behavior 3. allowing nothing that gives pleasure; not comfortable

Back

refrain

Front

to stop yourself from doing something, especially something that you want to do

Back

annul

Front

to state officially that something is no longer legally valid

Back

malnourished

Front

in bad health because of a lack of food or a lack of the right type of food

Back

eclipse

Front

(n1) an occasion when the moon passes between the earth and the sun so that you cannot see all or part of the sun for a time; an occasion when the earth passes between the moon and the sun so that you cannot see all or part of the moon for a time (n2) a loss of importance, power, etc. especially because someone or something else has become more important, powerful, etc.

Back

frivolity

Front

behavior that is silly or amusing, especially when this is not suitable

Back

scale

Front

1. (formal) to climb to the top of something very high and steep 2. to remove the small flat hard pieces of skin from a fish 3. (technology) to change the size of something

Back

taciturn

Front

tending not to say very much, in a way that seems unfriendly

Back

informant

Front

1. a person who gives secret information about someone or something to the police or a newspaper, informer 2. (technology) a person who gives someone information about something, for example to help them with their research

Back

reprove

Front

to tell someone that you do not approve of something that they have done

Back

Section 15

(50 cards)

howl

Front

1. (of a dog, wolf, etc.) to make a long loud cry 2. to make a loud cry when you are in pain, angry, amused, etc. 3. (of the wind) to blow hard and make a long loud noise 4. to say something loudly and angrily

Back

pen

Front

1. (formal) to write something 2. to shut an animal or a person in a small space

Back

dogged

Front

showing determination; not giving up easily, tenacious

Back

deft

Front

(of a person's movements) skillful and quick

Back

protocol

Front

1. a system of fixed rules and formal behavior used at official meetings, usually between governments 2. (technology) a plan for performing a scientific experiment or medical treatment

Back

entrench

Front

to establish something very firmly so that it is very difficult to change

Back

dilute

Front

1. to make a liquid weaker by adding water or another liquid to it 2. to make something weaker or less effective

Back

sclerosis

Front

a condition in which soft tissue in the body becomes hard, in a way that is not normal

Back

break with precedent

Front

전례를 깨다, pv

Back

extraneous

Front

not directly connected with the particular situation you are in or the subject you are dealing withx

Back

incompetent

Front

not having the skill or ability to do your job or a task as it should be done

Back

allay

Front

to make something, especially a feeling, less strong (not abate, assuage)

Back

forgo

Front

to decide not to have or do something that you would like to have or do

Back

exonerate

Front

to officially state that someone is not responsible for something that they have been blamed for, acquit

Back

aversion

Front

a strong feeling of not liking someone or something, hatred

Back

ruminate

Front

to think deeply about something, ponder

Back

rubber-stamp

Front

to give official approval to a law, plan, decision, etc., especially without considering it carefully

Back

let alone

Front

used after a statement to emphasize that because the first thing is not true or possible, the next thing cannot be true or possible either, ~은 고사하고

Back

hackneyed

Front

used too often and therefore boring, cliche

Back

chalice

Front

a large cup for holding wine, especially one from which wine is drunk in the Christian

Back

onerous

Front

needing great effort; causing trouble or worry, taxing

Back

set out one's stall

Front

실력[능력]을 나타내다, pv

Back

rampant

Front

1. (of something bad) existing or spreading everywhere in a way that cannot be controlled 2. (of plants) growing thickly and very fast in a way that cannot be controlled

Back

expedient

Front

(of an action) useful or necessary for a particular purpose, but not always fair or right

Back

erupt

Front

1. when a volcano erupts or burning rocks, smoke, etc. erupt or are erupted, the burning rocks, etc. are thrown out from the volcano 2. to start happening, suddenly and violently 3. to suddenly express your feelings very strongly, especially by shouting loudly

Back

wistful

Front

thinking sadly about something that you would like to have, especially something in the past that you can no longer have

Back

quota

Front

1. the limited number or amount of people or things that is officially allowed 2. an amount of something that someone expects or needs to have or achieve 3. (politics) a fixed number of votes that a candidate needs in order to be elected

Back

attain

Front

1. to succeed in getting something, usually after a lot of effort 2. (formal) to reach a particular age, level, or condition

Back

palpable

Front

that is easily noticed by the mind or the senses

Back

woe

Front

1. the troubles and problems that someone has 2. great unhappiness

Back

vociferous

Front

expressing your opinions or feelings in a loud and confident way, strident

Back

nondescript

Front

having no interesting or unusual features or qualities, dull

Back

eloquent

Front

able to use language and express your opinions well, especially when you are speaking in public

Back

stint

Front

a period of time that you spend working somewhere or doing a particular activity

Back

curb

Front

to control or limit something, especially something bad

Back

glaring

Front

1. (of something bad) very easily seen 2. (of a light) very bright and unpleasant 3. angry; aggressive

Back

have a go

Front

(~을) 한번 해 보다[시도하다], pv

Back

charter

Front

a written statement of the principles and aims of an organization, constitution

Back

elastic

Front

material made with rubber, that can stretch and then return to its original size

Back

sloppy

Front

1. that shows a lack of care, thought, or effort 2. (of clothes) loose and without much shape 3. (informal) romantic in a silly or embarrassing way 4. containing too much liquid

Back

outgoing

Front

1. liking to meet other people, enjoying their company, and being friendly toward them 2. leaving the position of responsibility mentioned 3. going away from a particular place rather than arriving in it

Back

patchy

Front

1. existing or happening in some places and not others 2. not complete; good in some parts, but not in others

Back

disquiet

Front

feelings of worry and unhappiness about something

Back

disinterested

Front

not influenced by personal feelings, or by the chance of getting some advantage for yourself

Back

trite

Front

(of a remark, an opinion, etc.) dull and boring because it has been expressed so many times before; not original

Back

graft

Front

1. a piece cut from a living plant and fixed in a cut made in another plant, so that it grows there; the process or result of doing this 2. a piece of skin, bone, etc. removed from a living body and placed in another part of the body that has been damaged; the process or result of doing this 3. the use of illegal or unfair methods, especially bribery, to gain advantage in business, politics, etc.; money obtained in this way

Back

personify

Front

1. to be an example of a quality or characteristic, or to have a lot of it, typify 2. to show or think of an object, quality, etc. as a person

Back

plump for (someone/something)

Front

to choose someone or something from a number of people or things, especially after thinking carefully (pv)

Back

gratitude

Front

the feeling of being grateful and wanting to express your thanks

Back

benighted

Front

1. (of people) without understanding 2. (of places) without the benefits of modern life

Back

Section 16

(50 cards)

precursor

Front

a person or thing that comes before someone or something similar and that leads to or influences its development, forerunner

Back

of sorts

Front

(informal) used when you are saying that something is not a good example of a particular type of thing, pv

Back

circumscribe

Front

(formal) to limit someone's or something's freedom, rights, power, etc.

