Section 1

Preview this deck

Determine the theoretical yield for the reaction. 2Mg(s)+O2(g)→2MgO(s) When 10.1g Mg is allowed to react with 10.4g O2, 12.0g MgO is collected.

Front

Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%

0.0

0 reviews

5
0
4
0
3
0
2
0
1
0

Active users

0

All-time users

0

Favorites

0

Last updated

1 year ago

Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (86)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Determine the theoretical yield for the reaction. 2Mg(s)+O2(g)→2MgO(s) When 10.1g Mg is allowed to react with 10.4g O2, 12.0g MgO is collected.

Front

The theoretical yield is determined from the limiting reactant. The mass of Mg must be converted to moles of Mg to moles of MgO to grams of MgO. m = 16.7g

Back

The rms speed may be expressed by the following equation:

Front

vrms=√3RT/M R= ideal gas constant T=absolute temperature M=molar mass of the substance in kilograms per mole.

Back

A weather balloon is inflated to a volume of 29.7L at a pressure of 735mmHg and a temperature of 25.9∘C. The balloon rises in the atmosphere to an altitude where the pressure is 375mmHg and the temperature is -14.6∘C. Assuming the balloon can freely expand, calculate the volume of the balloon at this altitude

Front

V balloon =50.3L The number of moles in the weather balloon will remain constant. According to the ideal gas law, the changes in pressure and temperature will cause a change in volume. Volume and pressure are inversely related, while volume and temperature are directly related

Back

azimuthal or angular momentum quantum number ℓ

Front

corresponds to the subshell in which the electron is located. s subshells are coded as 0, p subshells as 1, d as 2, and f as 3. For example, an electron in the 2p subshell has ℓ=1. As a rule, ℓ can have integer values ranging from 0 to n−1.

Back

Diffusion

Front

Hairspray in the bedroom can be smelled in the hallway

Back

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.20g of argon at 25 ∘C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.350atm .

Front

What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask? PAr = 0.735 atm Before ethane was added, the percent by volume of argon in the flask was 100% and the partial pressure of argon was equivalent to the total pressure of the flask. The total volume of the flask, the temperature of the flask, and the amount of argon remain constant after ethane was added; therefore the partial pressure of argon is the same before and after ethane was added. The total pressure of the flask is now equal to the combined partial pressures of both argon and ethane.

Back

To what volume should you dilute 25mL of a 11M H2SO4 solution to obtain a 0.17M H2SO4 solution?

Front

Dilutions are a core technique for any chemist, and the following equation, which is represented in two different ways, can be used to relate the molarity and volume of the original solution to the molarity and volume of the diluted solution: V=1.6L M1V1=M2V2 MconcVconc=MdilVdil In the second representation of the equation, "conc" and "dil" represent "concentrated" and "diluted."

Back

Which statements about a sample of gas containing molecules of different masses are true?

Front

More-massive gas molecules in the sample have lower rms speed than less-massive ones The average kinetic energy depends only on the temperature. However, a heavier molecule will move more slowly than a lighter molecule if both have the same kinetic energy.

Back

Here is a more complex redox reaction involving the dichromate ion in acidic solution: 3S2− + 14H+ + Cr2O72− → 3S +2Cr3+ + 7H2O Classify each reactant as the reducing agent, oxidizing agent, or neither.

Front

Oxidizing agent: Cr2O7^2- Reducing agent:S2- Neither:H+

Back

Iron(II) sulfide reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the reaction: FeS(s)+2HCl(aq)→FeCl2(s)+H2S(g) A reaction mixture initially contains 0.248mol FeS and 0.646mol HCl.

Front

Once the reaction has occurred as completely as possible, what amount (in moles) of the excess reactant is left? n = 0.150 mol

Back

A student tests four solids for their ability to complete an electrical circuit when dissolved in water by observing their ability to close a circuit containing a light bulb and obtains the following results: Solid Concentration (M) Strength of light emitted A 0.20 Bright B 0.20 Dim C 0.20 None D 0.20 Bright Which of the solids is a weak electrolyte when dissolved in water?

