# AP CSP Unit 3 Flashcards

Mihir Ranjan (lvl 10)
3.2

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_________ keeps track of the position of the element in the list processing. It is a common method for referencing the elements in a list or string using natural numbers. If this is less than 1 or greater than the length of the list, an error message is produced

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## Cards(21)

3.2

(21 cards)

_________ keeps track of the position of the element in the list processing. It is a common method for referencing the elements in a list or string using natural numbers. If this is less than 1 or greater than the length of the list, an error message is produced

Front

Index

Back

______ is irreverent and meaningless data that has found its way into meaningful code and makes it difficult for computers to efficiently and effectively represent binary as alphanumeric or other representations

Front

Noise

Back

In Binary to Decimal conversion, we use the base ___

Example: 10101010 → (1 *2^7) + (0 * 2^6) + (1 * 2^5) + (0 *2^4) + (1 * 2^3) + (0*2^2) + (1 *2^1) + (0*2^0)  → 128 + 32 + 8 + 2  = 170

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2

Back

A _____ is short for binary  digit is either a 0 or 1 with a _____  being 8 bits. the purpose is to represent something digitally and are how information is stored, accessed, and transformed. They are a form of abstraction

Front

bit, byte

Back

______ are represented by a fixed number of buts which limits the range of integers waves and mathematical operations.

Front

Integers

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The  ______ allows us to convert binary to alphanumeric.

Front

ASCII

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__________ is an individual value in a list that is assigned a unique index

Front

Element

Back

_____ (base 10) uses only combinations of the digits 0-9

Front

Decimal

Back

____________-____________ ____________ is a method of representing fractional numbers by storing a fixed number of digits of their fractional part. ____________-____________ ____________ is used by modern computers and is similar to scientific notation

Front

Fixed-point representation. floating-point presentation

Back

______________ is discrete while analog item are continuous. This converts information into a digital format like sound, object, image

Front

Digitization

Back

When a physical artifact is digitized, the state space received is broken into chunks called ________ with each quantum converted to a value using binary

Front

quanta

Back

_____ _____ is a potential for possibilities. An example would be the numbers growing exponentially with the number of possible digits

Front

State space

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In decimal to binary conversion, we divide number by ___ and if there is a reminder, add a 1, but if there is no reminder, add a 0. Add to the left

Example: 17 --> 17/2 = 8.5 (1) , 8/2 = 4 (0), 4/2 = 2 (0) , 2/2 = 1 (0) , 1 / 2  = 0.5 (1). 10001

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2

Back

_____ (base 2) use only combinations of digits zero and one

Front

Binary

Back

________algorithm is a selection sort that involve recording a list by swapping a position repeatedly, which is not the most efficient ways to sort a list but it is the way humans typically manually alphabetize things

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Sorting

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With  ____________-____________ ____________. every symbol is allocated a specific number of bits. Most modern encodings are fixed lengths. An example would be Baudot Code

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fixed-length encodings

Back

_____ _____ includes binary and decimal used to represent data

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Number base

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With ____________-____________ ____________, encoding allocates a differing numbers of bits to each symbol with some symbols requiring as few as 1 or 2 bits where others may require many more. These are used in variety of applications. An example would be Morse code or Unicode

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Variable-Length Encodings

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___________ ____________ is an error caused by the limitations of the range of values and mathematical operations on those values by representing integers with a fix number of bits. ___________ ____________ is error caused by the limitations of using a fixed number of bits to represent real numbers which limits the range and mathematical operations of those values

Front

Overflow error, Round-off error

Back

A _____is an ordered sequence of elements that allows related items to be represented using a single variable. It could be represented as [value1, value2, value3]. This is a type of data structure to store data and a form abstraction

Front

list

Back

Traversing a list can be a __________________, where all elements in the list are accessed, or a __________________, where only a portion of elements are accessed.

Front

complete traversal , partial traversal

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