Back

radicalize

Front

to make people more willing to consider new and different policies, ideas, etc.; to make people more radical in their political opinions

Back

divine

Front

(adj.) coming from or connected with God or a god (v) (formal) to find out something by guessing

Back

electorate

Front

유권자

Back

fortuitous

Front

happening by chance, especially a lucky chance that brings a good result

Back

aloof

Front

not friendly or interested in other people, distant, remote

Back

dystopia

Front

an imaginary place or state in which everything is extremely bad or unpleasant

Back

bovine

Front

1. (technology) connected with cows 2. (disapproving) (of a person) stupid and slow

Back

etch

Front

1. to cut lines into a piece of glass, metal, etc. in order to make words or a picture 2. if a feeling is etched on someone's face, or someone's face is etched with a feeling, that feeling can be seen very clearly

Back

scapegoat

Front

a person who is blamed for something bad that someone else has done or for some failure, fall guy

Back

homicide

Front

the crime of killing someone deliberately

Back

parlor

Front

1. (in compounds) a store that provides particular goods or services 2. (old-fashioned) a room in a private house for sitting in, entertaining visitors, etc.

Back

superintend

Front

to be in charge of something and make sure that everything is working, being done, etc. as it should be, supervise

Back

salve

Front

a substance that you put on a wound or sore skin to help it heal or to protect it

Back

indecorous

Front

(of behavior) embarrassing or not socially acceptable

Back

imagery

Front

1. language that produces pictures in the minds of people reading or listening, metaphor 2. (formal) pictures, photographs, etc.

Back

donor

Front

a person or an organization that makes a gift of money, clothes, food, etc. to a charity, etc.

Back

lotus

Front

연꽃

Back

unseemly

Front

(of behavior, etc.) not polite or suitable for a particular situation

Back

prompting

Front

an act of persuading someone to do something

Back

give in (to somebody/something)

Front

1. to admit that you have been defeated by someone or something 2. to agree to do something that you do not want to do (pv)

Back

in lieu of

Front

instead of (pv)

Back

stem

Front

to stop something that is flowing from spreading or increasing

Back

doodle

Front

to draw lines, shapes, etc., especially when you are bored or thinking about something else

Back

ire

Front

anger, wrath

Back

blackmail

Front

1. the crime of demanding money from a person by threatening to tell someone else a secret about them 2. the act of putting pressure on a person or a group to do something they do not want to do, for example by making threats or by making them feel guilty

Back

skittish

Front

1. (of horses) easily excited or frightened and therefore difficult to control 2. (of people) not very serious and with ideas and feelings that keep changing

Back

executive

Front

1. a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization 2. a group of people who run a company or an organization 3. [singular] the part of a government responsible for putting laws into effect

Back

grave (adj.)

Front

1. (of situations, feelings, etc.) very serious and important; giving you a reason to feel worried 2. (of people) serious in manner, as if something sad, important, or worrying has just happened

Back

postmortem

Front

1. a medical examination of the body of a dead person in order to find out how they died 2. a discussion or an examination of an event after it has happened, especially in order to find out why it failed

Back

placid

Front

1. (of a person or an animal) not easily excited or irritated 2. calm and peaceful, with very little movement

Back

shore up

Front

1. to support part of a building or other large structure by placing large pieces of wood or metal against or under it so that it does not fall down 2. to help to support something that is weak or going to fail

Back

decease

Front

the death of a person

Back

low-profile

Front

receiving or involving very little attention

Back

corpse

Front

a dead body, especially of a human

Back

restive

Front

unable to stay still, or unwilling to be controlled, especially because you feel bored or not satisfied

Back

clamp down (on somebody/something)

Front

to take strict action in order to prevent something, especially crime

Back

take issue with (somebody)

Front

to start disagreeing or arguing with someone about something

Back

parole

Front

permission that is given to a prisoner to leave prison before the end of their sentence on condition that they behave well

Back

bill (v)

Front

1. to send someone a bill for something 2. to advertise or describe someone or something in a particular way 3. to advertise that someone or something will do something

Back

hold (somebody) accountable for (something)

Front

~에게 ~의 책임을 묻다, 지우다. ex)I hold him accountable for it

Back

adequate

Front

enough in quantity, or good enough in quality, for a particular purpose or need

Back

bombshell

Front

an event or a piece of news which is unexpected and usually unpleasant

Back

repatriate

Front

1. to send or bring someone back to their own country 2. (business) to send money or profits back to your own country

Back

affiliation

Front

1. a person's connection with a political party, religion, etc. 2. one group or organization's official connection with another

Back

forcibly

Front

1. in a way that involves the use of physical force 2. in a way that makes something very clear

Back

perpetrator

Front

a person who commits a crime or does something that is wrong or evil

Back

placement

Front

1. the act of finding someone a suitable job or place to live 2. the act of placing something somewhere

Back

Section 17

(50 cards)

hack

Front

(v1) to cut someone or something with rough, heavy blows (v2) (informal) to be able/not able to manage in a particular situation (n1) (disapproving) a writer, especially of newspaper articles, who does a lot of low quality work and does not get paid much (n2) (disapproving) a person who does the hard and often boring work for an organization, especially a politician

Back

ballot

Front

the system of voting in writing and usually in secret; an occasion on which a vote is held

Back

indicative

Front

(formal) showing or suggesting something

Back

diametrical

Front

used to emphasize that people or things are completely different

Back

roll back

Front

1. to turn or force something back or further away 2. to reduce prices, etc. (pv)

Back

recalcitrant

Front

unwilling to obey rules or follow instructions; difficult to control

Back

godly

Front

[usually before noun](old-fashioned) living a moral life based on religious principles

Back

clunky

Front

(informal) heavy and awkward

Back

culmination

Front

the highest point or end of something, usually happening after a long time

Back

apropos

Front

concerning or related to someone or something

Back

sworn

Front

(adj.) made after you have promised to tell the truth, especially in court

Back

cardboard

Front

stiff material like very thick paper, often used for making boxes

Back

out of sorts

Front

sick or upset

Back

inhibited

Front

unable to relax or express your feelings in a natural way

Back

commotion

Front

sudden noisy confusion or excitement

Back

substantiate

Front

to provide information or evidence to prove that something is true

Back

idler

Front

a person who is lazy and does not work, loafer

Back

reel off

Front

to say or repeat something quickly without having to stop or think about it

Back

deploy

Front

1. (technology) to move soldiers or weapons into a position where they are ready for military action 2. (formal) to use something effectively

Back

surveyor

Front

a person whose job is to examine and record the details of a piece of land

Back

nadir

Front

the worst moment of a particular situation

Back

polyglot

Front

knowing, using, or written in more than one language, multilingual

Back

distill

Front

1. to make a liquid pure by heating it until it becomes a gas, then cooling it and collecting the drops of liquid that form 2. to make something such as a strong alcoholic drink in this way 3. (formal) to get the essential meaning or ideas from thoughts, information, experiences, etc.

