Section 1

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Transferability is a spatial interaction concept related to the costs of overcoming the distance between two places.

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Cards (173)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Transferability is a spatial interaction concept related to the costs of overcoming the distance between two places.

Front

True

Back

The only European country with coastlines on the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and the North Sea is:

Front

France

Back

A bridge language of national politics, commerce, and trade is known as a

Front

Lingua franca

Back

A maquiladora is:

Front

a foreign-owned factory in northern Mexico that assembles duty-free goods

Back

Persistently frozen ground is known as:

Front

permafrost

Back

Which Russian republic fought a (still unresolved) war for independence from Moscow during the 1990s:

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Chechnya

Back

The two leading language groups in Canada are:

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French and English

Back

Which of the following States is the likeliest place for the further development of ethanol and other biofuel production?

Front

Iowa

Back

Transition zones mark the places where geographic realms meet

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True

Back

The large cluster of population in the northeastern United States is known as

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Megalopolis

Back

The process by which a tectonic plate consisting of less heavy rock rides up over a heavier plate is known

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Subduction

Back

The term Balkanization refers to

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the division and fragmentation of the southern portion of Eastern Europe

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The North American region that has undergone the most change in recent decades is:

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The south

Back

The population of the world is ---- billion

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< 7 billion

Back

The ratio of distance on a map to actual ground distance is known as

Front

The map scale

Back

Which of the following does not lie in the Euro-Amerindian Mainland?

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Dominican Republic

Back

The geopolitical theory that indicates the Eurasian heartland is the key to control of the world was forwarded by:

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Mackinder

Back

When a state seeks to acquire the neighboring territory that is home to ethnically similar people and territory on the other side of its international border by appealing to a concentrated group, this action is termed:

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irredentism

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Central America, as defined by geographers, is:

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a region within Middle America lying between Mexico and Colombia

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A country's leading urban center that is disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national feelings, such as Paris is to France, is known as the country's:

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primate city

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4 Major Clusters

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East Asia, South Asia, Europe, and Eastern North America

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The principle of -------------confirms that increasing distances between places tend to reduce the interactions between them.

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Distance decay

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Distance decay effects are greatest between Moscow and:

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Valdivostok

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The three principles of spatial interaction are

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complementarity - two places through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area. Trade is great and coutries get along well... example is Belguim and the netherlands transferability-- The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost intervening opportunity --- The presence of a nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites.

Back

The North American Free Trade Agreement:

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Includes the United States, Canada and Mexico

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Under the Soviet economic system, assignment by Moscow, rather than market forces, controlled the development of places.

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True

Back

The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy is known as:

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devolution

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The population of Russia is

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shrinking by more than 750,000 per year

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The geopolitical theory that indicates that rimland is the key to control of the world was forwarded by:

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Spykman

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A continental climate is most likely to be found in:

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kansas

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Transculturation is most closely associated with the shaping of cultural traits in:

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Mexico

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Water covers about _____ percent of the Earth's surface

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70

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During their period of colonial domination, the Spanish forced much of Mexico's Amerindian population to relocate to urban settlements.

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True

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A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land bodies is known as a(n):

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isthmus

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The name of Wegner's super continent

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Pangaea

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The north-south mountain range in the west-central USSR that is often regarded as the "boundary" between Europe and Asia is called the Ural Mountains.

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True

Back

The Central American country where English is spoken, but where Spanish will eventually become the predominant language is:

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Belize

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Geography is concerned with providing a spatial perspective on the world

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True

Back

The habitable zone of permanent settlement of a country is known as its:

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ecumene

Back

The "Kuwait of North America" is the nickname of:

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Alberta

Back

The correct historical sequence of the intrametropolitan urban growth model is the Walking-Horsecar, Recreational Automobile, Electric Streetcar, and Freeway Eras.

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False

Back

Which water body is surrounded by a geologically-active Ring of Fire

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The Pacific Ocean

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The three stages in the development of twentieth-century Canada are the Frontier-Staples Era, the Era of Industrial Capitalism, and the Era of Global Capitalism.

