AP Biology Chapter 16

AP Biology Chapter 16

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Section 1

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Primase

Front

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Cards (39)

Section 1

(39 cards)

Primase

Front

Synthesizes the primer Starts a complementary RNA chain from a single RNA nucleotide, adding more RNA nucleotides one at a time, using the parental DNA strand as a template

Back

Nucleotide excision repair

Front

DNA repair system where teams of enzymes detect and repair the DNA, the nuclease cuts out the damaged DNA and removes it, fills in the missing nucleotides and the DNA ligase seals the free end of the new DNA to the old DNA making the strand complete

Back

Histones

Front

Proteins that are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin

Back

Telomeres

Front

Special nucleotide sequences at the ends of chromosomes TTAGGG is repeated between 100-1000 times Prevent the staggered ends of daughter molecule from activitating cell's system for monitoring DNA damage

Back

Helicases

Front

enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands

Back

DNA Replication

Front

the process by which a DNA molecule is copied; also called DNA synthesis

Back

Hershey and Chase (Don't need to memorize scientists)

Front

Concluded that phage DNA entered bacterial host cells, but phage proteins did not, so DNA functions as the genetic material

Back

Okazaki fragments

Front

Series of segments that are 1000-2000 nucleotides long

Back

DNA Ligase

Front

joins the sugar phosphate backbones of all the Okazaki fragments into a continuous DNA strand

Back

Purines

Front

A and G Nitrogenous bases with two organic rings

Back

Primer

Front

The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is actually a short stretch of RNA

Back

Replication Fork

Front

a Y shaped region where the parental strands of DNA are being unwound

Back

Heterochromatin

Front

centromeres and telomeres exist in a highly condensed state with visible irregular clumps making it largely inaccessible

Back

Rosalind Franklin (Don't need to memorize scientists)

Front

accomplished X-ray crystallographer that discovered the double helix of DNA

Back

Conservative model

Front

two parental strands reassociate after acting as templates for new strands thus restoring the parental double helix

Back

DNA polymerases

Front

Enzyme that catalyze the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a preexisting chain

Back

Nitrogenous bases of Dna

Front

A, T, C, G

Back

Virus

Front

infects a cell and takes over the cell's metabolic machinery

Back

Euchromatin

Front

centromeres and telomeres exist in a less compacted state that is very accessible

Back

Chargaff's Law

Front

the base compostion of DNA varies between species and for each species, the percentages of A and T bases are roughly equal to the percentages of the G and C bases

Back

Origins of Replication

Front

short stretches of DNA having a specific sequence of nucleotides

Back

Transformation

Front

a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell transforming substance- DNA

Back

Telomerase

Front

Enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells and restores the original length and compensating for the shortening that occurs during DNA replication

Back

Nuclease

Front

DNA cutting enzyme that cuts out the damaged parts of the strand and fills the space with nucleotides using the undamaged strand as a template

Back

Chromatin

Front

complex of DNA and protein

Back

Bacteriophages

Front

Viruses that infect bacteria Bacteria eaters

Back

Mismatch repair

Front

Other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides that have resulted from replication errors

Back

Pyrimidines

Front

C and T Nitrogenous base with a single organic ring

Back

Topoisomerase

Front

The untwisting of double helix causes tighter twisting and strain ahead of replication fork Relieve this strain by breaking swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands

Back

Dispersive Model

Front

each strand of both daughter molecules contains a mixture of old and newly synthesized DNA

Back

Semiconservative Model

Front

the two strands of the parental molecule separate and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand- most common

Back

Single Strand Binding Proteins

Front

Bind to the unpaired DNA strands keeping them from repairing

Back

Griffith (Don't need to memorize scientists)

Front

Concluded that nonpathogenic bacteria transformed into pathogenic bacteria by an unknown, heritable substance from the dead S cells that enabled the R cells to make capsules

Back

Nucleosome

Front

the basic unit of DNA packing

Back

Leading strand

Front

Strand that continuously adds nucleotides to the new complementary strand as the fork progresses DNA pol III

Back

Antiparallel

Front

subunits run in opposite directions

Back

DNA pol III

Front

Synthesizes new DNA strands by adding nucleotides to an RNA primer or a pre-existing DNA strand

Back

DNA pol I

Front

Removes RNA nucleotides of primer from 5' end and replaces them with DNA nucleotides

Back

Lagging Strand

Front

The strand that DNA pol III works away from the replication fork Synthesized discontinuosly as a series of segments

Back