Back

dwindle

Front

to become gradually less or smaller

Back

benefactor

Front

a person who gives money or other help to a person or an organization such as a school or charity, starts with "B"

Back

antithesis

Front

1. the opposite of something 2. a contrast between two things

Back

spurious

Front

false, although seeming to be genuine

Back

perigee

Front

(astronomy) the point in the orbit of the moon, a planet, or other object in space when it is nearest the planet, for example the earth, around which it turns

Back

dissemble

Front

to hide your real feelings or intentions, often by pretending to have different ones

Back

imperil

Front

to put something or someone in danger, endanger

Back

tapestry

Front

1. a picture or pattern that is made by weaving colored wool onto heavy cloth; the art of doing this 2. a complex combination of events, people, or things

Back

setback

Front

a difficulty or problem that delays or prevents something, or makes a situation worse

Back

aide

Front

a person who helps another person, especially a politician, in their job

Back

dignify

Front

1. to make someone or something seem impressive 2. to make something appear important when it is not really

Back

visionary

Front

1. (approving) original and showing the ability to think about or plan the future with great imagination and intelligence 2. relating to dreams or strange experiences, especially of a religious kind

Back

perforate

Front

to make a hole or holes through something

Back

scramble

Front

1. to move quickly, especially with difficulty, using your hands to help you 2. to move or do something quickly because you are in a hurry 3. to push, fight, or compete with others in order to get or to reach something

Back

rescind

Front

to officially state that a law, contract, decision, etc. is no longer valid

Back

martinet

Front

a very strict person who demands that other people obey orders or rules completely

Back

churlish

Front

rude or unfriendly

Back

confiscate

Front

to officially take something away from someone, especially as a punishment

Back

glorify

Front

1. (often disapproving) to make something seem better or more important than it really is 2. (formal) to praise and worship God

Back

municipal

Front

connected with or belonging to a town, city, or district that has its own local government

Back

outright

Front

1. complete and total 2. open and direct

Back

zenith

Front

1. the highest point that the sun or moon reaches in the sky, directly above you 2. (formal) the time when something is strongest and most successful

Back

abduct

Front

to take someone away illegally, especially using force, kidnap

Back

ammunition

Front

1. a supply of bullets, etc. to be fired from guns 2. information that can be used against another person in an argument

Back

down to the wire

Front

최후까지, 끝까지

Back

apparatus

Front

1. the tools or other pieces of equipment that are needed for a particular activity or task 2. the structure of a system or an organization, particularly that of a political party or a government 3. (technology) a system of organs in the body

Back

cosmopolitan

Front

1. containing people of different types or from different countries, and influenced by their culture 2. having or showing a wide experience with people and things from many different countries

Back

Section 18

(50 cards)

chide

Front

to criticize or blame someone because they have done something wrong, rebuke

Back

feign

Front

to pretend that you have a particular feeling or that you are sick, tired, etc.

Back

unheralded

Front

1. not previously mentioned; happening without any warning 2. not recognized or publicly praised as good or important

Back

monetary

Front

connected with money, especially all the money in a country

Back

dissonance

Front

1. (music) a combination of musical notes that do not sound pleasant together, opposite to consonance 2. (formal) lack of agreement

Back

regroup

Front

1. to arrange the way people or soldiers work together in a new way, especially in order to continue fighting or attacking someone 2. (of a person) to return to a normal state after an unpleasant experience or a period of difficulty, and become ready to make an effort again with new enthusiasm or strength

Back

flamboyant

Front

1. (of people or their behavior) different, confident, and exciting in a way that attracts attention 2. brightly colored and noticeable

Back

resonate

Front

1. (of a voice, an instrument, etc.) to make a deep, clear sound that continues for a long time 2. (of a place) to be filled with sound; to make a sound continue longer, resound 3. to remind someone of something; to be similar to what someone thinks or believes

Back

not least

Front

especially

Back

unscrupulous

Front

without moral principles; not honest or fair, unprincipled

Back

majesty

Front

the impressive and attractive quality that something has

Back

coalesce

Front

to come together to form one larger group, substance, etc., amalgamate

Back

famine

Front

a lack of food during a long period of time in a region

Back

revulsion

Front

a strong feeling of disgust or horror, repugnance

Back

whit

Front

(usually in negative sentences) a very small amount, jot

Back

surmount

Front

1. to deal successfully with a difficulty, overcome 2. to be placed on top of something

Back

trot out

Front

to give the same excuses, facts, explanations, etc. for something that have often been used before

Back

stringent

Front

1. (of a law, rule, regulation, etc.) very strict and that must be obeyed 2. (of financial conditions) difficult and very strictly controlled because there is not much money

Back

circular

Front

(of an argument or a theory) using an idea or a statement to prove something that is then used to prove the idea or statement at the beginning

Back

manuscript

Front

1. a copy of a book, piece of music, etc. before it has been printed 2. a very old book or document that was written by hand before printing was invented

Back

oblivious

Front

not aware of something

Back

corps

Front

1. a large unit of an army, consisting of two or more divisions 2. one of the groups of an army with a special responsibility 3. a group of people involved in a particular job or activity

Back

wrangle (n, v)

Front

(n) argument that is complicated and continues over a long period of time

Back

stitch

Front

1. one of the small lines of thread that you can see on a piece of cloth after it has been sewn; the action that produces this 2. one of the small circles of wool that you make around the needle when you are knitting 3. a short piece of thread, etc. that doctors use to sew the edges of a wound together 4. a sudden pain in the side of your body, usually caused by running or laughing

Back

bout

Front

1. a short period of great activity; a short period during which there is a lot of a particular thing, usually something unpleasant 2. an attack or period of illness

Back

errant

Front

1. doing something that is wrong; not behaving in an acceptable way 2. (of a husband or wife) not sexually faithful

Back

illustrious

Front

very famous and much admired, especially because of what you have achieved

Back

teem with

Front

to be full of people, animals, etc. moving around

Back

footing

Front

1. the position of your feet when they are safely on the ground or some other surface 2. the basis on which something is established or organized 3. the position or status of someone or something in relation to others; the relationship between two or more people or groups, for example, on an equal footing

Back

recrimination

Front

an angry statement that someone makes accusing someone else of something, especially in response to a similar statement from them

Back

render

Front

1. (formal) to cause someone or something to be in a particular state or condition 2. (formal) to give someone something, especially in return for something, or because it is expected 3. (formal) to present something, especially when it is done officially 4. (formal) to express or perform something

Back

preconception

Front

an idea or opinion that is formed before you have enough information or experience, assumption

Back

prerogative

Front

a right or advantage belonging to a particular person or group because of their importance or social position

Back

deride

Front

to treat someone or something as ridiculous and not worth considering seriously, mock