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True

Back

Europe's relative location

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is one of centrality within the land hemisphere

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Which ethnic group does not fit with the area identified?

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Hispanics and Oregon

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The most important crop raised in Cuba before the fall of the Soviet Union was:

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sugarcane

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The movement of the headquarters of the Russian Empire to St. Petersburg allowed that city to become a(n):

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forward capital

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As a group, the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico constitute:

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the Greater Antilles

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To a considerable degree, Belgium and the Netherlands are in a position of economic complementarity.

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True

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The administrative headquarters of the European Union is located in:

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Brussels

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Section 2

(50 cards)

The "Triple Frontier" is where which of the following three countries come together?

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Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil

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Bounderies

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sovergn country, operating gov, recognized from a large part of the world

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The initial stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of

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contention

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Nature of Earth, Population

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4 population areas 1. East Asia 2. South Asia (India) 3. Europe 4. Megalopolis (north america)

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Relative location

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location with references to other regions

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Wegener

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1880-1930 German geophysicist who proposed the theory of continental drift and Pangaea (supercontinent)

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The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 stipulated that a north-south boundary was to be drawn separating the South American territories of ____________________.

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Spain and Portugal

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Formal Regions

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when regions display a measurable and often visible internal homogeneity

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Pangea

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A vast, singular landmass consisting of most of the areas of the present-day continents. THis supercontinent began to break up more than 200 million years ago when still ongoning plate divergence and continental drift became dominant processes.

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The informal sector of the economy includes

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Where workers are undocumented and transactions are beyond the control of the government.. example - unlicensed selling of homemade goods

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Fractured States

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...

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Urbanization

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proportion of country's pop living in urban places - process of movement of people into towns and cities - expansion of city absorbing rural countryside into suburbs

Back

the composite of human imprints on the earth's surface

Front

Cultural Landscapes

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Pacific Ring of Fire

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Zone of crustal instability along tectonic plate bboundaries, marked by earthquakes and volcanic activity, thant ring the Pacific Ocean Basin

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Europe's locational advantages

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Its at the heart of the land hemisphere, maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world, every part of Europe is close to the sea, navigable waterways, moderate distances ---- water = cheap $ transportation

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Geography

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Providing spatial perspective of the world

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An altiplano is a

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a plain high in the Andes

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Functional region

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a region marked less by its sameness than by its dynamic internal structure; usually focuses on a central node also called nodal region or focal region

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Von Thunen

Front

Created the concentric zone model that states that perishable goods are located near market area as well as heavy items, while crops that are able to be shipped long distances without spoiling were located farther away.

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Russian former republic minority populations

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Had 15 republics

Back

Spatial Systems

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the components and interactions of a functional region = areal extent of those interactions

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Hinterland

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"country behind" a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods/services produced for hinterland and urban center

Back

Core area

Front

In geography, a term with several connotations. Core refers to the center, heart, or focus. The core area of a nation-state is constituted by the national heartland, the largest population cluster, the most productive region, and the part of the contry with the greatest centrality and accessibility -- probably the capital city as well -- served by the hinterland

Back

natural landscape

Front

array of landforms constituting earths' surface (mountains, hills, plains, plateaus/ and the physical features that mark them (water bodies, soils, vegetation)

Back

Borders of Realms

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...

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Disperities

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Richer/poorer differences ----- Biggest in south america

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Absolute Location

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providing the latitude/longitudinal extent of the region with respect to the earth's gridelines

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Language Families

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Group of languages with a shared but usually distant origin --- Lingua franca is a bridge language for people to comunicate examples are English and Swahili

Back

Supernationalism

Front

giving up some soveriengty for the greater good

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Pacific Ring of fire

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zone of curstal instability along tectonic plate boundaries, marked by earthquakes and volcanic activity that ring the pacific ocean basin

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In the Latin American city model, the elite residential sector contains the:

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commercial and industrial spine

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Criteria of Geographic Regions

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area, boundaries, location, homogeneity, regions as systems

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The South is Brazil's most "European" region, where European languages other than Portuguese still remain in use.

