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Cards (914)

Section 1

(50 cards)

polymer

Front

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Back

hydrolysis

Front

a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water

Back

repetitive DNA

Front

nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome.

Back

metabolic rate

Front

the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time

Back

crossing over

Front

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis

Back

epiphyte

Front

plant that is not rooted in soil but instead grows directly on the body of another plant

Back

chemiosmosis

Front

a process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.

Back

transposons

Front

small mobile DNA segments

Back

positive feedback

Front

a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change

Back

gametes

Front

reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells

Back

thermoregulation

Front

the maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently

Back

meiosis

Front

a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells

Back

diatoms

Front

unicellular algae that have a unique glass-like wall made of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix

Back

parthenogenesis

Front

asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

Back

phosphorylation

Front

the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation

Back

inflammatory response

Front

nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain

Back

nitrogen fixation

Front

process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use (ammonia)

Back

fermentation

Front

the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen

Back

natural selection

Front

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully

Back

adaptations

Front

the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments

Back

symmetry

Front

the way an animal's body parts match up around a point or central line

Back

cephalization

Front

the concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of an organism

Back

phospholipids

Front

a molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail

Back

homeobox

Front

one of various similar homeotic genes that are involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development

Back

negative feedback

Front

a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus

Back

cellular respiration

Front

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

Back

genome project

Front

Research and technology development effort aimed at mapping and sequencing some or all of the genome of human beings and other organisms

Back

amoeba

Front

A type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia

Back

mutations

Front

random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity

Back

RNA splicing

Front

process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together

Back

acquired immunity

Front

immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease, or through inoculation (such as vaccination)

Back

gastrula

Front

an embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

Back

coelom

Front

fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm

Back

codons

Front

a three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

Back

transcription

Front

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in mRNA

Back

sexual reproduction

Front

process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent

Back

crop rotation

Front

the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land

Back

sustainable agriculture

Front

farming method that preserves long-term productivity of land and minimizes pollution

Back

epithelium

Front

membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body

Back

vestigial structures

Front

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species

Back

inductive reasoning

Front

reasoning based on observed patterns

Back

emergent properties

Front

new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

Back

ciliates

Front

a group of protozoans that move by waving tiny, hair-like organelles called cilia

Back

macrophages

Front

engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis

Back

protists

Front

single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom

Back

enzyme

Front

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Back

convergent evolution

Front

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments

Back

somatic cell

Front

cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes

Back

antigen

Front

substance that triggers an immune response

Back

physiology

Front

processes and functions of an organism

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

mitochondria

Front

powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar

Back

ribosomes

Front

non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

Back

vascular tissue

Front

tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants

Back

pleiotrophy

Front

the ability of a single gene to have multiple effects

Back

community

Front

a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

Back

cell differentiation

Front

the process of cell specialization

Back

thylakoids

Front

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy

Back

vasoconstriction

Front

narrowing of blood vessels

Back

eukaryotic cells

Front

contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes

Back

operon

Front

a group of genes that operate together

Back

mimicry

Front

the resemblance of an animal species to another species or to natural objects

Back

invertebrates

Front

animals without a backbone

Back

CAM plants

Front

store the organic acids made at night in vacuoles and use them for photosynthesis during the day when stomata are closed

Back

compound

Front

a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Back

sinoatrial node

Front

the heart's pacemaker, located in the wall of the right atrium

Back

echinoderms

Front

invertebrates with an internal skeleton and a system of fluid-filled tubes called a water vascular system

Back

hermaphrodite

Front

individual that has both male and female reproductive organs

Back

keystone species

Front

a species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem

Back

covalent bond

Front

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

Back

niche

Front

the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)

Back

bryophyte

Front

nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives

Back

prokaryotic

Front

describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria

Back

sliding filament model

Front

The theory explaining how muscle contracts, based on change within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril

Back

ion

Front

atom that has a positive or negative charge

Back

roots

Front

underground organs that absorb water and minerals

Back

smooth muscle

Front

a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)

Back

gene flow

Front

movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population

Back

homeotic genes

Front

any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals and plants by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells

Back

exoskeleton

Front

the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs

Back

platelets

Front

tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation

Back

heterozygous

Front

having two different alleles for a trait

Back

endometrium

Front

inner lining of the uterus

Back

perception

Front

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

Back

gametogenesis

Front

the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis

Back

fruit

Front

a mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal

Back

complete metamorphosis

Front

the transformation of a larva into an adult that looks very different, and often functions very differently in its environment, than the larva

Back

dormancy

Front

period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing

Back

hybridization

Front

the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids

Back

pollen grain

Front

male gametophyte in seed plants

Back

geographic variation

Front

differences in the genetic composition of separate populations

Back

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Front

theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency of alleles do not change; only occurs in large, isolated populations with random mating, and no natural selection or mutations

Back

disruptive selection

Front

form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

Back

hydrogen bond

Front

weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms

Back

hemoglobin

Front

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body

Back

oncogenes

Front

cancer-causing genes

Back

autotrophs

Front

organisms that make their own food

Back

photosynthesis

Front

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

Back

complete flowers

Front

a flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals

Back

alleles

Front

different forms of a gene

Back

seed

Front

embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

hormones

Front

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Back

protein kinase

Front

an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein

Back

signal transduction pathway

Front

a series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response

Back

peripheral proteins

Front

protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer

Back

amniotes

Front

their embryos are protected by external membranes

Back

endospore

Front

type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm

Back

placentals

Front

mammals who have offspring who develop inside placenta (humans)

Back

adhesion

Front

an attraction between molecules of different substances

Back

endothermic

Front

dependent on or capable of the internal generation of heat

Back

angiosperm

Front

a flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary

Back

vaccine

Front

a substance that stimulates the body to produce chemicals that destroy viruses or bacteria

Back

pandemic

Front

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

Back

flower

Front

the reproductive structure of an angiosperm

Back

pheromones

Front

chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species

Back

pathogens

Front

disease producing microorganisms

Back

caspid

Front

protein covering that surrounds a virus

Back

exponential growth

Front

growth of a population that multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals

Back

pollination

Front

the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants

Back

insulin

Front

protein hormone that helps to decrease blood sugar

Back

polar molecule

Front

molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end

Back

hydrophobic

Front

avoids water molecules

Back

barr body

Front

Inactivated X chromosome in females

Back

linkage map

Front

a genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes

Back

cohesion

Front

attraction between molecules of the same substance

Back

prions

Front

infectious protein particles that do not have a genome

Back

hypertonic

Front

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

Back

nondisjunction

Front

error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate

Back

cleavage

Front

the process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically, the succession of rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cells

Back

phototropism

Front

tendency of plants to grow toward a source of light

Back

osmosis

Front

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Back

habituation

Front

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

Back

chordates

Front

an animal phylum that has a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and gill slits at some time in its life cycle

Back

altruism

Front

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

Back

endocytosis

Front

process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane

Back

germ layer

Front

any of the 3 layers of cells differentiated in embryos following gastrulation

Back

endocrine glands

Front

glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream

Back

emigration

Front

movement of individuals out of an area

Back

conjugation

Front

form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information

Back

migration

Front

movement from one place to another

Back

symbiosis

Front

living together in mutually helpful association of two dissimilar organisms

Back

acrosomal reaction

Front

the discharge of hydrolytic enzymes from the acrosome, when the sperm contacts an egg

Back

ligand

Front

a molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule

Back

gibberellins

Front

Plant hormones that promote stem and leaf elongation

Back

hypothalamus

Front

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion

Back

survivorship curve

Front

graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species

Back

demography

Front

study of populations

Back

kinesis

Front

a change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus

Back

endosperm

Front

the food supply for a plant embryo found inside a seed

Back

viviparous

Front

producing living young (not eggs)

Back

sex-linked gene

Front

gene located on the X or Y chromosome

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

short term memory

Front

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten

Back

cancer

Front

a disease in which abnormal cells multiply out of control, spread into surrounding tissues and other body parts, and disrupt normal functioning of one or more organs

Back

circadian rhythms

Front

the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species

Back

antidiuretic hormone

Front

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water

Back

endergonic reaction

Front

a non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings

Back

half-life

Front

the period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays

Back

cerebral cortex

Front

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

Back

cladistics

Front

a system of phylogenetic analysis that uses shared and derived characters as the only criteria for grouping taxa

Back

telomerase

Front

an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres; the enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments

Back

greenhouse effect

Front

process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space

Back

chromatin

Front

long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes

Back

adenosine triphosphate

Front

the molecule that stores energy that can be used by the cell

Back

substrate

Front

specific reactant acted on by an enzyme

Back

okazaki fragments

Front

short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication

Back

protobionts

Front

collections of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane-like structure

Back

organic chemistry

Front

the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)

Back

entropy

Front

a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system

Back

species

Front

taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

Back

plasmids

Front

the small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering

Back

producers

Front

organisms that make their own food

Back

allopatric speciation

Front

the formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another

Back

pangea

Front

the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents

Back

urea

Front

the chief solid component of mammalian urine

Back

nephron

Front

any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney

Back

biological magnification

Front

increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web

Back

binary fission

Front

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

Back

transformation

Front

modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

Back

gel electrophoresis

Front

the separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel

Back

microevolution

Front

evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies

Back

ecology

Front

the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment

Back

club fungi

Front

a type of fungus that bears reproductive sperm externally, on club-shaped structures (basidia) at the tips of hyphae

Back

endosymbiosis

Front

process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes

Back

mitosis

Front

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Back

polyploidy

Front

the condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

Back

lichen

Front

symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism

Back

reflexes

Front

an automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse

Back

amygdale

Front

brain region that regulates emotions

Back

recombinant DNA

Front

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

Back

molds

Front

a type of fungus that consists of chains of cells and appears as a fuzzy mass of thin filaments in culture

Back

hydrocarbons

Front

organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen

Back

catabolic

Front

A process in which large molecules are broken down

Back

taxonomy

Front

study of the general principles of scientific classification

Back

pre-zygotic barriers

Front

a reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific mating is attempted

Back

hyphae

Front

the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi

Back

isomers

Front

compounds with the same formula but different structure

Back

polymerase chain reaction

Front

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

Back

apoptosis

Front

a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself

Back

helicases

Front

enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks

Back

excretion

Front

the process by which wastes are removed from the body

Back

phylogeny

Front

the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

stem

Front

supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them

Back

carnivore

Front

organism that obtains energy by eating animals

Back

bioremediation

Front

the use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems

Back

solute

Front

Something dissolved in a solution.

Back

biotic factor

Front

all the living things in an ecosystem

Back

disulphide bridges

Front

Reinforce tertiary structure.

Back

starch

Front

Storage polysaccharide of plants.

Back

polar

Front

Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.

Back

dispersal

Front

the movement of organisms from one place to another

Back

Fredrick Sanger

Front

Determined amino acid sequence of proteins.

Back

-ose

Front

Suffix of a sugar.

Back

aquaporins

Front

a transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane

Back

neurotransmitters

Front

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons

Back

cellulose

Front

Carbohydrate component of plant cell walls.

Back

cholesterol

Front

Steroid common in cell membranes, also in many hormones.

Back

introduced species

Front

nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat

Back

electronegativity

Front

Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.

Back

tryiacylglycerol

Front

Glycerol and three fatty acids.

Back

steroids

Front

Made of four rings of carbon.

Back

ganglia

Front

groups of nerve cell bodies that coordinate incoming and outgoing nerve signals

Back

glycogen

Front

Extremely branched polymer of glucose.

Back

turgid

Front

swollen and distended or congested

Back

minimum viable population

Front

the smallest population size at which a species is able to sustain its numbers and survive

Back

solvent

Front

Dissolving agent of a solution.

Back

primary structure

Front

Chain of amino acids.

Back

action potential

Front

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon; the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

Back

adhesion

Front

Water molecules sticking to other surfaces.

Back

alpha glucose

Front

Monomer for starch and glycogen.

Back

isomers

Front

Same atoms but different arrangement.

Back

secondary structure

Front

Either an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.

Back

cline

Front

a graded change in a trait along a geographic axis

Back

biomes

Front

a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions

Back

chitin

Front

Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.

Back

plasmodesmata

Front

channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells

Back

synaptic cleft

Front

space between two connecting neurons where neurotransmitters are released

Back

cohesion

Front

Water molecules sticking to each other.

Back

structural isomers

Front

Differ in arrangement of atoms.

Back

beta glucose

Front

Monomer for cellulose and chitin.

Back

peptide bond

Front

Bonds that connect amino acids.

Back

nonpolar

Front

No partial charges. Do not mix with water.

Back

transpiration

Front

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

Back

geometric isomer

Front

Differ in arrangement around a double bond.

Back

peristalsis

Front

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

Back

enantiomers

Front

Structures that are like a mirror-image.

Back

stomata

Front

the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

Back

conservation

Front

the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources

Back

tissue

Front

a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function

Back

malnourishment

Front

a nutritional imbalance caused by lack of specific dietary components or inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrients

Back

apical meristems

Front

embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length

Back

vitamins

Front

compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

phosphodiester bonds

Front

Bonds between phosphate group and pentose sugar in nucleic acids.

Back

macroevolution

Front

Evolutionary change above the species level.

Back

tertiary structure

Front

Results from interactions between side chains.

Back

digestion

Front

To break apart.

Back

speciation

Front

Origin of new species and the source of biological diversity.

Back

artificial selection

Front

Humans modifying species for desired traits through selective breeding.

Back

fitness

Front

Individuals whose inherited traits confer an advantage have a better chance of surviving in a given environment and will leave more offspring.

Back

homology

Front

Similarity resulting from common ancestry.

Back

evolutionary adaptation

Front

An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.

Back

purines

Front

Bases with a double-ring structure.

Back

geographic variation

Front

Difference in variation between population subgroups in different areas.

Back

bottleneck effect

Front

When a population has been dramatically reduced, and the gene pool is no longer reflective of the original population's.

Back

sexual dimorphism

Front

Differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics.

Back

stabilizing selection

Front

Shift that favors the mean.

Back

allele frequency

Front

Proportion of an allele in a gene pool.

Back

quaternary structure

Front

Results from two or more polypeptide subunits.

Back

genetic variation

Front

Heritable variations in a population.

Back

population

Front

Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.

Back

sexual recombination

Front

Crossing over and shuffling of genes during meiosis.

Back

founder effect

Front

When a small number of individuals colonize a new area; the new gene pool is not reflective of original population.

Back

comparative embryology

Front

Embryos of vertebrates share many anatomical homologies.

Back

genetic drift

Front

Change in allele frequencies due to chance.

Back

natural selection

Front

A population can change over time if individuals with more fit traits leave more offspring than less fit individuals.

Back

anabolism

Front

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.

Back

homologous structures

Front

Same structure, different function. Comes from common ancestor.

Back

microevolution

Front

Change in genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation.

Back

relative fitness

Front

Fitness of a particular genotype.

Back

decent with modification

Front

Darwin's way of referring to evolution.

Back

vestigial structures

Front

Are little or no importance to organism, but remain from an ancestor.

Back

population genetics

Front

Study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of evolutionary processes.

Back

mutation

Front

Changes in the nucleotide sequence in DNA.

Back

gene pool

Front

All the genes in a given population at a given time.

Back

quantitative characteristics

Front

Characteristics that vary along a continuum, usually due to influence of two or more genes.

Back

sexual selection

Front

Natural selection for mating success.

Back

directional selection

Front

Shift toward a favorable variation.

Back

biogeography

Front

Geographic distribution of species.

Back

heterozygous advantage

Front

Maintains recessive alleles in a population,

Back

gene flow

Front

When a population gains or loses alleles., movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population.

Back

catabolism

Front

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

Back

biological species concept

Front

Species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to produce fertile offspring.

Back

hydrolysis

Front

Reaction where water split into two hydrogens and one oxygen; this breaks a polymer.

Back

MRSA

Front

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Back

synthesis

Front

To put together.

Back

dehydration synthesis

Front

Condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.

Back

-in

Front

Suffix of a protein.

Back

discrete characteristics

Front

Characteristics that are classified on an either-or basis, determined by a single gene locus.

Back

pyrimidines

Front

Bases with a single-ring structure.

Back

disruptive selection

Front

Shift toward the extremes.

Back

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

Front

Helps measure changes in allele frequencies over time . Provides an "ideal" population to use as a basis of comparison.

Back

cline

Front

A graded change in a trait along a geographic axis.

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

autopolyploid

Front

Having more than two sets of chromosomes from a single species.

Back

shared derived character

Front

Evolutionary novelty unique to that clade.

Back

reduced hybrid viability

Front

When the genes of different species interact and impair hybrid development.

Back

specific epithet

Front

Second part of scientific name.

Back

shared primitive character

Front

Trait shared beyond the taxon.