Back

artifice

Front

the use of intelligent or dishonest tricks to cheat someone, cunning

Back

betterment

Front

the process of becoming or making something or someone better

Back

embellish

Front

1. to make something more beautiful by adding decorations to it, decorate 2. to make a story more interesting by adding details that are not always true, embroider

Back

sublime

Front

1. of very high quality and causing great admiration 2. (formal) (often disapproving) (of a person's behavior or attitudes) extreme, especially in a way that shows they are not aware of what they are doing or are not concerned about what happens because of it

Back

ballroom

Front

무도회장

Back

prevaricate

Front

to avoid giving a direct answer to a question in order to hide the truth

Back

cognoscenti

Front

people with a lot of knowledge about a particular subject

Back

edifice

Front

a large, impressive building

Back

leak out

Front

(of secret information) to become known to the public

Back

complicity

Front

the act of taking part with another person in a crime, collusion

Back

pry

Front

1. (also prise) to use force to separate something from something else 2. to try to find out information about other people's private lives in a way that is annoying or rude

Back

sympathy

Front

1. the feeling of being sorry for someone; showing that you understand and care about someone's problems 2. the act of showing support for or approval of an idea, a cause, an organization, etc. 3. friendship and understanding between people who have similar opinions or interests

Back

salvation

Front

1. (in Christianity) the state of being saved from the power of evil 2. a way of protecting someone from danger, disaster, loss, etc.

Back

practicality

Front

1. [uncountable] the quality of being suitable or likely to be successful 2. [uncountable] the quality of being sensible and realistic 3. [plural] the real facts and circumstances rather than ideas or theories

Back

bump up against

Front

to experience a problem or factor that you did not expect

Back

uproar

Front

1. a situation in which people shout and make a lot of noise because they are angry or upset about something 2. a situation in which there is a lot of public criticism and angry argument about something that someone has said or done, outcry

Back

Section 19

(50 cards)

endemic

Front

regularly found in a particular place or among a particular group of people and difficult to get rid of

Back

all-out

Front

using or involving every possible effort and done in a very determined way ex) an all-out attack on the opposition

Back

vaunted

Front

proudly talked about or praised as being very good, especially when this is not deserved

Back

utter (v)

Front

to make a sound with your voice; to say something

Back

resurgence

Front

the return and growth of an activity that had stopped

Back

terse

Front

using few words and often not seeming polite or friendly

Back

transient

Front

1. continuing for only a short time, fleeting, temporary 2. staying or working in a place for only a short time, before moving on

Back

miscreant

Front

a person who has done something wrong or illegal

Back

impudent

Front

rude; not showing respect for other people, impertinent

Back

in tandem (with somebody/something)

Front

a thing that works or happens in tandem with something else works together with it or happens at the same time as it

Back

fortress

Front

a building or place that has been made stronger and protected against attack, fort

Back

scalpel

Front

a small sharp knife used by doctors in medical operations

Back

rueful

Front

feeling or showing that you are sad or sorry

Back

propaganda

Front

ideas or statements that may be false or exaggerated and that are used in order to gain support for a political leader, party, etc.

Back

poised

Front

1. in a position that is completely still but is ready to move at any moment 2. in a position that is balanced but likely to change in one direction or another 3. completely ready for something or to do something

Back

rambling

Front

1. (of a building) spreading in various directions with no particular pattern, sprawling 2. (of a speech or piece of writing) very long and confused, incoherent 3. (of a plant) growing or climbing in all directions, for example up a wall

Back

commandant

Front

the officer in charge of a particular military group or institution

Back

address

Front

3. (formal) to say something directly to someone 4. to use a particular name or title for someone when you speak or write to them 5. (formal) to think about a problem or a situation and decide how you are going to deal with it

Back

autodidact

Front

a person who has taught himself or herself something rather than having lessons

Back

renegade

Front

1. (often used as an adjective) a person who leaves one political, religious, etc. group to join another that has very different views 2. a person who opposes and lives outside a group or society that they used to belong to

Back

strenuous

Front

1. needing great effort and energy, arduous 2. showing great energy and determination

Back

complicit

Front

involved with other people in something wrong or illegal

Back

Fahrenheit

Front

화씨(F)

Back

accommodation

Front

1. [plural] somewhere to live or stay, often also providing food or other services 2. (formal) an agreement or arrangement between people or groups with different opinions that is acceptable to everyone; the process of reaching this agreement 3. (biology) the way that the eyes automatically adjust so that you can see objects at varying distances

Back

sheriff

Front

an elected officer responsible for keeping law and order in a county or town

Back

grant

Front

1. to agree to give someone what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do something 2. to admit that something is true, although you may not like or agree with it

Back

stupendous

Front

extremely large or impressive, especially greater or better than you expect, staggering

Back

ignominy

Front

public shame and loss of honor, disgrace

Back

lenient

Front

not as strict as expected when punishing someone or when making sure that rules are obeyed

Back

fodder

Front

1. food for horses and farm animals 2. (disapproving) (often after a noun) people or things that are considered to have only one use

Back

lull

Front

(n) a quiet period between times of activity (v) to make someone relaxed and calm

Back

dearth

Front

a lack of something; the fact of there not being enough of something, scarcity

Back

detention

Front

1. the state of being kept in a place, especially a prison, and prevented from leaving 2. the punishment of being kept at school for a time after other students have gone home

Back

anatomy

Front

1. the scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies 2. the structure of an animal or a plant

Back

incidence

Front

(formal) the extent to which something happens or has an effect

Back

reckon

Front

1. (informal) to think something or have an opinion about something 2. (not used in the progressive tenses) to be generally considered to be something 3. to calculate an amount, a number, etc.

Back

dictum

Front

a statement that expresses something that people believe is always true or should be followed

Back

suspend

Front

1. to hang something from something else 2. to officially stop something for a time; to prevent something from being active, used, etc. for a time 3. to officially delay something; to arrange for something to happen later than planned 4. to officially prevent someone from doing their job, going to school, etc. for a time

Back

labyrinth

Front

a complicated series of paths, which it is difficult to find your way through

Back

philandering

Front

(of a man) the fact of having sexual relationships with many different women, womanizing

Back

potentate

Front

a ruler who has a lot of power, especially when this is not restricted by anyone else in the government

Back

furnishings

Front

the furniture, curtains, etc. in a room or house

Back

mind-boggling

Front

(informal) very difficult to imagine or to understand; extremely surprising

Back

guile

Front

the use of skillful but dishonest behavior in order to trick people, deceit

Back

goose

Front

거위

Back

archive

Front

(n) a collection of historical documents or records of a government, a family, a place, or an organization; the place where these records are stored (v) to put or store a document or other material in an archive

Back

thermostat

Front

a device that measures and controls the temperature of a machine or room, by switching the heating or cooling system on and off as necessary

Back

uphold

Front

1. to support something that you think is right and make sure that it continues to exist 2. (especially of a court of law) to agree that a previous decision was correct or that a request is reasonable

