AP Chemistry Big Idea #4

AP Chemistry Big Idea #4

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Section 1

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products.

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Cards (28)

Section 1

(28 cards)

products.

Front

Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to _______

Back

increase

Front

increase temperature, _____ reaction rate

Back

increase

Front

increase surface area, _____ reactionary

Back

acid-base catalysis

Front

a reactant either gains or loses a proton; this changes the rate of the reaction.

Back

unimolecular

Front

first order reaction means ___ collisions

Back

increase

Front

increase concentration, ________ reaction rate

Back

reaction rate

Front

change in concentration over time.

Back

NO, bc the rate is not dependent on the concentration of the reactants

Front

does a zero order rate law increase with an increase in concentration?

Back

sufficient energy

Front

Not all collisions are successful. to get over the activation energy barrier, the colliding species need __________. Also, the orientations of the reactant molecules during the collision must allow for the rearrangement of reactant bonds to form product bonds.

Back

DOES NOT CHANGE

Front

When concentration is increased, the rate of reaction increases and the rate constant _______

Back

ZERO order

Front

straight line [A] vs. t

Back

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

Front

describes the distribution of particle energies; this distribution can be used to gain a qualitative estimate of the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to lead to a reaction, and also how that fraction depends on temperature.

Back

order of reacTION

Front

sum of all the order of reacTANTS

Back

temp

Front

In reaction rates, increasing ___ leads to an increase in K and reaction rate, while increasing concentration leads to an increase in just the reaction rate

Back

trimolecular

Front

third order reactions means, ____ collisions, but these are RARE

Back

INCREASES

Front

when temperature is increased, the reate of reaction increase and the rate constant ______

Back

Spectrophotometry

Front

can be used to calculate the concentration of reactants or products in solution. By using Beer's Law (no, not a keg party rule) a straight line calibration curve can be created of known concentrations, based on the absorbance of the solution. Once you've got a calibration curve, you can compare your unknown to it and calculate its concentration.

Back

surface catalysis

Front

either a new reaction intermediate is formed, or the probability of successful collisions is modified.

Back

slow

Front

the rate determining step is always the ___ step

Back

sufficient energy orientations

Front

Successful collisions have both _________ to overcome activation energy barriers and ________ that allow the bonds to rearrange in the required manner.

Back

enzyme catalysis

Front

Some enzymes accelerate reactions by binding to the reactants in a way that lowers the activation energy. Other enzymes react with reactant species to form a new reaction intermediate.

Back

t1/2 = .693/k (given on equation sheet)

Front

half life for a first order reaction

Back

second order

Front

straight line 1/[a] vs. t

Back

bimolecular

Front

second order reactions means _____ collisions

Back

reaction intermediates

Front

- formed during the reaction but not present in the overall reaction, play an important role in multistep reactions. - produced by some elementary steps and consumed by others, such that it is present only while a reaction is occurring.

Back

first order

Front

straight line ln[A] vs. t

Back

catalyst.

Front

Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a _______ - can lower activation E to make reaction go faster, stabilizing the transition state - can participate in the formation of a new reaction intermediate thereby providing a new reaction mechanism that provides a faster pathway between reactants and products, thereby providing a new reaction pathway or mechanism

Back

rate law

Front

NEVER use reaction coefficients as _____ exponents

Back