Back

Miller and Urey Experiment

Front

Experiment that found that organic molecules can form in a strongly reducing atmosphere.

Back

temporal isolation

Front

When two species breed at different times of day, season, or years.

Back

homoplasies

Front

Analogous structures that have evolved independently.

Back

clade

Front

A taxonomic grouping that includes only a single ancestor and all of its descendants.

Back

heterochrony

Front

Change in the rate or timing of a developmental event ; an organism's shape depends on relative growth rate of body parts.

Back

postzygotic barriers

Front

Barriers that prevent the hybrid zygote from becoming a fertile adult.

Back

outgroups

Front

Species or group of species closely related to the ingroup.

Back

homeotic genes

Front

Genes that determine basic features of where a body part is.

Back

mechanical isolation

Front

Morphological differences prevent fertilization.

Back

reproductive isolation

Front

Barriers that impede members of two different species fro producing fertile offspring.

Back

behavioral isolation

Front

Incompatible courtship rituals, pheromones, or bird songs.

Back

orthologous genes

Front

Homologous genes passed in a straight line from one generation to the next.

Back

prezygotic barriers

Front

Barriers that impede mating or hinder fertilization.

Back

allometric growth

Front

Proportioning that gives a body a specific form.

Back

gametic isolation

Front

When sperm can't fertilize the eggs.

Back

analogy

Front

Anatomical similarity due to convergent evolution.

Back

adaptive radiation

Front

Evolution of many new species from a common ancestor as a result of introduction to new environments.

Back

paraphyletic group

Front

A monophyletic group in which some descendants of the common ancestor have been removed.

Back

allopolyploid

Front

Sterile hybrid is changed to a fertile polyploid due to mutation ; fertile with each other, but not parent species.

Back

hybrid breakdown

Front

Hybrid is fertile, but when they breed the next generation is sterile.

Back

allopatric speciation

Front

When a population is divided; leads to speciation.

Back

monophyletic group

Front

A taxonomic grouping that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.

Back

phylogenetic trees

Front

Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.

Back

paralogous genes

Front

Homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication.

Back

maximum likelihood

Front

A principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time.

Back

gradualism

Front

A model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity.

Back

cladogram

Front

Diagram that shows patterns of shared characteristics.

Back

gene families

Front

Groups of related genes in an organism's genome.

Back

genus

Front

First part of scientific name.

Back

habitat isolation

Front

When two species encounter each other only rarely.

Back

phylograms

Front

Diagram in which the length of a branch reflects number of changes in a DNA sequence.

Back

reduced hybrid fertility

Front

Sterile hybrids due to uneven chromosome number.

Back

cladistics

Front

A phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa.

Back

maximum parsimony

Front

"Occam's Razor." A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts.

Back

sympatric speciation

Front

Speciation without a divided population.

Back

punctuated equilibrium

Front

A model of evolution in which a new species will change the most as it buds from a parent species, and then will change little for the rest of its existence.

Back

ultrametric trees

Front

Diagram in which length of a branch reflects amounts of actual time.

Back

bionomial nomenclature

Front

Scientific name.

Back

polyploidy

Front

In plants, the result of an extra set of chromosomes during cell division.

Back

protobionts

Front

Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane.

Back

Hox genes

Front

Class of homeotic genes. Changes in these genes can have a profound impact on morphology.

Back

systematics

Front

Analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of present and past organisms.

Back

phylogeny

Front

Evolutionary history of a species or group of species.

Back

polyphyletic group

Front

A taxonomic grouping consisting of several species that lack a common ancestor (more work is needed to uncover species that tie them together into a monophyletic clade).

Back

taxonomy

Front

A classification of organisms into groups based on similarities.

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

serial endosymbiosis

Front

Sequence of endosymbiotic events that led to an ancestral eukaryote.

Back

microclimate

Front

Very fine patterns of climate influenced by features of the environment such as shade ares and wind patterns.

Back

actual range

Front

Area an organism actually occupies.

Back

methanogens

Front

Archaea that release methane, a greenhouse gas.

Back

taxis

Front

Movement toward or away from a stimulus.

Back

cocci

Front

Spherical bacteria.

Back

Gram stain

Front

Used to classify prokaryotes based on cell wall composition. Important for antibiotics; some antibiotics work on one but not the other.

Back

dispersal

Front

Movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or their area of origin.

Back

Gram-negative bacteria

Front

Bacteria that have complex cell walls with less peptidoglycan but with lipopolysaccharides. Very toxic and hard to treat.

Back

biota

Front

Biotic factors.

Back

biogeographic realms

Front

Broad patterns of distribution due to continental drift and barriers such as deserts and mountain ranges.

Back

antibiotic resistance

Front

Resistance evolving rapidly in many species of prokaryotes due to overuse of antibiotics, especially in agriculture.

Back

lyse

Front

Cell bursting.

Back

bacilli

Front

Rod-shaped bacteria.

Back

conjugation

Front

In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.

Back

biome

Front

Major types of ecological association that occupy broad geographic regions.

Back

potential range

Front

An area where an organism could potentially survive and reproduce.

Back

plasmids

Front

Small rings of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in addition to the main bacterial chromosome. Can contain genes for antibiotic resistance, or other "contingency" functions.

Back

chemoautotrophs

Front

Organisms that use hydrogen sulfide or other chemicals as energy source instead of light.

Back

Gram-positive bacteria

Front

Bacteria that have simple cell walls with much peptidoglycan.

Back

antibiotics

Front

Interfere with production of peptidoglycan; harm bacteria but not eukaryotes.

Back

archaea

Front

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls lacking peptidoglycan. Like eukaryotes, DNA contains histone proteins.

Back

photoautotrophs

Front

Photosynthetic bacteria.

Back

stromatolites

Front

Oldest known fossils formed from many layers of bacteria and sediment.

Back

population density

Front

The size of the population within a particular unit of space.

Back

macroclimate

Front

Patterns on the global, regional and local level.

Back

extremophiles

Front

Archaea that live in extreme environments.

Back

abiotic factors

Front

Nonliving components of environment.

Back

pilli

Front

Hollow tubes used to move cells or exchange DNA between bacteria by conjunction.

Back

species transplant

Front

Movement of a species to areas where it was previously absent.

Back

ecology

Front

Study of interactions between organisms and the environment.

Back

liposomes

Front

Membrane-bound droplets that form when lipids are added to water.

Back

thermophiles

Front

Archaea that thrive in very hot environments, such as volcanic springs.

Back

capsule

Front

Covers the cell wall in prokaryotes.

Back

endosymbiotic theory

Front

Ancestors of mitochondria and plastids was prokaryotes that came to live in a host cell.

Back

community

Front

All species that inhabit an area.

Back

endospore

Front

A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.

Back

genetic annealing

Front

Horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and archae.

Back

peptidoglycan

Front

Cell wall of prokaryotes, but NOT ARCHAEA. Made of a sugar polymer and polypeptide.

Back

radioisotopes

Front

Isotopes that have unstable nuclei and undergo radioactive decay.

Back

biosphere

Front

The sum of all ecosystems.

Back

plasmolyze

Front

When the membrane shrinks away from the cell wall as a result of water loss.

Back

spirilla

Front

Spiral bacteria.

Back

dispersion

Front

Pattern of spacing among individuals.

Back

climate

Front

Prevailing weather conditions of an area.

Back

radiometric dating

Front

Dating using decay of radioactive isotopes.

Back

biotic factors

Front

All the plant and animal life of a particular region.

Back

turnover

Front

Seasonal changes in warm and cool water layers in lakes.

Back

the three-domain system

Front

Domains Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.

Back

colonies

Front

Collections of autonomously replicating cells.

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

uniform dispersion

Front

The pattern in which individuals are equally spaced throughout a habitat.

Back

territoriality

Front

Defense of a space against encroachment by other individuals.

Back

Type II

Front

Curve that represents constant death rate over lifespan small animals and invertebrates.

Back

per capita death rate

Front

Expected number of deaths in a population in a specified period of time.

Back

Batesian mimicry

Front

Species mimics the appearance of an unpalatable or harmful.

Back

niche

Front

Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources; an organism's "role".

Back

cohort

Front

A group of individuals of the same age.

Back

resource partitioning

Front

Differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist.

Back

zero population growth (ZPG)

Front

When per capita birth and death rates are equal. (r = 0)

Back

density-dependent regulation

Front

When birth or death rates do change with population density.

Back

iteroparity

Front

Repeated reproduction.

Back

reproductive rates

Front

Study of females to determine reproductive output and how it varies with age of female.

Back

life tables

Front

Age-specific summaries of survival patterns of a population.