Back

acrimony

Front

angry, bitter feelings or words

Back

unhinge

Front

to make someone very upset or mentally ill

Back

Section 20

(50 cards)

incur

Front

1. if you incur something unpleasant, you are in a situation in which you have to deal with it 2. if you incur costs, you have to pay them

Back

inquisitive

Front

1. (disapproving) asking too many questions and trying to find out about what other people are doing, etc. 2. very interested in learning about many different things

Back

put off

Front

put off someone : to cancel a meeting or an arrangement that you have made with someone put off something : to change something to a later time or date

Back

multitude

Front

an extremely large number of things or people

Back

megalomania

Front

1. (technology) a mental illness or condition in which someone has an exaggerated belief in their own importance or power 2. a strong feeling that you want to have more and more power

Back

dynamo

Front

1. a device for turning mechanical energy (= energy from movement) into electricity; a generator 2. (informal) a person with a lot of energy

Back

on account of

Front

because of, answer = on account of

Back

abolition

Front

the ending of a law, a system, or an institution

Back

swearing

Front

rude or offensive language

Back

accrue

Front

1. to increase over a period of time 2. to allow a sum of money or debts to grow over a period of time, accumulate

Back

tyranny

Front

unfair or cruel use of power or authority

Back

hymn

Front

a song of praise, especially one praising God and sung by Christians

Back

receptive

Front

willing to listen to or to accept new ideas or suggestions, responsive

Back

hospitable

Front

1. (of a person) pleased to welcome guests; generous and friendly to visitors, welcoming 2. having good conditions that allow things to grow; having a pleasant environment

Back

caress

Front

to touch someone or something gently, especially in a sexual way or in a way that shows affection

Back

dub

Front

1. to give someone or something a particular name, often in a humorous or critical way 2. to replace the original speech in a movie or television program with words in another language

Back

hard-boiled

Front

1. (of an egg) boiled until the inside is hard 2. (of people) not showing much emotion

Back

thumb one's nose at

Front

to make a rude sign with your thumb on your nose; to show that you have no respect for someone or something

Back

dyspepsia

Front

(의학) 소화불량, indigestion

Back

indubitably

Front

in a way that cannot be doubted; without question

Back

owing to

Front

because of, answer = owing to

Back

indignation

Front

a feeling of anger and surprise caused by something that you think is unfair or unreasonable

Back

insinuate

Front

1. to suggest indirectly that something unpleasant is true, imply 2. (formal) (disapproving) to succeed in gaining someone's respect, affection, etc. so that you can use the situation to your own advantage 3. (formal) to slowly move yourself or a part of your body into a particular position or place

Back

inquisitor

Front

a person who asks a lot of difficult questions, especially in a way that makes you feel threatened

Back

dreary

Front

that makes you feel sad; dull and not interesting

Back

superfluous

Front

more than you need or want

Back

intuit

Front

to know that something is true based on your feelings rather than on facts, what someone tells you, etc.

Back

grim

Front

1. looking or sounding very serious 2. unpleasant and depressing

Back

bleak

Front

1. (of a situation) not encouraging or giving any reason to have hope 2. (of the weather) cold and unpleasant 3. (of a place) exposed, empty, or with no pleasant features

Back

ennui

Front

feelings of being bored and not satisfied because nothing interesting is happening

Back

reprobate

Front

a person who behaves in a way that society thinks is immoral

Back

garbled

Front

(of a message or story) told in a way that confuses the person listening, usually by someone who is shocked or in a hurry

Back

derision

Front

a strong feeling that someone or something is ridiculous and not worth considering seriously, shown by laughing in an unkind way or by making unkind remarks, scorn

Back

inculcate

Front

to cause someone to learn and remember ideas, moral principles, etc., especially by repeating them often

Back

chauvinism

Front

an aggressive and unreasonable belief that your own country is better than all others

Back

avow

Front

to say firmly and often publicly what your opinion is, what you think is true, etc.

Back

tempest

Front

a violent storm

Back

abstain

Front

1. to choose not to use a vote, either in favor of or against something 2. to decide not to do or have something, especially something you like or enjoy, because it is bad for your health or considered morally wrong

Back

zest

Front

1. enjoyment and enthusiasm 2. the quality of being exciting, interesting, and enjoyable

Back

spate

Front

a large number of things, which are usually unpleasant, that happen suddenly within a short period of time

Back

secularism

Front

the belief that religion should not be involved in the organization of society, education, etc., 세속주의

Back

extrapolate

Front

to estimate something or form an opinion about something, using the facts that you have now and that are valid for one situation and supposing that they will be valid for the new one

Back

compromise

Front

1. to give up some of your demands after a disagreement with someone, in order to reach an agreement 2. to do something that is against your principles or does not reach standards that you have set 3. to bring someone or something/yourself into danger or under suspicion, especially by acting in a way that is not very sensible

Back

avowed

Front

that has been admitted or stated in public

Back

philistine

Front

a person who does not like or understand art, literature, music, etc.

Back

weep

Front

1. (formal or literary) to cry, usually because you are sad 2. (usually used in the progressive tenses) (of a wound) to produce liquid

Back

monastery

Front

a building in which monks (= members of a male religious community) live together

Back

repent

Front

to feel and show that you are sorry for something bad or wrong that you have done

Back

infusion

Front

1. (formal) the act of adding something to something else in order to make it stronger or more successful 2. a drink or medicine made by leaving herbs, etc. in hot water 3. (medical) an act of slowly putting a drug or other substance into a person's vein; the drug that is used in this way

Back

absorption

Front

1. the process of a liquid, gas, or other substance being taken in 2. the process of a smaller group, country, etc. becoming part of a larger group or country 3. the fact of someone being very interested in something so that it takes all their attention

Back

Section 21

(50 cards)

penurious

Front

very poor, destitute, penniless

Back

embargo (n, v)

Front

an official order that bans trade with another country

Back

undue

Front

more than you think is reasonable or necessary, excessive

Back

wrest (something) from (somebody/something)

Front

1. to take something such as power or control from someone or something with great effort 2. to take something from someone that they do not want to give, suddenly or violently

Back

contemplate

Front

1. to think about whether you should do something, or how you should do something 2. to think carefully about and accept the possibility of something happening 3. (formal) to think deeply about something for a long time 4. (formal) to look at someone or something in a careful way for a long time

Back

roundabout

Front

not done or said using the shortest, simplest, or most direct way possible

Back

wield

Front

1. to have and use power, authority, etc. 2. to hold something, ready to use it as a weapon or tool

Back

devotee

Front

a person who admires and is very enthusiastic about someone or something

Back

theatrical

Front

1. connected with the theater 2. (often disapproving) (of behavior) exaggerated in order to attract attention or create a particular effect

Back

akin

Front

similar to ex) What he felt was more akin to pity than love.