Front

B Molecular compounds that are weak acids or weak bases are weak electrolytes. They dissociate into component ions incompletely in water. For example, ammonia is a weak electrolyte.

Back

Charles' Law

Front

direct relationship between volume and temperature V1/T1 = V2/T2

Back

For the given reactions, classify the reactants as the reducing agent, oxidizing agent, or neither. 3O2 + 4Fe → 2Fe2O3 H2 + Br2 → 2HBr

Front

Oxidizing agents- O2 and Br2 Reducing agents- H2 and Fe

Back

It is important to realize that not all molecules in a sample will have the same kinetic energy

Front

The speed of a particle with average kinetic energy is called the root mean square (rms) speed, vrms.

Back

Both gases have the same value

Front

gas for which the molecules or atoms have the greatest average kinetic energy Gas that exerts the greater partial pressure

Back

Before using the de Broglie relation

Front

λ = h/mv, the mass of the bullet needed to be converted to kilograms using the conversion factor 1000 g = 1 kg. Since the units for Planck's constant are kg⋅m2/s, this will allow the mass of the bullet to properly cancel during the calculation.

Back

The frequency of a light emission is proportional

Front

to the energy difference between two levels. Therefore, the frequency of the light would be greater

Back

What is the volume occupied by 22.1g of argon gas at a pressure of 1.38atm and a temperature of 308K ?

Front

V=10.1 L The ideal gas law is used to determine the volume of argon gas. The mass should first be converted to moles by dividing by the atomic mass.

Back

Which of the following statements are true?

Front

*There are gas molecules that move slower than the average *The average kinetic energy of gas molecules decreases with decreasing temperature. *All the gas molecules in a sample cannot have the same kinetic energy. *The average speed of gas molecules decreases with decreasing temperature

Back

The allowed values for mℓ range from −ℓ to +ℓ and the allowed values for ℓ are integers between zero and n−1.

Front

Once you know the value for n, you can determine the acceptable ℓ values, and from there the acceptable mℓ values. The ms values are fixed at either 1/2 or −1/2.

Back

The principal quantum number n

Front

corresponds to the shell in which the electron is located. Thus n can therefore be any integer. For example, an electron in the 2p subshell has a principal quantum number of n=2 because 2p is in the second shell.

Back

According to the quantum-mechanical model for the hydrogen atom, which of the following transitions would produce light with the longer wavelength: 3p→2s or 4p→3p?

Front

4p→3p

Back

A laser pulse with wavelength 535nm contains 4.85mJ of energy.

Front

How many photons are in the laser pulse? N =1.31×1016

Back

The constant motion of gas molecules causes diffusion and effusion.

Front

Diffusion is the gradual mixing of two substances resulting from the movement of their particles. Effusion is the gradual escape of gas molecules through microscopic holes in their container.

Back

A 9.00mL ampule of a 0.140M solution of naphthalene in hexane is excited with a flash of light. The naphthalene emits 19.0J of energy at an average wavelength of 349 nm

Front

What percentage of the naphthalene molecules emitted a photon? percentage =4.40 %

Back

One mole of nitrogen and one mole of neon are combined in a closed container at STP.

Front

how big is the container? V = 44.8L

Back

Boyle's law

Front

indirect relationship between pressure and volume P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Back

A 0.22-caliber handgun fires a 29-g bullet at a velocity of 775 m/s.

Front

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the bullet. λ = 2.9×10−35m Is the wave nature of matter significant for bullets?-NO Although quantum mechanics applies to all objects, most everyday objects are too large to exhibit any noticeable wavecharacteristics.

Back

Oxygen gas reacts with powdered aluminum according to the following reaction: 4Al(s)+3O2(g)→2Al2O3(s)

Front

What volume of O2 gas (in L), measured at 765mmHg and 19∘C, is required to completely react with 50.0g of Al? V = 33.1L

Back

Effusion

Front

When a hole is made in the top of a coke bottle dioxide gas moves out of the bottle over time OR a leak in a gas cylinder causes the volume to decrease

Back

Find the volume of 0.100M hydrochloric acid necessary to react completely with 1.53g Al(OH)3

Front

V = 0.588L

Back

spin quantum number ms

Front

corresponds to the spin of the electron in the orbital. A value of 1/2 means an "up" spin, whereas −1/2 means a "down" spin.