Back

Type III

Front

Curve that drops sharply at the start then levels off once individuals reach a critical age, as seen in organisms that produce large numbers of offspring.

Back

life expectancy at birth

Front

Predicted average length of life at birth.

Back

density-independent regulation

Front

When birth or death rates do not change with population density.

Back

reproductive table (fertility schedule)

Front

Age-specific summary of reproductive rates in a population.

Back

clumped dispersion

Front

The most common pattern of dispersion; individuals aggregated in patches.

Back

competitive exclusion

Front

Strong competition can lead to local elimination of one of the species.

Back

exponential growth

Front

Population increase under ideal conditions, when r > 0. Forms a J-shaped curve.

Back

big-bang reproduction

Front

Species that have only a single reproductive opportunity, such as agave and salmon.

Back

aposematic coloration

Front

Bright warning colors in animals with a chemical defense.

Back

cryptic coloration

Front

Camouflage; makes an organism difficult to spot.

Back

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Front

Two species competing for same limiting resource cannot coexist in one place; one species will have an advantage that will eventually lead to competitive exclusion

Back

survivorship curves

Front

Graph of the proportion of a cohort still alive at each age.

Back

Type I

Front

Curve that shows low death rate at early and mid-life and drops at old age, as seen in humans and large animals.

Back

interspecific competition

Front

Species compete for a limiting resource. (-/-)

Back

age structure

Front

Relative number of individuals at each age.

Back

per capita offspring

Front

Average number of offspring produced per individual during a specified period of time.

Back

repeated reproduction

Front

Species that reproduce over and over.

Back

reproductive rate

Front

Difference between per capita birth and per capita death rates.

Back

realized niche

Front

The niche species actually occupies.

Back

carrying capacity (K)

Front

Maximum population size that a particular environment can support.

Back

K - selected species

Front

Life history traits sensitive to population density. Small number of large offspring, extensive parental care, repeated reproduction.

Back

demography

Front

Study of vital statistics of a population and how they change over time.

Back

metapopulation

Front

When many populations are linked.

Back

ecological footprint

Front

Land and water area appropriated by each nation as a resource to consume or to absorb the waste it generates.

Back

r-selected species

Front

Life history traits maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments. Many small offspring that mature quickly, little if any parental care.

Back

mark-recapture method

Front

A sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations.

Back

logistic growth

Front

When limiting factors restrict size of population to the carrying capacity of the environment. Forms an S-shaped curve.

Back

immigration

Front

New individuals moving into population. Increases population size.

Back

demographic transition

Front

Movement from a high birth rate, high death rate to a low birth rate, low death rate.

Back

random dispersion

Front

Random spacing of individuals of the same species within an area.

Back

ecological niche

Front

Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources.

Back

life history

Front

Traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival.

Back

semelparity

Front

Big-bang reproduction.

Back

character displacement

Front

Tendency of characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations than allopatric populations.

Back

infant mortality

Front

Number of infant deaths per thousand live births.

Back

fundamental niche

Front

The niche species could potentially occupy.

Back

emigration

Front

Movement out of population. Decreases population size.

Back

Section 10

(50 cards)

invasive species

Front

Species generally introduced by humans, that take hold outside of their native range.

Back

secondary succession

Front

Succession when an existing community has been cleared, but soil left intact.

Back

detritivores

Front

Obtain energy from detritus.

Back

dominant species

Front

Species that are the most abundant or have the most biomass.

Back

eutrophication

Front

Sewage and fertilizer runoff adds nutrients to lakes; phytoplankton decreases and cyanobacteria increases.

Back

equatorial-polar gradients

Front

Species diversity highest at equator, decreases toward poles.

Back

ecosystem

Front

Consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.

Back

gross primary production (GPP)

Front

Amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis.

Back

island equilibrium model

Front

Islands great for study due to isolation and limited size; can study species diversity and extinction rates.

Back

coevolution

Front

Reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species.

Back

disturbance

Front

An event, such as storm, fire, flood, drought, overgrazing or human activity, that changes a community and alters resource availability.

Back

food web

Front

Linked food chains.

Back

energy hypothesis

Front

Length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer.

Back

dynamic stability hypothesis

Front

Long food chains are less stable than short chains.

Back

light limitation

Front

Depth to which light penetrates limits primary production.

Back

species diversity

Front

Variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community.

Back

quaternary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats tertiary consumers.

Back

primary consumer

Front

Herbivore.

Back

biomanipulation

Front

Technique for restoring eutrophic lakes that reduces populations of algae by manipulating higher-level consumers.

Back

foundation species

Front

Cause physical changes in environment that affect community structure.

Back

producer

Front

Autotroph.

Back

mutualism

Front

Interspecific interaction that benefits both species. (+/+)

Back

relative abundance

Front

The proportion of each species.

Back

species-area curve

Front

The larger the geographic area, the greater the number of species.

Back

net primary production (NPP)

Front

Energy used by primary producers for respiration.

Back

ecological succession

Front

Gradual recolonization of a disturbed area; species replaced by other species which are replaced by other species.

Back

pioneer species

Front

The first species that colonize new area, such as lichen and mosses.

Back

evapotranspiration

Front

Evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration from plants. Correlates with species richness.

Back

actual evapotranspiration

Front

Annual amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from landscape.

Back

detritus

Front

Nonliving organic maters such as remains of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves, dead wood.

Back

limiting nutrient

Front

Greater limiting factor than light in oceans and lakes.

Back

keystone species

Front

Not necessarily abundant, but exert a strong control on community structure due to a pivotal ecological role.

Back

top-down model

Front

Influence moves from top trophic levels to bottom. (V <-- H)

Back

intermediate disturbance

Front

Moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity.

Back

Müllerian mimicry

Front

Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.

Back

bottom-up model

Front

Unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels. (V --> H)

Back

primary production

Front

Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs.

Back

ectoparasites

Front

Parasites that feed on external surface of host.

Back

human disturbance

Front

Reduces species diversity in all communities.

Back

parasitoidism

Front

Insects that lay eggs on or in living host; larvae feed on body of host, eventually killing it. (+/-)

Back

endoparasites

Front

Parasites that live within the body of their host.

Back

commensalism

Front

Interaction between species that benefits one but neither helps or harms the other. (+/0)

Back

species richness

Front

Total number of different species.

Back

secondary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats herbivores.

Back

nonequilibrium model

Front

Communities are constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances.

Back

biomass

Front

Total dry mass of all individuals in a population.

Back

primary succession

Front

Succession that begins in a virtually lifeless area.

Back

tertiary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats carnivores.

Back

facilitators

Front

Foundation species have positive effects on other species.

Back

trophic structure

Front

Feeding relationships between organisms in a community.

Back

Section 11

(50 cards)

peroxisome

Front

A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

Back

production efficiency

Front

The fraction of energy stored in food that was not used for cell respiration.

Back

mitochondria

Front

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.

Back

thylakoids

Front

Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.

Back

pyramids of numbers

Front

Number of organisms at each trophic level.

Back

vesicle

Front

Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.

Back

Greenhouse Effect

Front

Carbon dioxide and water vapor in atmosphere trap infrared radiation, re-reflecting it back toward earth.

Back

biological augmentation

Front

Uses organisms to add essential materials to degraded ecosystems.

Back

Golgi apparatus

Front

Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Back

chromosomes

Front

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

Back

smooth ER

Front

Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells).

Back

Green World Hypothesis

Front

Terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by predators, parasites and disease.

Back

contractile vacuoles

Front

A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.

Back

turnover time

Front

Standing crop biomass compared to production.

Back

stroma

Front

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

Back

diffusion

Front

When a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Due to entropy.

Back

cell wall

Front

Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Back

bioremediation

Front

Use of living organisms such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants to detoxify polluted ecosystems.

Back

eukaryotic cells

Front

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

Back

biological magnification

Front

Toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels.

Back

critical load

Front

The amount of added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem.

Back

cytoplasmic streaming

Front

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.

Back

cristae

Front

Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

Back

pyramid of energy

Front

90% of all energy is lost between trophic levels.

Back

osmosis

Front

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Back

cytoplasm

Front

The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Back

chloroplasts

Front

Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

Back

10% rule

Front

Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.

Back

pyramids of biomass

Front

Each on this pyramid tier represents standing crop.

Back

chromatin

Front

The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.

Back

nuclear lamina

Front

A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.

Back

threatened species

Front

Species that is likely to become endangered.

Back

nucleolus

Front

Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.

Back

lysosome

Front

A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.

Back

glycoprotein

Front

A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.