Back

saucer

Front

a small, shallow, round dish that a cup stands on; an object that is shaped like this

Back

doctrine

Front

a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a Church, a political party, etc.

Back

divinity

Front

1. the quality of being a god or like God 2. a god or goddess 3. the study of the nature of God and religious belief

Back

foe

Front

(old use or formal) an enemy

Back

intestine

Front

a long tube in the body between the stomach and the anus. Food passes from the stomach to the small intestine and from there to the large intestine.

Back

brash

Front

1. confident in an aggressive way 2. (of things and places) too bright or too noisy in a way that is not attractive

Back

sow

Front

1. to plant or spread seeds in or on the ground 2. to introduce or spread feelings or ideas, especially ones that cause trouble

Back

perfunctory

Front

(of an action) done as a duty or habit, without real interest, attention, or feeling

Back

shift(n)

Front

1. a change in position or direction 2. a period of time worked by a group of workers who start work as another group finishes 3. the workers who work a particular shift

Back

steadfast

Front

(literary)(approving) not changing in your attitudes or aims, firm

Back

wreak

Front

to do great damage or harm to someone or something

Back

intoxicating

Front

1. (of drinks) containing alcohol 2. making you feel excited so that you cannot think clearly

Back

transpire

Front

formal way of saying "happen"

Back

fortitude

Front

courage shown by someone who is suffering great pain or facing great difficulties, bravery, courage

Back

revile

Front

to criticize someone or something in a way that shows how much you dislike them

Back

chant

Front

1. words or phrases that a group of people shout or sing again and again 2. a religious song or prayer, or a way of singing, using only a few notes that are repeated many times

Back

topple

Front

1. to become unsteady and fall down; to make something do this 2. to make someone lose their position of power or authority, overthrow

Back

fractious

Front

1. bad-tempered or easily upset, especially by small things, irritable 2. (formal) making trouble and complaining

Back

thwart

Front

to prevent someone from doing what they want to do, frustrate

Back

curmudgeon

Front

(old-fashioned) a bad-tempered person, often an old one

Back

spurn

Front

to reject or refuse someone or something, especially in a proud way, shun

Back

miser

Front

(dissaproving) a person who loves money and hates spending it

Back

pauper

Front

(old use) a very poor person

Back

rapturous

Front

expressing extreme pleasure or enthusiasm for someone or something, ecstatic

Back

dwell on(upon)

Front

to think or talk a lot about something, especially something it would be better to forget

Back

fanatic

Front

1. (informal) a person who is extremely enthusiastic about something, enthusiast 2. (disapproving) a person who holds extreme or dangerous opinions, extreamist

Back

havoc

Front

a situation in which there is a lot of damage, destruction, or confusion

Back

oblivion

Front

1. a state in which you are not aware of what is happening around you, usually because you are unconscious or asleep 2. the state in which someone or something has been forgotten and is no longer famous or important 3. a state in which something has been completely destroyed

Back

calamity

Front

an event that causes great damage to people's lives, property, etc., disaster

Back

debilitate

Front

1. to make someone's body or mind weaker 2. to make a country, an organization, etc., weaker

Back

antics

Front

1. behavior that is silly and funny in a way that people usually like 2. behavior that is ridiculous or dangerous

Back

homage

Front

something that is said or done to show respect for someone

Back

brusque

Front

using very few words and sounding rude

Back

chasm

Front

(literary) a deep crack or opening in the ground

Back

have no use for (someone)

Front

to dislike someone

Back

versatile

Front

1. (of a person) able to do many different things 2. (of food, a building, etc.) having many different uses

Back

hail from

Front

~ 출신이다. (pv)

Back

that is to say

Front

in other words, ans = that is to say

Back

exhort

Front

to try hard to persuade someone to do something, urge

Back

verbiage

Front

the use of too many words, or of more difficult words than are needed, to express an idea

Back

Section 22

(50 cards)

get(come) aboard

Front

(미국·구어) [계획 따위]에 참여하다[끼다]

Back

carry on

Front

1. (informal) to argue or complain noisily 2. to continue doing something

Back

layoff

Front

1. an act of making people unemployed because there is no more work left for them to do 2. a period of time when someone is not working or not doing something that they normally do regularly

Back

sullen

Front

1. bad-tempered and not speaking, either on a particular occasion or because it is part of your character 2. (literary) (of the sky or weather) dark and unpleasant

Back

intransigent

Front

(formal)(disapproving)(of people) unwilling to change their opinions or behavior in a way that would be helpful to others, stubborn

Back

take into account

Front

~을 고려하다, ~을 계산에 넣다

Back

convict

Front

to decide and state officially in court that someone is guilty of a crime

Back

clutter

Front

to fill a place with too many things, so that it is messy

Back

spout

Front

1. to send out something, especially a liquid, in a stream with great force; to come out of something in this way 2. (informal) (disapproving) to speak a lot about something; to repeat something in a boring or annoying way

Back

watchdog

Front

a person or group of people whose job is to check that companies are not doing anything illegal or ignoring people's rights

Back

mitigate

Front

to make something less harmful, serious, etc., alleviate

Back

blatant

Front

(of actions that are considered bad) done in an obvious and open way without caring if people are shocked, flagrant

Back

in the wake of (somebody/something)

Front

coming after or following someone or something, pv

Back

trailblazer

Front

a person who is the first to do or discover something and so makes it possible for others to follow

Back

see/think fit (to do something)

Front

to consider it right or acceptable to do something; to decide or choose to do something ans = see/think fit (to do something)

Back

down(along) the line

Front

(informal) at some point during an activity or a process

Back

induct

Front

1. to formally give someone a job or position of authority, especially as part of a ceremony 2. to officially introduce someone into a group or an organization 3. to take someone into military service 4. to introduce someone to a particular area of knowledge

Back

bask

Front

to enjoy sitting or lying in the heat or light of something, especially the sun

Back

draft evasion

Front

징병 기피 ( 2 words )

Back

hostage

Front

a person who is captured and held prisoner by a person or group, and who may be injured or killed if people do not do what the person or group is asking

Back

splendid

Front

1. very impressive; very beautiful 2. (old-fashioned) excellent; very good

Back

posthumous

Front

happening, done, published, etc. after a person has died

Back

bashful

Front

shy and easily embarrassed

Back

gain, get, have, etc. the upper hand

Front

to get an advantage over someone so that you are in control of a particular situation ans = gain, get, have, etc. the upper hand

Back

hassle

Front

1. a situation that is annoying because it involves doing something difficult or complicated that needs a lot of effort 2. a situation in which people disagree, argue, or annoy you

Back

strip

Front

6. to take away property or honors from someone, as a punishment 1. to take off all or most of your clothes or another person's clothes

Back

gross

Front

1. being the total amount of something before anything is taken away 2. (formal or law) (of a crime, etc.) very obvious and unacceptable