Back

The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

Front

To understand how gas molecules behave in terms of motion, speed, and energy. relationship between temperature and the average speed Increasing the temperature of a gas sample increases the average kinetic energy (speed) of the molecules.

Back

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.20g of argon at 25 ∘C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.350atm .

Front

What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask? Pethane = 0.615 atm Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a system is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases in the mixture. The expression for Dalton's law of partial pressure is Ptotal=PA+PB+... The partial pressure of an individual gas can be used in stoichiometric calculations involving chemical reactions.

Back

Determine the percent yield for the reaction. 2Mg(s)+O2(g)→2MgO(s) When 10.1g Mg is allowed to react with 10.4g O2, 12.0g MgO is collected.

Front

71.7% The percent yield is the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield times 100%. Percent yield should always be less than 100

Back

The binding energy of electrons in a metal is 176kJ/mol

Front

Find the threshold frequency of the metal. ν =4.41×1014 s^−1

Back

A flask at room temperature contains exactly equal amounts (in moles) of nitrogen and xenon. Sort the conditions based on the gas described. Nitrogen has the greater value

Front

Gas for which the molecules or atoms have the greatest average velocity Gas that would have a higher rate of effusion through a small hole opened in the flask

Back

Solid Concentration (M) Strength of light emitted A 0.20 Bright B 0.20 Dim C 0.20 None D 0.20 Bright The student is told that one of the four solids tested is actually aluminum chloride,AlCl3. Which of the solids could be AlCl3?

Front

A and D All ionic substances and strong acids are strong electrolytes.

Back

Which of the following set of quantum numbers (ordered n, ℓ, mℓ, ms) are possible for an electron in an atom?

Front

5, 3, -3, 1/2 5, 3, 0, 1/2 3, 2, 2, -1/2

Back

An electron has an uncertainty in its position of 499pm

Front

What is the uncertainty in its velocity? Δv =1.16×105 ms

Back

An electron in a hydrogen atom relaxes to the n=4 level, emitting light of 114 THz.

Front

What is the value of n for the level in which the electron originated? n =6

Back

The magnetic quantum number mℓ

Front

corresponds to the orbital in which the electron is located. Instead of 2px, 2py, and 2pz, the three 2p orbitals can be labeled −1, 0, and 1, but not necessarily respectively. As a rule, mℓ can have integer values ranging from −ℓ to +ℓ

Back

Consider the following precipitation reaction: 2Na3PO4(aq)+3CuCl2(aq)→ Cu3(PO4)2(s)+6NaCl(aq)

Front

What volume of 0.183M Na3PO4 solution is necessary to completely react with 93.7mL of 0.117M CuCl2? V =39.9 mL

Back

What are the possible values of mℓ for an electron in a d orbital?

Front

-2,-1,0,1,2 Since the allowed values for mℓ range from −ℓ to +ℓ, once you know the value for ℓ you know the values for mℓ.

Back

Compare the volume of 22.1g of helium to 22.1g of argon gas (under identical conditions). term-0

Front

The volume would be greater for helium gas. Helium has a lower atomic mass than argon. The same mass of helium gas would contain a greater number of moles and have a larger volume.

Back

The limiting reactant is the ĵreactant that can form the least amount of product. The given mass of Mg will form less MgO than the given mass of O2.

Front

Mg(s)

Back

The student is now told that the four solids, in no particular order, are aluminum chloride (AlCl3), sugar (C6H12O6), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and sodium bromide (NaBr). Assuming that conductivity is correlated to the number of ions in solution, rank the four substances based on how well a 0.20 M solution in water will conduct electricity.

Front

Most Conductive to Least conductive Aluminum chloride sodium bromide acetic acid sugar

Back

What is the only possible value of mℓ for an electron in an s orbital?