Back

endangered species

Front

Species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

Back

endomembrane system

Front

A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

Back

transport vesicles

Front

Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.

Back

plasma membrane

Front

The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

Back

restoration ecology

Front

Applies ecological principles in an effort to return degraded ecosystems to conditions as similar as possible to their natural state.

Back

ozone layer

Front

Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.

Back

nuclear envelope

Front

Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.

Back

cytosol

Front

The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes.

Back

trophic efficiency

Front

Percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.

Back

conservation biology

Front

Integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity.

Back

secondary production

Front

Amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to new biomass.

Back

phagocytosis

Front

Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

Back

rough ER

Front

A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

Back

cytoskeleton

Front

Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.

Back

organelles

Front

Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.

Back

Section 12

(50 cards)

cytolysis

Front

This happens when a cell swells until pressure bursts it, resulting in cell death.

Back

integral proteins

Front

Integral proteins that span the membrane.

Back

turgid

Front

A cell with a cell wall that has a reasonable amount of pressure but is healthy.

Back

selective permeability

Front

A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

Back

ligand

Front

Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

Back

signal transduction

Front

A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell.

Back

pressure potential

Front

This measurement has a minimum value of 0 (when the solution is open to the environment); it increases as pressure increases.

Back

electrochemical gradient

Front

The combination of forces that acts on membrane potential.

Back

pinocytosis

Front

A type of endocytosis in which the cell "gulps" droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles.

Back

isotonic

Front

Describes solutions that have an equal concentration of total solutes.

Back

crenation

Front

This happens when a cell shrinks and shrivels; can result in cell death if severe.

Back

flaccid

Front

This happens when water moves, but the amount within the cell is constant; no pressure builds.

Back

passive transport

Front

Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion. No cell energy required.

Back

turgor pressure

Front

The pressure inside of a cell as a cell pushes itself against the cell wall.

Back

peripheral proteins

Front

The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.

Back

enzymatic activity

Front

A protein built into the membrane with active site exposed.

Back

active transport

Front

When a cell gets materials or excretes them by using its own energy, usually through ATP; going against a concentration gradient.

Back

proton pump

Front

An electrogenic pump that works largely with H+ ions.

Back

plasmolysis

Front

This happens when a cell shrinks inside its cell wall while the cell wall remains intact.

Back

intercellular joining

Front

The function of membrane proteins in which membrane proteins of adjacent cells hook together, as in gap junctions or tight junctions.

Back

hypertonic

Front

Describes a solution that has a greater concentration of total solute.

Back

concentration gradient

Front

A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.

Back

membrane potential

Front

The voltage of a plasma membrane.

Back

dialysis

Front

The diffusion of small solutes through a selectively permeable membrane.

Back

receptor-mediated

Front

A type of endocytosis in which the cell acquires bulk quantities of specific substances, even though they may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid.

Back

endocytosis

Front

Occurs when a cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.

Back

transport protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.

Back

glycoproteins

Front

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins.

Back

hypotonic

Front

Describes a solution that has a lesser concentration of total solute.

Back

cotransport

Front

The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

Back

solute potential

Front

This measurement has a maximum value of 0; it decreases as the concentration of a solute increases.

Back

exocytosis

Front

Occurs when a cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.

Back

electrogenic pump

Front

A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane, causing a net separation in charge.

Back

osmoregulation

Front

The control of water balance.

Back

water potential

Front

The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.

Back

transport

Front

An exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes.

Back

phagocytosis

Front

Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

Back

cell-cell recognition

Front

The function of membrane proteins in which some glycoproteins serve as ID tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells.

Back

glycolipids

Front

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.

Back

local regulators

Front

These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.

Back

gated channel

Front

A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.

Back

amphipathic

Front

Molecules are said to be this when it has regions that are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.

Back

facilitated diffusion

Front

Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy.

Back

tonicity

Front

The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water; depends partly on concentration of nonpenetrating solutes relative to inside of cell.

Back

channel protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.

Back

transmembrane proteins

Front

Integral proteins that span the membrane.

Back

signal transduction pathway

Front

The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.

Back

aquaporin

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.

Back

carrier protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that holds onto molecules and changes their shapes in a way that shuttles them across the membrane.

Back

fluid mosaic model

Front

Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.

Back

Section 13

(50 cards)

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Front

The metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, nonstressed endotherm.

Back

abdominal cavity

Front

Cavity housing intestines.

Back

second messengers

Front

Small, non-protein water soluble molecules or ions that send messages throughout the cells by diffusion.

Back

chondrocytes

Front

Cells that secrete cartilage.

Back

blood

Front

Connective tissue made of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

Back

tissues

Front

Groups of cells with a common structure and function.

Back

endothermic

Front

Animals that are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism.

Back

basement membrane

Front

Cells at the base of an epithelial layer are attached to this.

Back

fibroblasts

Front

In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.

Back

simple epithelium

Front

Single layer of cells.

Back

protein phosphatases

Front

Enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins.

Back

squamous epithelium

Front

Cells that are like floor tiles.

Back

macrophages

Front

Amoeboid cells that roam connective tissue and engulf foreign particles and debris of dead cells.

Back

inositol triphosphate

Front

Produced by cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.

Back

collagenous fibers

Front

Fibers made of collagen.

Back

adipose tissue

Front

Tissue that stores fat.

Back

organs

Front

Tissues are organized into:, group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

Back

metabolic rate

Front

Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time; the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions.

Back

hormones

Front

Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travels in body fluids, and act on specific target cells.

Back

fibrous connective tissue

Front

Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers organized into parallel bundles. Includes ligaments and tendons.

Back

skeletal muscle

Front

Muscle that is striated, multinucleated.

Back

osteoblasts

Front

Bone-forming cells.

Back

ligaments

Front

Join bones to bones at joints.

Back

bioenergetics

Front

Flow of energy through an animal. Limits its behavior, growth, reproduction.

Back

physiology

Front

Study of the functions an organism performs.

Back

connective tissue

Front

Tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues.

Back

columnar epithelium

Front

Cells shaped like bricks standing on end.

Back

mesenteries

Front

Sheets of connective tissue in moist or fluid-filled body cavities.

Back

cartilage

Front

Made of collagenous fibers in matrix of chondroitin sulfate.

Back

loose connective tissue

Front

Tissue that binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Contains collagenous, elastic, and recticular fibers.

Back

bone

Front

Mineralized connective tissue.

Back

cubiodal epithelium

Front

Dice-shaped cells.

Back

mucous membrane

Front

Membrane that secretes mucus that lubricates the surface of organs and keeps them moist.

Back

epithelial tissue

Front

Tissue that covers outside of the body and lines organs and cavities.

Back

muscle tissue

Front

Tissue made of cells capable of contracting.

Back

glandualar epithelia

Front

Tissue that absorbs or secretes chemical solutions.

Back

exothermic

Front

Animals that gain heat mostly from external sources.

Back

reticular fibers

Front

Fibers made of collagen fibers that are very thin and branched. Forma tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues.

Back

elastic fibers

Front

Fibers made of elastin.

Back

scaffolding proteins

Front

A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached to increase the efficiency of signal transduction.

Back

cardiac muscle

Front

Muscle that is branched, striated, singe nucleated.

Back

ligand

Front

Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

Back

tendons

Front

Attach muscles to bones.

Back

stratified epithelium

Front

Multiples tiers of cells.

Back

adenylyl cyclase

Front

Converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to an extracellular signal.

Back

anatomy

Front

Study of the structure of an organism.

Back

thoracic cavity

Front

cavity housing lungs and heart

Back

nervous tissue

Front

Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals.

Back

protein kinase

Front

The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.

Back

smooth muscle

Front

Muscle that is not striated, is single nucleated.

Back

Section 14

(50 cards)

cellular respiration

Front

When oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.

Back

conformer

Front

An animal that allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes.

Back

thermoregulation

Front

Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

Back

heat-shock proteins

Front

Proteins that help maintain integrity of other proteins that would normally be denatured in extreme heat.

Back

enzyme

Front

A catalytic protein.

Back

active site

Front

A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme.

Back

kinetic energy

Front

Energy associated with relative motion of objects.

Back

induced fit

Front

Brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction.

Back

competitive inhibitors

Front

Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.

Back

torpor

Front

Physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases.

Back

metabolic pathway

Front

Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product.

Back

vasoconstriction

Front

Reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial blood vessels.

Back

entropy

Front

A measure of disorder or randomness.

Back

catabolic pathways

Front

Metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.

Back

potential energy

Front

Occurs when an object is not moving, but may still posses energy.

Back

allosteric regulation

Front

When a protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site.