Back

archrival

Front

숙적

Back

stolid

Front

not showing much emotion or interest; remaining always the same and not reacting or changing

Back

lump

Front

1. a piece of something hard or solid, usually without a particular shape 2. a swelling under the skin, sometimes a sign of serious illness

Back

apocryphal

Front

(of a story) well known, but probably not true

Back

redress

Front

to correct something that is unfair or wrong

Back

poignant

Front

having a strong effect on your feelings, especially in a way that makes you feel sad, moving

Back

anything but

Front

definitely not, ans = anything but

Back

touch off

Front

to make something begin, especially a difficult or violent situation

Back

fulsome

Front

too generous in praising or thanking someone, or in saying that you are sorry, so that you do not sound sincere

Back

ovation

Front

enthusiastic clapping by an audience as a sign of their approval

Back

rallying cry

Front

a phrase or an idea that is used to encourage people to support someone or something

Back

squeamish

Front

1. easily upset, or made to feel sick by unpleasant sights or situations, especially when the sight of blood is involved 2. not wanting to do something that might be considered dishonest or immoral

Back

quip

Front

a smart and amusing remark

Back

citation

Front

1. words or lines taken from a book or a speech, quotation 2. an official statement about something special that someone has done, especially about acts of courage in a war

Back

smattering

Front

a small amount of something, especially knowledge of a language

Back

debonair

Front

(usually of men) fashionable and confident

Back

damp

Front

slightly wet, often in a way that is unpleasant

Back

despise

Front

(not used in the progressive tenses) to dislike and have no respect for someone or something

Back

implacable

Front

1. (of strong negative opinions or feelings) that cannot be changed 2. (of a person) unwilling to stop opposing someone or something

Back

understatement

Front

1. a statement that makes something seem less important, impressive, serious, etc. than it really is 2. the practice of making things seem less impressive, important, serious, etc. than they really are

Back

evangelist

Front

a person who tries to persuade people to become Christians, especially by traveling around the country holding religious meetings or speaking on radio or television, missionary

Back

appeal

Front

a formal request to a court or to someone in authority for a judgment or a decision to be changed

Back

brooding

Front

sad and mysterious, or threatening

Back

Section 23

(50 cards)

douse(dowse)

Front

1. to stop a fire from burning by pouring water over it; to put out a light 2. to pour a lot of liquid over someone or something; to soak someone or something in liquid

Back

noble

Front

1. having fine personal qualities that people admire, such as courage, honesty, and care for others 2. very impressive in size or quality, splendid 3. belonging to the nobility (= families of high social rank), aristocratic

Back

bliss

Front

extreme happiness

Back

particular (n)

Front

[usually plural] a fact or detail, especially one that is officially written down

Back

hearing

Front

1. the ability to hear 2. an official meeting at which the facts about a crime, complaint, etc. are presented to the person or group of people who will have to decide what action to take

Back

denouement

Front

the end of a play, book, etc., in which everything is explained or settled; the end result of a situation

Back

Iraqi

Front

(a person) from Iraq

Back

patronage

Front

the support, especially financial, that is given to a person or an organization by a patron

Back

horticulture

Front

the study or practice of growing flowers, fruit, and vegetables

Back

recapitulate

Front

to repeat or give a summary of what has already been said, decided, etc.

Back

miasma

Front

a mass of air that is dirty and smells unpleasant

Back

stock up on

Front

~을 비축하다, 사재기하다

Back

detain

Front

to keep someone in an official place, such as a police station, a prison, or a hospital, and prevent them from leaving

Back

pomegranate

Front

석류

Back

incumbent

Front

a person who has an official position

Back

jug

Front

a large deep container with a small opening and a handle, for holding liquids

Back

ominous

Front

suggesting that something bad is going to happen in the future, foreboding

Back

lust

Front

1. very strong sexual desire, especially when love is not involved 2. very strong desire for something or enjoyment of something

Back

uncanny

Front

strange and difficult to explain, weird

Back

venerable

Front

(formal) venerable people or things deserve respect because they are old, important, wise, etc.

Back

bed

Front

an area of ground in a yard or park for growing flowers, vegetables, etc., 잠자는곳

Back

pacify

Front

1. to make someone who is angry or upset become calm and quiet 2. to bring peace to an area where there is fighting or a war

Back

conglomerate

Front

(business) a large company formed by joining together different firms

Back

for good mesure

Front

as an extra amount of something in addition to what has already been done or given

Back

plaintiff

Front

a person who makes a formal complaint against someone in court, opposite to defendant

Back

disinfect

Front

1. to clean something using a substance that kills bacteria 2. to run a computer program to get rid of a computer virus

Back

cranky

Front

(informal) bad-tempered

Back

nowhere near

Front

far from; not at all

Back

propitious

Front

likely to produce a successful result

Back

squabble (n, v)

Front

to argue noisily about something that is not very important

Back

omen

Front

a sign of what is going to happen in the future, portent

Back

defamation

Front

the act of damaging someone's reputation by saying or writing bad or false things about them

Back

foil

Front

(v) to stop something from happening, especially something illegal; to prevent someone from doing something, thwart (n) anything that serves by contrast to call attention to another thing's good qualities something, thwart

Back

champion(v)

Front

to fight for or speak in support of a group of people or a belief

Back

malign

Front

to say bad things about someone or something publicly, slander

Back

high-profile

Front

receiving or involving a lot of attention and discussion on television, in newspapers, etc.

Back

portent

Front

a sign or warning of something that is going to happen in the future, especially when it is something unpleasant, omen

Back

agrarian

Front

connected with farming and the use of land for farming

Back

traction

Front

1. the force that stops something, for example the wheels of a vehicle, from sliding on the ground 2. the action of pulling something along a surface; the power that is used for doing this

Back

viscous

Front

(of a liquid) thick and sticky; not flowing freely

Back

fecund

Front

1. able to produce a lot of children, crops, etc., fertile 2. producing new and useful things, especially ideas

Back

overarching

Front

very important, because it includes or influences many things

Back

stanza

Front

a group of lines that forms a metrical unit in some types of poems

Back

stunted

Front

that has not been able to grow or develop as much as it should

Back

appease

Front

1. to make someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want 2. to give a country what it wants in order to avoid war

Back

skillet

Front

frying pan, ans = skillet

Back

tend

Front

3. to care for someone or something 4. to serve customers in a store, bar, etc.

Back

warp

Front

1. to become, or make something become, twisted or bent out of its natural shape, for example because it has become too hot, too damp, etc. 2. to influence someone so that they begin to behave in an unacceptable or shocking way

Back

proscribe

Front

to say officially that something is banned

Back

aftermath

Front

the situation that exists as a result of an important (and usually unpleasant) event, especially a war, an accident, etc.