Front

True

Back

The making of maps

Front

Cartography

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The final stage in the evolution of an insurgent state, according to McColl, is the stage of

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counteroffensive

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Europes Supranationalism

Front

Ex. European Union -- Supranational organization constituted by 27 European countries to further their common economic interests. Includes; Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, lituania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

Back

Northern vs. Southern Italy

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Northern part of Italy is very industrial (main city is Milan)... the north look at people in south like hillbillies Sharp north/south contrast = Ancona line (Main city is Rome)

Back

Supranationalism

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term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives; a venture involving three or more states - political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives ex. European Union

Back

Principles of Spatial interaction

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complementarity - two places through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other's demands. One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area. Trade is great and coutries get along well... example is Belguim and the netherlands intervening opportunity-- The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost transferability --- The presence of a nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites

Back

Which south american country is landlocked?

Front

Paraguay

Back

Central Business District (CBD)

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The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings

Back

Field that studies spaital aspects of human cultures

Front

Cultural Geography

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Primate City

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A country's largest city - ranking atop the urban hierarcy - most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well

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Muslim Europe

Front

muslim immigration is changing Europes cultural landscapes ... lack of cultural integration with immigrants... Euro societies are attempting to restrict immigration * political parties

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Soviet Union

Front

Revolution in 1917 Vladimer Lenin (VI Lenin) SOviet identity: to replace ethnic identity by being forced to speak Russian

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Continental drift

Front

slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics

Back

Irredentism

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A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighborhing country.

Back

Regions

Front

A commonly used term and a geographic concept of central importance. An area on the Earth's surface marked by specific criteria

Back

Hinterland

Front

Literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods an d services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port city, the hinterland also includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.

Back

Devolution

Front

The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Shatter Belt

Front

A term applied to Eastern Europe by geographers to describe a zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing (balkan peninsala) its so diverse people's beliefs get in the way.

Back

Permafrost

Front

Permanently frozen water in the near-surface soil and bedrock of cold environments, producing the effect of completely frozen ground. Surface can thaw during brief warm season

Back

Centrifugal Forces

Front

Refer to forces that tend to divide a country Ex. religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences (Ireland, catholic protestants)

Back

Maquiladora

Front

The term given to modern industrial plants in Mexico's U.S. border zone. These foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials, and then export finished manufactures, mainly to the United States. Import duties are disappearing under NAFTA, bringing jops to Mexico and the advantages of low wage rates to the foreign entrepreneurs.

Back

Regions of Europe

Front

Western- Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, (Alpine States) Austria, Lichtenstein, Switxerland British Isles- (United Kingdom) Great Britain, Scotland, Wales, Ireland Northern- (Scandinavia) Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Estonia Mediterranean- Italy, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Portugal, Malta Eastern- Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, Romania, Croatia *Eastern europe reaches into the russian zone of influence

Back

Insurgent State

Front

Territorial embodiment of a successful guerilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state. Contention -- equalibrium -- counteroffensive --failedstate/newstate

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Tertiary Economic Activity

Front

Activities the engage in services - such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.

Back

Latin America City Model

Front

The Griffin-Ford model of intraurban spaital structure in the middle American and South American realms. CBD anchors the model as the spine The Elite Residential sectors adjoin the CBD Zone of Maturity is middle class Zone of in situ accretion is modest living Zone of Peripheral squatter settlements is poor and unskilled workers homes (favelas) Zone of disamentity - poor people live in open areas anywhere!

Back

America's industrial core

Front

synonymous with the manufacturing belt, now the "rust belt"

Back

Canada's development

Front

3 eras -- Frontier-Staples Era (<1935), Era of Industrial Capitalism (1935-1975), and Era of Global Capitalism (since 1975)

Back

Isthmus

Front

A land bridge; a comparatively narrow link between larger bodies of land. Central America forms such a llink between Mexico and South America.

Back

Balkanize

Front

means to break up (as in a region) into smaller and often hostile units ex. (balkan peninsala)

Back

Maritime Climate

Front

a climate much modified by oceanic influences. Typical characteristics include relatively small diurnal and seasonal temperature variation, and increased precipitation due to more moist air

Back

Secondary Economic Activity

Front

Activites that process raw materials and transform them into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector.