Back

phosphorylation

Front

The metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.

Back

standard metabolic rate (SMR)

Front

The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, nonstressed ectotherm.

Back

thermal energy

Front

Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms.

Back

vasodialation

Front

Increases in the diameter of superficial blood vessels; cools the body.

Back

homeostasis

Front

"Steady state" or "constant internal milieu".

Back

estivation

Front

Summer torpor. Enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.

Back

brown fat

Front

Tissue in neck and between shoulders of some mammals that is specialized for rapid heat production.

Back

interstitial fluid

Front

Watery, internal environment of vertebrates.

Back

acclimatization

Front

Adjusting to a new range of environmental temperatures.

Back

countercurrent heat exchanger

Front

In ectotherms, a circulatory adaptation that is an arrangement of blood vessels that warm or cool the blood.

Back

fermentation

Front

A partial degradation of sugars that occur without the use of oxygen.

Back

catalyst

Front

A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

Back

endergonic reaction

Front

Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.

Back

coenzyme

Front

If the cofactor is an organic molecule.

Back

energy coupling

Front

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.

Back

positive feedback

Front

A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will amplify the change. Takes organism away from a steady state.

Back

nonshivering thermogenesis (NST)

Front

When hormones cause mitochondria to produce heat instead of ATP in some mammals.

Back

hibernation

Front

Long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.

Back

first law of thermodynamics

Front

Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

Back

noncompetitive inhibitors

Front

Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).

Back

anabolic pathways

Front

Metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.

Back

activation energy

Front

The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.

Back

enzyme-substrate complex

Front

When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:

Back

exergonic reaction

Front

Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.

Back

negative feedback

Front

A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will counteract the change. Maintains a steady state.

Back

cofactor

Front

Non-protein helpers that may be bound tightly to the enzyme as a permanent resident, or may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate.

Back

feedback inhibition

Front

A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.

Back

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Front

Composed of a sugar ribose, nitrogenous base adenine, and a chain of three phosphate groups bonded to it.

Back

cooperativity

Front

It amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates.

Back

regulator

Front

An animal that uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuation.

Back

daily torpor

Front

in small mammals and birds, daily lowering of metabolism that allows them to survive on stored energy

Back

bioenergenetics

Front

The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.

Back

second law of thermodynamics

Front

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

Back

free energy

Front

Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.

Back

Section 15

(50 cards)

acetyl-CoA

Front

Is formed when pyruvate first enters into the mitochondria via active transport.

Back

epitope

Front

Small, accessible portion of an antigen that can be recognized.

Back

humoral immune response

Front

The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.

Back

immunoglobulins

Front

Secreted antibodies.

Back

ATP synthase

Front

The enzyme that make ATP from ADPand inorganic phosphate.

Back

proton-motive force

Front

Emphasizes the capactiy of the gradient to preform work.

Back

thymus

Front

Gland in the thoracic cavity above the heart where T lymphocytes mature.

Back

oxidizing agent

Front

B oxidizes A by removing A's electrons.

Back

cell-mediated immune response

Front

The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.

Back

neutrophils

Front

Most abundant white blood cell., The most abundant type of white blood cell. Phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.

Back

histamine

Front

Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and increased permeability of capillaries.

Back

citric acid cycle

Front

Completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.

Back

anaerobic

Front

Occurs by fermentation, which generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation.

Back

memory cells

Front

General term for lymphocytes that are responsible for immunological memory and protective immunity.

Back

antigen

Front

Any foreign molecule that is specifically recognized by lymphocytes and elicits an immune response.

Back

electron transport chain

Front

Breaks the fall of electrons to oxygen in several energy-releasing steps.

Back

antigen presentation

Front

The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.

Back

substrate-level phosphorylation

Front

When an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule.

Back

secondary immune response

Front

Immune response after the body has already been exposed to a specific antigen. Response is faster, of greater magnitude, and more prolonged.

Back

B lymphocytes (B cells)

Front

Lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and secretes antibodies.

Back

active immunity

Front

A form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens.

Back

passive immunity

Front

Immunity conferred by transferring antibodies from an individual who is immune to a pathogen to another individual.

Back

oxidation

Front

Loss of electrons.

Back

primary immune response

Front

Immune response the first time the body is exposed to a particular antigen. Does not peak until 10-17 days after exposure.

Back

acquired immunity

Front

Immunity that is present only after exposure and is highly specific.

Back

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Front

The most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection.

Back

graft versus host reaction

Front

When lymphocytes in donated bone marrow react against the recipient.

Back

lymphocytes

Front

White blood cells.

Back

complement system

Front

A group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse extracellular pathogens.

Back

redox reactions

Front

When there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another.

Back

helper T cells

Front

Activate macrophages, B cells and T cells.

Back

interferon

Front

Protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a virus; helps other cells resist the virus.

Back

glycolosis

Front

Breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.

Back

anaphylactic shock

Front

A severe reaction that occurs when an allergen is introduced to the bloodstream of an allergic individual. Characterized by bronchoconstriction, labored breathing, widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death.

Back

autoimmune diseases

Front

Diseases caused when the immune system loses tolerance for self and turns against certain molecules in the body.

Back

antibodies

Front

Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.

Back

lactic acid fermetation

Front

When pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactic as am end product, with no release of carbon dioxide.

Back

innate immunity

Front

Immunity that is present before exposure and effective from birth. Responds to a broad range of pathogens.

Back

reduction

Front

Gain of electrons.

Back

natural killer (NK) cells

Front

These cells kill cancer cells and cells infected with viruses. They bind to their targets and deliver a lethal burst of chemicals to produce holes in the target cell's membrane leading to its destruction.

Back

inflammtory response

Front

Innate response with the purpose of containing a site of damage, localizing the response, eliminating the invader and restore tissue function.

Back

T lymphocytes (T cells)

Front

Lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and acts directly against antigens in cell-mediated immune responses.

Back

chemiosmosis

Front

When energy is stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane which is used to drive cellular work.

Back

immunization

Front

The deliberate exposure of a pathogen to produce memory cells.

Back

Rh factor

Front

Refers to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen on red blood cells.

Back

facultative anaerobes

Front

Can make enough ATP to survive using using fermentation or respiration.

Back

oxidative phosphorylation

Front

When energy is released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP.

Back

reducing agent

Front

A reduces B, which accepts the donated electrons.

Back

alcohol fermentation

Front

When pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps.

Back

B cell receptor

Front

The antigen receptor on B cells: a Y-Shaped, membrane-bound molecule consisting of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains linked by disulfide bridges and containing two antigen-binding sites.

Back

Section 16

(50 cards)

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Front

Includes the brain and spinal cord.

Back

pattern formation

Front

The development of a spatial organization of tissues and organs.

Back

presynaptic cell

Front

The transmitting neuron in a synapse.

Back

fate maps

Front

A labor-intensive study to produce useful territorial diargams of embryonic development.

Back

action potential

Front

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

Back

serotonin

Front

A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.

Back

glucagon

Front

The antagonist of insulin that helps increase blood sugar. It stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose.

Back

dopamine

Front

Important neurotransmitter in the CNS that acts on the sympathetic nervous system.

Back

motor neurons

Front

Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.

Back

oligodendrocytes

Front

Type of glial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.

Back

major histocompatibility compex (MHC)

Front

Binds to a fragment of an antigen within a cell and presents it on the surface of the membrane.

Back

nodes of Ranvier

Front

Gaps in the myelin sheath to which voltage-gated sodium channels are confined.

Back

endocrine signaling

Front

Specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system, by which they travel to target cells in other parts of the body.

Back

synaptic vesicles

Front

Membrane-bounded compartments in which synthesized neurotransmitters are kept.

Back

cell body

Front

Contains most of a neuron's organelles and its nucleus.

Back

dendrites

Front

Highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons.

Back

cytotoxic T cells or "killer T cells"

Front

T cells that directly attack infecting organisms; these cells attack antigen labeled foreign or host tissue.

Back

postsynaptic cell

Front

The neuron, muscle, or gland cell that receives the signal from a neuron.

Back

insulin

Front

Hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to decrease blood sugar.

Back

Schwann cells

Front

Type of glia in the PNS, Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.

Back

depolarization

Front

The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.

Back

prostaglandins

Front

Modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells.

Back

nitric oxide (NO)

Front

Local regulator that regulates blood oxygen levels, A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.

Back

threshold potential

Front

The minimum membrane potential that must be reached in order for an action potential to be generated.

Back

edocrine glands

Front

Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Back

paracrine signaling

Front

Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells.

Back

growth factors

Front

Factors that stimulate the cell to divide.