Front

0 Since the allowed values for mℓ range from −ℓ to +ℓ, once you know the value for ℓ you know the values for mℓ.

Back

conducts electricity

Front

NaCl solution

Back

A quantity of CO gas occupies a volume of 0.42L at 2.0atm and 329K . The pressure of the gas is lowered and its temperature is raised until its volume is 5.0L

Front

Find the density of the CO under the new conditions. d = 0.17 gL

Back

Section 2

(36 cards)

Which elements do you expect to lose electrons in their chemical reactions? Which do you expect to gain electrons?

Front

tend to lose electrons- Al and Pb tend to gain electrons- Br and N

Back

V'T

Front

(v1/v2)=(t1/t2)

Back

Give the complete ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si).

Front

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^2 using ground-state electron [Ne]3s^23p^2

Back

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Front

Back

Elements with 5 or more valence electrons tend to

Front

gain electrons

Back

Do the same for an electron occupying a 6d orbital.

Front

n, l, ml, ms = 6,2,-2,-0.5

Back

Planck's constant

Front

6.624x10⁻²⁴

Back

he shielding of electrons gives rise to an effective nuclear charge, Zeff, which explains why boron is larger than oxygen. Estimate the approximate Zeff felt by a valence electron of boron and oxygen, respectively?

Front

+3 and +6

Back

Ideal Gas Law V'N

Front

the ideal law with all factors at STP, including # of moles (v1/v2)=(n1/n2) or PV=nRT

Back

Paramagnetic substances contain

Front

one or more unpaired electrons and are attracted to a magnetic field

Back

Pauli Exclusion Principle

Front

fill in singly before pairing px py pz

Back

Delta E=

Front

E2-E1=hZ=hc/λ

Back

λ Z/s⁻¹

Front

=C 3x 10² m/s

Back

Volume is

Front

inversely proportional to pressure Directly proportional to temperature and # of mols

Back

Combined Gas Formula

Front

a law combines Lussac's, Charles's, and Boyles's Law, indirect P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

Back

Si

Front

3p↑↑ 3s⇌ 2p⇌⇌⇌ 2s⇌ 1s⇌ [Ne] 3s²3p²

Back

Elements with 3 or fewer valence electrons tend to

Front

lose

Back

Valance in N

Front

5

Back

Give a combination of four quantum numbers that could be assigned to an electron occupying a 5p orbital.

Front

n, l, ml, ms = 5,1,0,0.5

Back

Diamagnetic substances contain

Front

no net electron spin and are repelled from a magnetic field

Back

Atomic radius trend increase as you go down decrease from left to right, across the Periodic Table

Front

Back

copper (Cu) using noble-gas shorthand.

Front

1s^22s^22p^63s^23p^64s^13d^10 [Ar]4s^13d^10

Back

O

Front

2p⇌ ↑ ↑ 2s⇌ 1s⇌ [He] 2s² 2p⁴

Back

Valence electrons in Al

Front

3

Back

Avogadro's Law

Front

he direct relationship between the # of moles and volume V1/n1= V2/n2

Back

Valence electrons in Br

Front

7

Back

Valence electrons are

Front

the total number of electrons in the outermost shell. Knowing how many valence electrons are in elements is helpful in deciding whether elements will lose or gain electrons in a reaction. In this case, Al contains 3 valence electrons

Back

Ne

Front

2p⇌⇌⇌ 2s⇌ 1s⇌ [He] 2s²2p⁶

Back

n=g/M

Front

(P+an/v2)(V-nh)=nRT

Back

Aufbau Principle

Front

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s

Back

isoelectronic

Front

atoms have the same number of electrons ex. O²⁻ and Na⁺=10e

Back

Valence electrons in Pb

Front

4

Back

Rank the following elements in order of largest to smallest

Front

P S Cl Ar

Back

Gay-Lussac's Law

Front

the direct relationship between pressure and temperature P1/T1 = P2/T2

Back

V'1/p

Front

(v1/v2)=(p2/p1)

Back

Rank the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius.

Front

I Br Cl F

Back