Back

Agglomerative Forces

Front

Concentrating forces -- ones that bring people to the country Ex. building a factory, then gas station, housing jobs, etc

Back

Main Street

Front

Canada's dominant conurbation that is home to nearlyl two-thirds of the country's inhabitants; extends southwestward from Quebec City in the mid-St. Lawrence Valley to Windsor on the Detroit River.

Back

European Union

Front

12 Original members made in 1992 - EU capital in Brussels, Belgium -- Parliament in Strasbourg, France -- and was aimed to coordinate policy among the members in three areas; economics, defence and justice and home affairs

Back

Technopole

Front

A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California's Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufacures the products of the postindustrial informational economy.

Back

Tiaga

Front

name for evergreen forest in n america, europe, and asia (russia) - keep their leaves all year

Back

Ecumene

Front

The habitalble portions of the Earth's surface where permanent human settlements have arisen

Back

Rust Belt

Front

a term that gained poplarity in the 1980s[1] as the informal description of an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United States plus small parts of the Upper South, in which local economies traditionally specialized in large scale manufacturing of finished medium to heavy consumer and industrial products, including the transportation and processing of the raw materials required for heavy industry

Back

Canadian Cities

Front

No primate city, divided by english and french culture -- Main Street Cluster is composed of Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, and Widsor

Back

Haciendas

Front

literally, a large state in a Spahish-speaking country. Sometimes equated with the plantation, but there are important differences between these two types of agricultureal enterprise.

Back

Favelas

Front

shantytown on the outskirts or even well within an urban area in Brazil

Back

Russian population facts

Front

Decreasing, and less than half the pop of the US

Back

Gridiron Layout

Front

Central plaza/market square, around both the local church and gov. buildings were located. Surrounding st pattern was in gridiron form (squares, right angle streets) so that any insurrections by the resttled amerindians could be contained by having small military force seal off the affected blocks and then root out the troublemakers.

Back

4 types (components) of Spatial Economic Activity

Front

1. Primary (Raw Materials) Ex. Mining 2. Secondary (Manufacturing) Ex. Making steel 3. Tertiary (Services) ex. UPS, Fedex 4. Quarternary (Information) Ex. High tech computer programming

Back

Tundra

Front

The treeless plain that lies along the Arctic shore in northernmost Russia and Canada, whose vegetation consists of mosses, lichens and certain hardy grasses.

Back

European Brazil

Front

portuguese

Back

Hispaniola

Front

a Caribbean island settled by Spaniards in 1493; a present day island that is divided into the Dominican Republic (Spanish) and Haiti (French).

Back

Mainland-Rimland Framework

Front

The twofold regionalization of the Middle American realm based on its modern cultural history. The Euro-Amerindian Mainland, stretching form Mexico to Panama (minus the Caribbean coastal strip), was a self-sufficient zone dominated by hacienda land tenure. THe Euro african Rimland, consisting of that Caribbean coastal zone plus all of the Caribbean islands to the east, was the zone of the plantation that relied heavily on trade with Europe.

Back

Canada's Oil Sands

Front

Alberta is known as the Kuatte of North America

Back

Andes Basin

Front

...

Back

Quarternary

Front

Activities engaged in the collection, processing, and manipulation of information

Back

Russia

Front

...

Back

Plantations

Front

A large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.

Back

Primary Economic Activity

Front

Activities engaged in the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture.

Back

Land Bridge

Front

A narrow isthmain link between two large landmasses. They are temporary features - at least in terms of geologic time - subject to appearance and disappearance as the land or sea level rises and falls.

Back

Command Economy

Front

The tightly controlled economic system of the former Soviet Union, whereby entral planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places, often guided more by socialist ideology than the principles of economic geography.

Back

Deglomerative Forces

Front

Dispersive forces -- ones that drive people away Ex. criminal over population

Back

Alaskan Natural Resources

Front

mining, forests, oil, gas, and fishing

Back

Incas

Front

A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.