Back

epinephrine

Front

Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline.

Back

T cell receptor

Front

Antigen receptors on a T cell. Unlike antibodies, T cell receptors are never produced in a secreted form.

Back

endocrine system

Front

The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity.

Back

membrane potential

Front

The voltage across a cell's plasma membrane.

Back

morphogenesis

Front

The process by which an organism takes shape and the differentiated cells occupy their appropriate locations.

Back

positional information

Front

The molecular cues that control pattern formation.

Back

acetylcholine

Front

Common vertebrate neurotransmitter, especially in neuromuscular junctions.

Back

neurotransmitters

Front

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.

Back

hormone

Front

The secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.

Back

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Front

The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.

Back

synaptic cleft

Front

The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.

Back

myelin sheath

Front

A layer of electrical insulation that surrounds the axon.

Back

resting potential

Front

The membrane potential of a neuron that is at rest.

Back

axon hillock

Front

Cone shaped region of an axon where it joins the cell body.

Back

synaptic terminal

Front

A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.

Back

norepinephrine

Front

A precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses.

Back

axon

Front

Long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron.

Back

voltage-gated ion channels

Front

Channels that open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential.

Back

cell differentiation

Front

Cell specialization in structure and function.

Back

sensory neurons

Front

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.

Back

cytokines

Front

Chemicals released by the immune system communicate with the brain.

Back

neurosecretory cells

Front

Neurons that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter.

Back

synapse

Front

The junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle.

Back

Section 17

(50 cards)

imprinting

Front

Includes both learning and innate components, generally irreversible.

Back

enteric division

Front

One of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system; consists of networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder.

Back

midbrain

Front

Region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight.

Back

neuron

Front

Structural and functional unit of nervous system.

Back

proximate questions

Front

Address environmental stimuli, genetic, physiological, and anatomical causes of a behavior.

Back

cerebral cortex

Front

Interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

Back

operant conditioning

Front

Learning based on the consequences of responding.

Back

cerebral hemispheres

Front

The right and left halves of the cerebrum.

Back

cerebrum

Front

Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.

Back

fixed action patterns (FAP)

Front

A sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is unchangeable and usually carried to completion.

Back

recticular formation

Front

Registers and controls activity level, increases excitement, and helps generate sleep.

Back

migration

Front

Relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.

Back

glutamate

Front

The most common neurotransmitter in the brain. Excitatory.

Back

parasympathetic division

Front

A branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body ever conserves energy.

Back

classical conditioning

Front

An arbitrary stimulus is associated with an award or punishment.

Back

ethology

Front

The scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environments.

Back

cognitive maps

Front

An internal representation of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings.

Back

thalamus

Front

Major input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum and the main output center for motor information leaving the cerebrum.

Back

cerebellum

Front

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.

Back

behavior

Front

The way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment.

Back

astrocytes

Front

Provide structural and metabolic support for neurons.

Back

medulla oblongata

Front

Contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.

Back

hindbrain

Front

The posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem.

Back

GABA

Front

An inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Back

ultimate questions

Front

Address evolutionary significance of a behavior.

Back

sympathetic division

Front

The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats.

Back

taxis

Front

Automatic, oriented movement toward or away from some stimuli.

Back

brainstem

Front

The oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.

Back

biological clock

Front

An innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions.

Back

communication

Front

Signals among animals that include sounds, odors, visual displays, and touches that produce responses.

Back

cognition

Front

The ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors.

Back

sensitive period

Front

A limited phase in an animal's development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned.

Back

white matter

Front

Whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths.

Back

innate behavior

Front

A behavior that is developmentally fixed.

Back

habituation

Front

A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information.

Back

forebrain

Front

The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.

Back

associative learning

Front

The ability of animals to associate one feature with another.

Back

endorphins

Front

Natural analgesics that decrease pain perception.

Back

grey matter

Front

The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons. Unmyelinated.

Back

sign stimulus

Front

External sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern.

Back

autonomic nervous system

Front

The part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands.

Back

glial cells

Front

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.

Back

signal

Front

A behavior that causes change in another's behavior.

Back

effector cells

Front

Muscle cells or gland cells that carry out the body's response to stimuli.

Back

ganglion

Front

A cluster of nerve cell bodies, often of similar function, located in the PNS.

Back

spatial learning

Front

The modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment.

Back

corpus callosum

Front

Nerves that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

Back

kinesis

Front

A simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimuli.

Back

learning

Front

The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.

Back

circadian rhythms

Front

The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.

Back

Section 18

(50 cards)

binary fission

Front

A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.

Back

centrosome

Front

A structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop.

Back

culture

Front

A system of information transfer through influential social learning or teaching.

Back

inclusive fitness

Front

The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.

Back

monogamous

Front

One male mating with one female.

Back

growth factors

Front

Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.

Back

chromatin

Front

The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.

Back

metaphase plate

Front

Plane midway between the two poles of the cell where chromosomes line up during metaphase.

Back

asters

Front

Microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles.

Back

polygyny

Front

One male, several females.

Back

allele

Front

One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.

Back

foraging

Front

Behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food.

Back

restriction point

Front

A point of no return in the cell cycle; once this point passes, a cell is committed to a full round of the cell cycle.

Back

coefficient of relatedness

Front

Probability that if two individuals share common parent or ancestor, a particular gene present in one will be present in other.

Back

G2 phase

Front

The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.

Back

mitotic spindle

Front

An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.

Back

G1 phase

Front

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

Back

Hamilton's rule

Front

when C < r x B C = cost to the altruistic party r = genetic relatedness B = fitness benefit to recipient of altuism

Back

polyandry

Front

One female, several males.

Back

chromosomes

Front

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

Back

kinetochore microtubules

Front

Connects the centrosome with the kinetochore in the centromere region of the chromosome.

Back

cleavage furrow

Front

The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.

Back

cell division

Front

The process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells.

Back

centromere

Front

The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.

Back

Cdk

Front

Complex of cyclin and kinase.

Back

cleavage

Front

The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically.

Back

agonistic behavior

Front

Competition that determines who wins a prize, such as food or mates.

Back

optimal foraging theory

Front

Views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutrition and costs of obtaining food.

Back

cell plate

Front

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.

Back

density dependent inhibition

Front

The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another.

Back

social learning

Front

Learning through observing others.

Back

MPF

Front

A cyclin-Cdk complex that causes the cell to move from interphase into mitosis.

Back

interphase

Front

Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases.

Back

cancer

Front

Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division.

Back

genome

Front

The ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism.

Back

cell cycle

Front

Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.

Back

M phase

Front

Mitosis and cytokinesis.

Back

cytokinesis

Front

Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Back

polygamous

Front

An individual of one sex mating with several of the other.

Back

centriole

Front

In animal cells, a cytoplasmic organelle that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions.

Back

game theory

Front

Evaluates alternate strategies when outcome depends not only on each individual's strategy but also that of others.

Back

mitosis

Front

Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.

Back

kinetochore

Front

A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.

Back

altruism

Front

Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.

Back

kin selection

Front

Natural selection that favors altruistic behaviors by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.

Back

S phase

Front

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

Back

mate choice copying

Front

Individuals in a population copy mate choice of others.

Back

somatic cell

Front

Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells.

Back

sister chromatids

Front

Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.

Back

promiscuous

Front

No strong pair bonds or lasting relationships.

Back

Section 19

(50 cards)

diploid cell

Front

Has two sets of chromosomes.

Back

multiplication rule

Front

To determine the probability, we multiply the probability of one event by the probability of another.

Back

independent assortment

Front

The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.

Back

dominant allele

Front

An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

Back

recombinant chromosomes

Front

Chromosomes that carry genes from each parent.

Back

addition rule

Front

Considering mutually exclusive events, the probability of both occurring is the sum of the probabilities of each event.

Back

nonsister chromatids

Front

Different chromatids (maternal and paternal) of the same chromosome.

Back

F1 Generation

Front

The hybrid offspring of true-breeding parents.

Back

life cycle

Front

All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity.

Back

variation

Front

Is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings.

Back

autosomes

Front

Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual.

Back

complete dominance

Front

When the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

Back

zygote

Front

Fertilized egg. Carries one set of chromosomes from each parent.

Back

Punnett square

Front

A diagram for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup.

Back

fertilization

Front

Union of gametes.

Back

haploid

Front

One set of chromosomes.

Back

sporophyte

Front

Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism. Makes haploid spores by meiosis.

Back

trait

Front

Each variant of a character.

Back

chiasmata

Front

X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred.

Back

alteration of generations

Front

The alteration of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal.

