Section 1

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Genotype vs Phenotype

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (72)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Genotype vs Phenotype

Front

Genotype is the genetic makeup; what can be passed on to your children Phenotype is the physical appearance; what is seen in you right now; how you look

Back

adaptation

Front

inherited trait that is selected for over time because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment

Back

Evolution

Front

Is change in organisms over time

Back

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Front

a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids; folded transport system for the cell

Back

Producer

Front

organism that obtains its energy from abiotic sources such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals

Back

Artificial Selection

Front

process by which humans modify a species by breeding it for certain traits

Back

Theory

Front

proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results

Back

pathogen

Front

agent that causes disease

Back

homologous structures

Front

body part that is similar in structure on different organisms but performs different structures

Back

Gametes

Front

reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells; in humans, the egg or sperm

Back

fossils

Front

trace of an organism from the past

Back

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection

Front

1. More offspring are born into a population that can survive.2. These offspring all contain variations 3. These offspring must compete for natural resources 4. The organisms with the best variations will survive and reproduce. (Survival of the fittest)5. Over time, descent (the ancestors will be different from offspring) with modification will occur.

Back

parasitism

Front

ecological relationship in wich one organism benefits y harming the other

Back

descent with modification

Front

The other meaning of evolution referred to structural change in a species that took place over time

Back

Haploid

Front

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes; n - where n is the number of chromosomes

Back

Survival of the fittest

Front

evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection. The biological concept of fitness is defined as reproductive success.

Back

Chargaff's Rule

Front

equal amounts of adenine bonds with thymine and equal amount of guanine bonds with cytosine

Back

Mitochondria

Front

Powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration); respiration takes place here

Back

Homologous structures

Front

Are structures that derive from the same body part but may have different forms, i.e. bird wing, bat wing, human arm

Back

Evolution

Front

change in a species over time

Back

Genes

Front

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Back

host cell

Front

an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives. a living cell in which a virus multiplies

Back

antibiotics

Front

chemical that kills or slows the growth of bacteria

Back

abiotic factor

Front

nonliving factor in an ecosystem ,such as moisture,air,water,minerals

Back

ecosystem

Front

collection of organisms and nonliving things , such as climate , soil, water, rocks, in an area

Back

biodiversity

Front

variety of life in an area. Biodiversity is a measure of the number and types of organisms that live in an ecosystem

Back

Alleles

Front

different forms of a gene

Back

Chromosomes

Front

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Back

Diploid

Front

cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of chromosomes;2n-where n is the number of chromosomes

Back

habitat

Front

combined biotic and abiotic factors found in the area where an organism lives

Back

ecology

Front

study of interactions among living things and their surroundings

Back

DNA

Front

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics; Base pair matching is: Adenine bonds ONLY with Thymine, Thymine bonds ONLY with Adenine, Cytosine bond ONLY with Guanine, Guanine bond ONLY with Cytosine

Back

biotic factors

Front

living things

Back

fitness

Front

measure of an organisms ability to survive and produce offspring relative to other members of a population

Back

Cell Wall

Front

strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria

Back

DNA Replication

Front

The DNA double helix strand separates and becomes a template for a new and identical strand. As the strand separates each A pairs with a T and T pairs with an A while each C pairs with a G and each G pairs with a C. If the original was ACTCAG then the new strand would be TGAGTC.

Back

vaccine

Front

substance that stimulates an immune response, producing acquired immunity without illness or infection

Back

transpiration

Front

release of vapor through the pores of the skin or the stomata of plant tissue

Back

consumer

Front

organism that obtains its energy and nutrients by eating other organisms

Back

Dominance

Front

an organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant; Allele which masks the presence of a recessive Ex: AA or Aa

Back

species

Front

group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring

Back

ribosome

Front

organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins

Back

trophic level

Front

level of nourishment in a food chain

Back

extinction

Front

elimination of a species on earth

Back

Meiosis

Front

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; One cell makes two gamete cells 2n -> n

Back

Homozygous

Front

Both alleles are the same (TT) for homozygous dominant or (tt) for homozygous recessive (I used the letter T for an example only. This could be any letter)

Back

community

Front

collection of all of the different populations that live in one area

Back

Heterozygous

Front

Alleles are different (Tt)

Back

virus

Front

infectious particle made only of a strand of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

Back

DNA vs RNA

Front

DNA, sugar is deoxyribose, two strands, base - thymine RNA, sugar is ribose, one strand, base - uracil, only molecule to enter or leave the nucleus

Back

Section 2

(22 cards)

Mitosis

Front

One cell makes two cells exactly like the first cell; process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei

Back

Stomatic

Front

any body cell expect for sex cells

Back

Parasites

Front

Live off of a host and will eventually cause the death of the host

Back

Punnett Squares

Front

https://o.quizlet.com/OPVBUPuN3CwOUpRtFHI-Vg_m.jpg

Back

Normal Cell Division

Front

1. DNA (chromosomes) unwinds and is duplicated 2. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell 3. Centromeres separate 4. Single stranded chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell 5. A nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Back

Survival of the Fittest

Front

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection; One who has most surviving off spring most fit.

Back

Respiration

Front

Animal cells turn carbohydrates, water and oxygen into energy. Waste product is carbon dioxide.

Back

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Front

aids in protein formation.

Back

Recessive

Front

of genes; Two recessive alleles in order for genotype to be expressed. Ex: aa

Back

Plant cells

Front

Contain chloroplasts (photosynthesis sites) and vacuoles (water storage areas) that are not found in animal cells

Back

Succession

Front

(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established

Back

Primary producers

Front

Are plants and they provide most of the food and oxygen; the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms

Back

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Front

reads the sequence of mRNA and structs the ribosome to assemble new proteins from amino acids that match. tRNA moves the amino acids and proteins around into the right places.

Back

Order of Organism Complexity

Front

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

Back

Punnett Squares 2

Front

https://o.quizlet.com/J5TsJ.BvLWBahRagXbKNQg_m.jpg

Back

Mutations

Front

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information; can passed on to offspring if they occur in the gametes

Back

Natural Selection

Front

Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest

Back

Photosynthesis

Front

Plant cells turn sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates

Back

Photosynthesis

Front

How most food and oxygen on earth are produced; the energy comes from the sun

Back

Ribosome

Front

small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein; where amino acids are made into proteins

Back

Nucleus

Front

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Back

RNA

Front

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. At this point the base Uracil is put in place of Thymine (so A now bonds only with U).

Back