Back

Greater Antilles

Front

Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico

Back

Biofuels

Front

best place to invest in making ethonal fuels is IOWA

Back

Benelux

Front

Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg --- started European supranationalism in 1944 (it's an economic union)

Back

Amazon Basin

Front

The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries that drains an area of about 6,915,000 square kilometres, or roughly 40 percent of South America

Back

French Canada

Front

THe southern portion of Quebec and neighboring Acadia, long lots land division system, impact of Quebec's separatisit movement (Montreal), came close to breaking (devolution)

Back

Centripetal forces

Front

Forces that unite and bind a country together Ex. strong national culture

Back

Forward Captial

Front

Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Back

Nation-state

Front

a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. The ideal form to which most nations a states aspire -- a political unity wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people.

Back

Section 4

(23 cards)

Triple Frontier

Front

The turbulent and chaotic area in southern South America that surrounds the convergence of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Lawlessness pervades this haven for criminal elements, which is notorious for money laundering, arms, and other smuggling, drug trafficking, and links to terrorist organizations, including money flows to the middle east.

Back

Oil Rich Venezuela

Front

oil is drawn from the Maracaibo lowlands and lake Maracaibo. Venezuela's gov. was living off oil profits with dug them into a deep debt, yet they are oil "rich" Hugo Chavez is president

Back

Boer War

Front

were two wars fought during 1880-1881 and 1899-1902 by the British Empire against the two independent Boer republics, the Oranje Vrijstaat (Orange Free State) and the Republiek van Transvaal (Transvaal Republic). They are increasingly referred to as "the South African War" since the black population of South Africa was also involved in the conflicts; The First Anglo-Boer War (1880-1881), was a rebellion of Boers (farmers) against British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence; The Second War (1899-1902), by contrast, was a lengthy war—involving large numbers of troops from many British possessions, which ended with the conversion of the Boer republics into British colonies (with a promise of limited zelf-bestuur). These colonies later formed part of the Union of South Africa

Back

Ethnic Madagascar

Front

Madagascar is almost its own nation. It is home to poly-mylansian peoples because the first people to settle there were polynesion. The animals there are one of a kind as well.

Back

Africa's deserts

Front

9 deserts... main ones are Kalahari and Sahara

Back

Colonial Africa

Front

...

Back

Transition Zones

Front

An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.

Back

Land Locked countries in south america

Front

Paraguay and Bolivia

Back

Sahel

Front

an Arab word synonamus with the transition zone -- Semiarid steppeland zone extending across most of Arica between the southern margins of the arid Sahara and the moister tropical savanna and forest zone to the south. Chronic drought, desertification, and overgrazing have contributed to severe famines in this area since 1970.

Back

Transculturation

Front

the two-way exchange of culture traits between societies in close contact

Back

Colonial Middle America and South America

Front

spain,portugal = iberian invaders

Back

Growth Pole

Front

An urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland.

Back

African Oil nations

Front

Sudan and Nigeria are 2 main producers, Five countries dominate Africa's upstream oil production. Together they account for 85% of the continent's oil production and are, in order of decreasing output, Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Angola

Back

Brazil Agriculture

Front

1. South - grains and oilseeds and export crops 2. North is drought ridden but they both produce mostly substence farming - exporters of forest products, cocoa, and tropical fruits

Back

Rwanda

Front

War takes place there between Hutu and Tutsis

Back

Rich vs. Poor South America

Front

Largest disparety in the world. The growth pole failed!

Back

Central Africa

Front

...

Back

African Bridge Language

Front

Swahili

Back

Size of Largest Countries

Front

Russia is largest in the world

Back

Urban South America

Front

brazil and specifically Sao Paulo, lots of japenese people

Back

Endemic and Pandemic Diseases

Front

Endemic - reffering to a disease in a host population that affects many people in a kind of equalibrium without causing rapid and widespread deaths (negative effects) Epidemic - A local or regional outbreak of disease Pandemic- A world outbreak of disease

Back

Subsistence Agriculture

Front

existing on the minimum necessities (or crops) to sustain life; spending most of ones time in pursuit of survival.

Back

Hutus

Front

fight war against the Tutsis.

Back