Back

true-breeding

Front

Organisms that, when reproducing, create offspring of all the same variety.

Back

sex chromosomes

Front

X and Y chromosomes.

Back

genotype

Front

An organism's genetic makeup.

Back

homologous chromosomes

Front

Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.

Back

locus

Front

The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.

Back

clone

Front

An identical genetically individual of the parent

Back

The Law of Segregation

Front

Two alleles separate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes because they are on on homologous chromosomes.

Back

character

Front

A heritable feature that varies among individuals.

Back

testcross

Front

The result of breeding a recessive homozygote with an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype.

Back

homozygous

Front

An organism having a pair of identical alleles for a character, either dominant or recessive.

Back

monohybrids

Front

Parents that are heterozygous for one character.

Back

codominance

Front

When which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote.

Back

asexual reproduction

Front

One parent produces a genetically identical offspring by mitosis.

Back

dihybrids

Front

Parents that are heterozygous for two characters.

Back

P generation

Front

The name for the true-breeding parents.

Back

crossing over

Front

Nonsister chromatids exchanging DNA segments.

Back

phenotype

Front

An organism's traits.

Back

F2 Generation

Front

After the self-pollenization of the F1 generation, this is produced.

Back

gametes

Front

A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm that unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.

Back

synapsis

Front

Homologous chromosomes pair up, aligned gene by gene.

Back

hybridization

Front

The crossing of two true-breeding parents.

Back

genes

Front

Units of heredity made up of DNA.

Back

heredity

Front

Transmission of traits from one generation to the next.

Back

genetics

Front

Scientific study of heredity and variation.

Back

tetrad

Front

A pair of chromosomes form tetrads made up of four chromatids.

Back

gametophyte

Front

The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells.

Back

recessive allele

Front

An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present

Back

spores

Front

Produced by meiosis. Grow into haploid organisms by mitosis.

Back

karyotype

Front

Photograph of chromosomes grouped in order and in pairs.

Back

sexual reproduction

Front

When two parents give unique combination of genes to offspring.

Back

Section 20

(50 cards)

polygenic inheritance

Front

An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.

Back

origins of replication

Front

Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.

Back

Downs Syndrome

Front

A congenital disorder caused by having an extra Chromosome 21.

Back

XO system

Front

A sex determination system in some insects in which O stands for the absence of a sex chromosome. Females are XX, Males are XO. Males produce two classes of sperm: X sperm and sperm with no chromosome. The sperm determines the sex of the offspring.

Back

replication fork

Front

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

Back

nondisjunction

Front

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

Back

DNA polymerase

Front

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.

Back

hemophilia

Front

An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.

Back

deletion

Front

A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.

Back

trisomic

Front

A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two.

Back

helicase

Front

An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.

Back

aminocentesis

Front

Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves inserting a needle to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus.

Back

haplo diploid system

Front

A sex determination system in most species of bees and ants in which there are no sex chromosomes. Females develop from fertilized eggs (diploid) and males develop from unfertilized eggs (haploid).

Back

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Front

Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion.

Back

genomic imprinting

Front

Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele is inherited from the male or female parent.

Back

lagging strand

Front

A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.

Back

Huntington's disease

Front

Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.

Back

X linked genes

Front

Genes found on the X chromosome.

Back

crossing over

Front

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

Back

recombinant types

Front

Offspring who have inherited new combinations of genes and have phenotypes that don't match either parental phenotypes.

Back

quantitative characters

Front

Characters that vary in the population along a continuum (in gradations).

Back

monosomic

Front

A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two.

Back

XY system

Front

A sex determination system in which females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome and males have two different ones.

Back

genetic recombination

Front

The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.

Back

transformation

Front

A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.

Back

genetic map

Front

An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.

Back

single-strand binding protein (SSB)

Front

Binds to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template.

Back

sex linked genes

Front

Genes located on the sex chromosomes.

Back

chromosome theory of inheritance

Front

According to this theory, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.

Back

leading strand

Front

The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.

Back

cystic fibrosis

Front

A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems.

Back

cytogenetic maps

Front

A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.

Back

barr body

Front

A dense body formed from a deactivated X chromosome.

Back

sickle-cell disease

Front

Genetic disorder in which red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on an abnormal shape.

Back

translocation

Front

Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.

Back

map units

Front

A measurement of the distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to a 1 percent recombination frequency.

Back

semiconservative model

Front

Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.

Back

pedigree

Front

A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

Back

linkage map

Front

A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.

Back

Tay-Sachs disease

Front

A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that leads to the accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth.

Back

linked genes

Front

Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.

Back

parental types

Front

Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.

Back

ZW system

Front

A sex determination system in fish, butterflies, birds where males are ZZ and Females are ZW. The egg determines the sex of the offspring.

Back

bacteriophages

Front

A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.

Back

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Front

A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.

Back

inversion

Front

A type of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed.

Back

aneuploidy

Front

Abnormal number of chromosomes.

Back

incomplete dominance

Front

Creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other.

Back

primase

Front

An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.

Back

Okazaki fragments

Front

Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.

Back

Section 21

(50 cards)

signal-recognition particle

Front

A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome.

Back

reading frame

Front

Reading mRNA nucleotides in the correct groupings.

Back

Watson and Crick

Front

Developed the double helix model of DNA.

Back

transfer RNA (tRNA)

Front

Interpreter of a series of codons along a mRNA molecule.

Back

McCarty, Avery, & MacLeod

Front

Confirmed that the transforming agent in Griffith's experiment was DNA.

Back

Erwin Chargaff

Front

Discovered that DNA composition varies, but the amount of adenine is always the same as thymine and the amount of cytosine is always the same as guanine.

Back

triplet code

Front

Three-nucleotide long set that specifies a specific amino acid for a polypeptide chain.

Back

exons

Front

Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.

Back

one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis

Front

there is one gene that codes for one polypeptide

Back

RNA polymerase

Front

Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.

Back

messenger RNA (mRNA)

Front

Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.

Back

RNA processing

Front

The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is unique to eukaryotes.

Back

splicosome

Front

Different particles that recognize splice sites are compiled in a large assembly. A complex of RNA and protein subunits. Removes introns from a transcribed pre-RNA segments.

Back

domains

Front

Discrete structural and functional regions of proteins.

Back

5' cap

Front

The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.

Back

codons

Front

mRNA base triplets.

Back

ribosomal A site

Front

Site that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain.

Back

Meselson & Stahl

Front

Determined that DNA replication is semiconservative.

Back

promoter

Front

A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing mRNA.

Back

introns

Front

Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.

Back

template strand

Front

The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.

Back

polyribosomes

Front

Strings of ribosomes that work together to translate a RNA message.

Back

mutations

Front

Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.

Back

transcription factors

Front

Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.

Back

nuclease

Front

A DNA cutting enzyme that excises damaged DNA.

Back

telomeres

Front

Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

Back

TATA box

Front

A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.

Back

RNA splicing

Front

Process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together.

Back

primary transcript

Front

The initial mRNA transcript that is transcribed from a protein coding gene. Also called pre-mRNA.

Back

telomerase

Front

An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.

Back

point mutations

Front

chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene

Back

transcription

Front

Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.

Back

missense mutations

Front

Most common type of mutation, a base pair mutation in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.

Back

Frederick Griffith

Front

Discovered transformation during an experiment that involved injecting mice with smooth S cells, rough R cells, heat-killed S cells, and heat-killed S cells with living R cells.

Back

transcription initiation complex

Front

The assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase.

Back

translation

Front

The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.

Back

ribozymes

Front

RNA molecules that function as enzymes.

Back

nonsense mutations

Front

A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.

Back

ribosomes

Front

Complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains.

Back

wobble

Front

Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position of a codon.

Back

Hersey-Chase Experiment

Front

Devised an experiment that showed that only the DNA of T2 phages enters a bacterial cell during infection.

Back

ribosomal P site

Front

Site that holds tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.

Back

Ribosomal E site

Front

Site where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.

Back

poly-A tail

Front

Modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.

Back

one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis

Front

The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.

Back

anticodon

Front

Specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.

Back

alternative RNA splicing

Front

Genes giving rise to two or more different polypeptides depending upon which segments are treated as exons.

Back

terminator

Front

In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.

Back

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Front

RNA molecules that construct ribosomal subunits.

Back

signal peptide

Front

A stretch of amino acids on a polypeptide that targets the protein to a specific destination in a eukaryotic cell.

Back

Section 22

(50 cards)

reverse transcriptase

Front

An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.

Back

prophage

Front

A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.

Back

bacteriophage

Front

A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.

Back

insertion sequence

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