Section 1

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Brainstem

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (78)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Brainstem

Front

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

Back

PNS (peripheral nervous system)

Front

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

Back

skull

Front

protects the brain

Back

left and right brain

Front

- Left: greater relative dominance in logical reasoning, symbolic analysis, language processing, and step by step sequential reasoning - Right: greater relative dominance in emotion analysis, creativity, intuition, and spatial reasoning

Back

Sulci (sulcus)

Front

shallow grooves

Back

intermediate mass of thalamus

Front

Identify A: Gray matter bridge which connects the R and L Thalamic nuclei

Back

optic chiasm

Front

the point in the brain where the visual field information from each eye "crosses over" to the appropriate side of the brain for processing

Back

mamillary bodies

Front

Process olfactory sensations and reflex movements associated with eating, licking, chewing and swallowing.

Back

Cerebrum

Front

Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body, largest part of the brain. (visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, artistic skills)

Back

Diencephalon

Front

thalamus and hypothalamus

Back

somatic sensory

Front

receives sensory information from skin, fascia, joints, skeletal muscles, special senses

Back

Thalamus

Front

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Back

frontal lobe

Front

A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement

Back

Hypothalamus

Front

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

Back

gray matter

Front

cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

Back

basal ganglia

Front

structures in the forebrain that help to control movement

Back

Cerebellum

Front

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.

Back

motor cortex

Front

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

Back

brain stem

Front

Connection to spinal cord. Filters information flow between peripheral nervous system and the rest of the brain.

Back

white matter

Front

myelinated axons

Back

Gyri (gyrus)

Front

Large folds of tissue covering the surface of the cerebrum

Back

Epithalamus

Front

Contains pineal body. Involved in olfactory senses and sleep/wake cycle

Back

basal nuclei (ganglia)

Front

Controls muscle activity and posture; largely inhibits unintentional movement when at rest

Back

medulla oblongata

Front

Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.

Back

parietal lobe

Front

A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.

Back

Meninges

Front

3 protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

Back

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Front

plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord

Back

occipital lobe

Front

A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information

Back

corpora quadrigemina

Front

located in the midbrain; contains reflex centers for vision and auditory reflexes.

Back

cerebral aqueduct

Front

connects the third and fourth ventricles

Back

corpus callosum

Front

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Back

Lobes of the brain

Front

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

Back

cerebral cortex

Front

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

Back

Amygdala

Front

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.

Back

visceral control center

Front

hypothalamus

Back

temporal lobe

Front

A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.

Back

pineal body (gland)

Front

a pea-sized conical mass of tissue behind the third ventricle of the brain, secreting a hormone like substance in some mammals.

Back

superior colliculus

Front

receives visual sensory input

Back

CNS (central nervous system)

Front

consists of the brain and spinal cord

Back

cerebral peduncles (midbrain)

Front

motor tracts on the anterolateral surfaces of midbrain.carry voluntary motor commands from primary motor cortex of each hemisphere and is final destination of the superior cerebellar peduncles.

Back

ventricles of the brain

Front

Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart. They are the two lower chambers of the heart.

Back

sensory homunculus

Front

Demonstrates that the area of the cortex dedicated to the sensations of various body parts is proportional to how sensitive that part of the body is.

Back

Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)

Front

Cellular structure prevents bacteria and large molecules from entering brain. Water, Oxygen, CO2, Glucose, Alcohol and sometimes viruses get through.

Back

midbrain (mesencephalon)

Front

part of the brainstem that connects the brainstem to the cerebellum; controls sensory processes

Back

Pons

Front

A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

Back

pituitary gland

Front

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

Back

Hippocampus

Front

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.

Back

Brocca's area

Front

speech production

Back

inferior colliculi

Front

protrusions on top of the midbrain; part of the auditory system

Back

limbic system

Front

A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

Back

Section 2

(28 cards)

fissure

Front

an opening; a groove; a split

Back

CSF

Front

cerebrospinal fluid

Back

action potential

Front

the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.

Back

Neurons metabolic rate

Front

Back

tracts in the brain

Front

Back

synapse (neuron)

Front

Space between axon of the activated nerve and the dendrite receptors of another neuron (divides 2 neurons)

Back

resting membrane potential

Front

-70mV

Back

nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

Front

electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose various peripheral nervous system diseases

Back

Wernicke's area

Front

controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

Back

presynaptic neuron

Front

conducts impulses toward the synapse

Back

Node of Ranvier (neurofibril node)

Front

"naked neuron"

Back

Irritability of neurons

Front

ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it to a neural impulse

Back

electrochemical

Front

A nerve impulse is partially electric (change in polarity/charge) and partially chemical (neurotransmitters) (transmission of a nerve impulse)

Back

central sulcus

Front

separates frontal and parietal lobes

Back

conductivity of neurons

Front

neurons respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals that are quickly conducted to other cells at distant locations

Back

Depolarization

Front

The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.

Back

Repolarization

Front

Return of the cell to resting state, caused by reentry of potassium into the cell while sodium exits the cell.

Back

arachnoid mater

Front

middle layer of the meninges

Back

choroid plexus

Front

Back

pia mater

Front

thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

Back

amitonic

Front

neurons lose ability to undergo mitosis once they have differentiated

Back

polarized neuron

Front

Na+ outside, K+ and Cl- inside

Back

postsynaptic neuron

Front

the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse

Back

refactory period

Front

The "recharging phase" when a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential.

Back

hyper polarization

Front

membrane potential becomes more negative

Back

lateral sulcus

Front

separates the parietal and temporal lobes

Back

Physiology of the brain

Front

Monro-Kellie Hypothesis • Brain contents: 80% • CSF: 10% • Blood: 10%

Back

neuron conductivity

Front

neurons can propagate an electrical signal over a distance from where it originated

Back