Back

Section 24

(50 cards)

venue

Front

a place where people meet for an organized event, for example a concert, sporting event, or conference

Back

excursion

Front

1. a short trip made for pleasure, especially one that has been organized for a group of people 2. (formal) a short period of trying a new or different activity

Back

apparel

Front

1. clothing, when it is being sold in stores 2. (old-fashioned or formal) clothes, particularly those worn on a formal occasion

Back

forthright

Front

direct and honest in manner and speech, frank

Back

devoid

Front

completely lacking in something

Back

subdue

Front

1. to bring someone or something under control, especially by using force 2. to calm or control your feelings

Back

benign

Front

(formal) (of people) kind and gentle; not hurting anyone

Back

contingent (n, adj.)

Front

(n1) a group of people at a meeting or an event who have something in common, especially the place they come from, that is not shared by other people at the event (n2) a group of soldiers that are part of a larger force event (adj.) (formal) depending on something that may or may not happen

Back

gregarious

Front

liking to be with other people, sociable

Back

eschew

Front

to deliberately avoid or keep away from something

Back

makeover

Front

the process of improving the appearance of a person or a place, or of changing the impression that something gives

Back

affront

Front

a remark or an action that insults or offends someone or something

Back

rein

Front

1. a long, narrow, leather band that is attached to a bit (= a metal bar in a horse's mouth) and is held by the rider in order to control the horse 2. [plural] the state of being in control or the leader of something

Back

rink

Front

ice rink, skating rink

Back

lethargy

Front

the state of not having any energy or enthusiasm for doing things, inertal

Back

nuke

Front

(v) to attack a place with nuclear weapons (n) a nuclear weapon

Back

brigade

Front

1. a large group of soldiers that forms a unit of an army 2. (often disapproving) used, always with a word or phrase in front of it, to describe a group of people who share the same opinions or are similar in some other way

Back

soar

Front

1. if the value, amount, or level of something soars, it rises very quickly 2. to rise quickly and smoothly up into the air 3. to fly very high in the air or remain high in the air 4. to be very high or tall

Back

appellation

Front

(formal) a name or title

Back

premeditated

Front

(of a crime or bad action) planned in advance

Back

thoroughfare

Front

a public road or street used by traffic, especially a main road in a city or town

Back

ostentatious

Front

1. (disapproving) expensive or noticeable in a way that is intended to impress people, showy 2. (disapproving) behaving in a way that is meant to impress people by showing how rich, important, etc. you are 3. (of an action) done in a very obvious way so that people will notice it

Back

subterfuge

Front

(formal) a secret, usually dishonest, way of behaving

Back

pet project

Front

특히 좋아하는 사업

Back

monument

Front

1. a building, column, statue, etc. built to remind people of a famous person or event 2. a building that has special historical important 3. a thing that remains as a good example of someone's qualities or of what they did

Back

ripple

Front

1. a small wave on the surface of a liquid, especially water in a lake, etc. 2. a thing that looks or moves like a small wave 3. a sound that gradually becomes louder and then quieter again 4. a feeling that gradually spreads through a person or group of people

Back

eyesore

Front

a building, an object, etc. that is unpleasant to look at

Back

check

Front

6. to control something; to stop something from increasing or getting worse 7. to stop yourself from saying or doing something, or from showing a particular emotion

Back

desultory

Front

going from one thing to another, without a definite plan and without enthusiasm

Back

take umbrage (at something)

Front

(formal or humorous) to feel offended, insulted, or upset by something, often without a good reason

Back

forlorn

Front

1. (of a person) appearing lonely and unhappy 2. (of a place) not cared for and with no people in it 3. unlikely to succeed, come true, etc.

Back

facade

Front

1. the front of a building 2. the way that someone or something appears to be, which is different from the way someone or something really is

Back

insidious

Front

spreading gradually or without being noticed, but causing serious harm

Back

insular

Front

1. (disapproving) only interested in your own country, ideas, etc. and not in those from outside 2. (technology) connected with an island or islands

Back

supposedly

Front

according to what is generally thought or believed but not known for certain, allegedly

Back

appreciable

Front

large enough to be noticed or thought important, considerable

Back

whimsy

Front

a way of thinking or behaving, or a style of doing something, that is unusual and not serious, in a way that is either amusing or annoying

Back

hold forth (on/about)

Front

to speak for a long time about something in a way that other people might find boring

Back

vow

Front

a formal and serious promise, especially a religious one, to do something

Back

debatable

Front

not certain because people can have different ideas and opinions about the thing being discussed, arguable, questionable

Back

sleek

Front

1. (approving) smooth and shiny 2. (approving) having an elegant smooth shape 3. (often disapproving) (of a person) looking rich, and dressed in elegant and expensive clothes

Back

dock

Front

1. a part of a port where ships are repaired, or where goods are put onto or taken off them 2. a long low structure built along, or out from, the shore of a lake, river, or the ocean, used by boats to allow passengers to get on and off

Back

sedate

Front

1. slow, calm, and relaxed, unhurried 2. quiet, especially in a way that lacks excitement 3. (of a person) quiet and serious in a way that seems formal

Back

exalt

Front

1. to make someone rise to a higher rank or position, sometimes to one that they do not deserve 2. to praise someone or something very much

Back

drab

Front

without interest or color; dull and boring

Back

deleterious

Front

harmful and damaging

Back

parse

Front

to divide a sentence into parts and describe the grammar of each word or part

Back

skyline

Front

the outline of buildings, trees, hills, etc. seen against the sky

Back

discern

Front

1. (formal) to know, recognize, or understand something, especially something that is not obvious, detect 2. to see or hear something, but not very clearly

Back

repast

Front

(old-fashioned or formal) a meal

Back

Section 25

(50 cards)

condemn

Front

1. to express very strong disapproval of someone or something, usually for moral reasons 2. to say what someone's punishment will be 3. [usually passive] to force someone to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation, doom

Back

evacuate

Front

1. to move people from a place of danger to a safer place 2. to move out of a place because of danger, and leave the place empty

Back

allegiance

Front

a person's continued support for a political party, religion, ruler, etc.

Back

indelible

Front

1. impossible to forget or remove, permanant 2. (of ink, pens, etc.) leaving a mark that cannot be removed, permanant

Back

lucrative

Front

producing a large amount of money; making a large profit

Back

derogate

Front

to state that something or someone is without worth

Back

squarely

Front

1. directly; not at an angle or to one side 2. directly or exactly; without confusion

Back

galvanize

Front

1. to make someone take action by shocking them or by making them excited 2. (technology) to cover metal with zinc in order to protect it from rust

Back

slash

Front

1. to make a long cut with a sharp object, especially in a violent way 2. (often used in newspapers) to reduce something by a large amount

Back

stigma

Front

feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving

Back

careen

Front

(of a person or vehicle) to move forward very quickly, especially in a way that is dangerous or uncontrolled, hurtle

Back

bring something to the fore

Front

to make something become noticed by people

Back

stopgap

Front

something that you use or do for a short time while you are looking for something better

Back