Integrated Science II Unit 3: Energy Transfer in Cells

Integrated Science II Unit 3: Energy Transfer in Cells

Mihir Ranjan (lvl 10)
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In ____________, glucose - a six carbon sugar -  undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and NAD+ is converted to NADH

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(24 cards)

In ____________, glucose - a six carbon sugar -  undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and NAD+ is converted to NADH

Front

Glycolysis

Back

In photosynthesis, the chemical reactions occur on the inner membranes of an organelle called the _________ .

Front

chloroplast

Back

In ____________ ____________, each pyruvate goes from glycolysis into the mitochondrial matrix. There, it's converted into a two-carbon molecule called acetyl CoA. Carbon Dioxide is released and NADH is generated

Front

pyruvate oxidation

Back

_________ _____ formed during glycolysis is broken down to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide and is released to form ATP

Front

Pyruvic Acid

Back

The process of ______  ________ fermentation replaces the process of aerobic respiration so that the cell can have continual source of energy without oxygen, but the shift is temporary,         

Front

lactic acid

Back

The molecule ________ acts as a shuttle for electrons during cellular respiration. It  picks up electrons from the glucose, which becomes NADH. The citric acid cycle makes the most NADH and ETC makes the most ATP from electrons carried by NADH.

Front

NAD+

Back

Anaerobic respiration makes a total of ___ ATP because without oxygen, the ETC cannot continue as there is no terminal electron acceptor. Aerobic respiration is much more efficient and can produce up to ___ ATP with a single molecule of glucose.

 

Front

2, 38

Back

In cellular respiration,  the chemical reaction occurs in the ______________

Front

mitochondria 

Back

What is the chemical formula for Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Front

C6H12O6 (Glucose) + 6O2 (Oxygen) --> 6CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)+ 6H2O(water) + ATP(energy)

Back

Since all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria, all eukaryotic cells_________

Front

respire

Back

In the _______ _____ _______, the acetyl CoA made in pyruvate oxidation combines with a four carbon molecule and goes though a cycle of reactions. This produces ATP, NADH, FADH2 and releases CO2

Front

Citric Acid Cycle

Back

A common anaerobic process is ___________, which still allows glycolysis to grow is not an efficient process and results in the formation of far fewer ATP molecules. Here, glucose to be continuously broken down to make ATP due to the recycling of NADH to NAD+

Front

 fermentation

Back

In passive transport, molecules move from ______ to ______ concentration down their concentration gradient

Front

high, low

Back

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in ___________ organisms

Front

eukaryotic

Back

Fermentation takes place in the _____________. 

Front

cytoplasm

Back

Breathing respiration brings _________ into the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide created by cellular respiration.

Front

oxygen

Back

Protons flow back into the matrix through an enzyme called _____ ____________, making ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, oxygen accepts electrons and takes up protons to  form water

Front

ATP synthase

Back

The NADH and FADH2 made in the other steps of cellular respiration deposit electrons in the ____________ __________ _______. As electrons move down, energy is released and used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient.

Front

electron transport chain

Back

___________ accepts the electrons and throw them out, making water as a waste product and makes sure that there is a high concentration of H+ and low concentration of H+ so that there is a continuous movement, if equilibrium happens no ATP produced.

Front

Oxygen

Back

In active transport, the movement of molecules from _____ concentration to a _______ concentration. Energy needs to be added to the system or environment. An example is H+ moving from low to high concentration during ETC 

Front

low, high

Back

Cellular Respirations produces ____

Front

ATP

Back

Aerobic Respiration makes energy when oxygen is present while _________ Respiration makes energy when oxygen is absent

Front

Anaerobic 

Back

Glycolysis is an anaerobic reaction that splits 1 glucose molecule(6 carbon) to produce __ pyruvic acid, __ ATP molecules, and __ NADH  

Front

2, 4, 2

Back

_________ fermentation occurs in yeasts and some bacteria

Front

Alcohol

Back