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a reaction that releases energy

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Cards (249)

Section 1

(50 cards)

a reaction that releases energy

Front

exothermic reaction

Back

This change you can see

Front

physical change

Back

Short hand electron configuration

Front

putting the element that occupies the electron configuration shown except the last one which is written after it (e.g. potassium: (1s^2)(2s^2)(2p^6)(3s^2)(3p^6)(4s^1) and its short hand is [Ar] 4s^1)

Back

If you can reverse the process through change-of-phase operations

Front

physical change

Back

energy required to get a chemical reaction started

Front

Activation Energy

Back

Massgravitational accelerationheight=mgh

Front

Gravitational potential energy

Back

quantum number that shows the angular momentum of the electron and the sublevel, which shows the orbital in which the electron could be within

Front

ell

Back

Properties that depend on the size of a sample

Front

Extensive

Back

Density is an extensive or intensive property

Front

intensive

Back

Property of metal that allows it to be hammered into thin sheets

Front

Malleability

Back

a force exerted over a distance

Front

work

Back

The total number of electrons a certain energy level can hold is

Front

2n^2

Back

Flammability, reactivity with acid, reactivity with oxygen, ability to decompose into specific elements

Front

Chemical

Back

a change that results in a new substance

Front

chemical change

Back

number of total protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

Front

atomic number

Back

Heterogeneous Substance

Front

An unequal balance of different materials in a mixture

Back

semimetals

Front

semiconductors or metalloids which tend to be better conductors than non-metals but worse than metals

Back

Change-of-phase operations

Front

freezing, melting and evaporating

Back

Properties that don't depend on the size of the sample

Front

Intensive

Back

atoms of the same element wit differing masses are called

Front

isotopes

Back

Properties that can only be observed by carrying out a chemical reaction

Front

Chemical

Back

the atomic mass unit (u) is based on an atom of what isotope

Front

carbon-12

Back

Homogeneous Substance

Front

Possesses uniform composition

Back

The normal boiling point of water

Front

100 c

Back

a substance made up of only one type of atom

Front

monatomic element

Back

quantum number used to indicate the energy level of an electron and it increases as it moves farther from the nucleus

Front

n

Back

ability to do work

Front

energy

Back

Electron configuration of oxygen

Front

(1s^2)(2s^2)(2p^4)

Back

have a definite shape and definite volume

Front

solids

Back

Properties that can be observed without carrying out a chemical reaction

Front

Physical

Back

quantum number that dictates the spatial orientation of the orbitals that the electron occupies

Front

M sub ell or magnetic quantum number

Back

An elemental form as two-atom molecule

Front

diatomic

Back

True solids possess what type of structure

Front

crystalline

Back

Electron configuration of hydrogen

Front

1s^1

Back

Electron Configuration

Front

(energy level)(sublevel letter)^(number of electrons in sublevel)

Back

When a substance is aqueous it is what type of mixture

Front

homogeneous mixture

Back

If you cannot reverse the process through change-of-phase operations

Front

chemical change

Back

quantum number that shows the spin direction of an electron in a certain orbital and differentiates the states of two electrons in the same orbital

Front

M sub s or spin quantum number

Back

A compound composed of three elements

Front

A ternary compund

Back

the process by which a solid turns directly to a gas

Front

sublimation

Back

This change you cant see

Front

chemical change

Back

the process by which a solid turns to a liquid

Front

Fusion or melting

Back

Mass, volume and weight are extensive or intensive properties

Front

extensive

Back

the process by which a gas turns directly to a solid

Front

Deposition

Back

Color, texture, density, freezing point, electrical conductivity, luster, hardness, mass and weight are physical or chemical properties

Front

Physical

Back

the process by which a liquid becomes a solid

Front

solidification or freezing

Back

a substance that is dissolved in water

Front

aqueous

Back

a reaction that results in a product at a higher energy level than the initial reactants

Front

Endothermic reaction

Back

energy of matter in motion

Front

kinetic energy

Back

Substance that is physically combined

Front

Mixture

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

organic compound with carbon connected by multiple types of bonds

Front

Unsaturated compounds

Back

A molecule with a positive and negative side

Front

polar molecule

Back

poor conductors in any state, but good insulators of heat and electricity

Front

Molecular compounds

Back

What formula can be used to calculate the number of hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon, where n=# of carbon atoms

Front

C(n)H(2n)=2n(n)

Back

Have high melting and freezing points

Front

Ionic compounds

Back

If hydrocarbon is saturated it is given what suffix

Front

-ane

Back

If Na4 was given what would you NOT do to find its electronegativity

Front

You would not multiply the electronegativity of Na by four, you will use just the normal form

Back

Bond with similar compounds to make a bigger whole

Front

Molecular compounds

Back

This diagram of showing bonds uses lines to show covalent bonds. The number of lines are the number of bonds between the two atoms (or the shared electrons divided by two)

Front

Structural formula

Back

The forces that keep compounds together

Front

Intermolecular forces

Back

A molecule without negative or positive sides

Front

non-polar molecule

Back

These compounds don't bond with compounds of the same makeup, instead they crystalize

Front

Ionic compounds, like table salt that have separate grains of crystallized ionic compounds

Back

horizontal rows of the periodic table

Front

periods

Back

organic compounds with carbon connected by single bonds only

Front

Saturated compounds

Back

What type of bond has an electronegative difference of 0.4-1.7

Front

polar covalent bond

Back

Compound with only carbon and hydrogen

Front

hydrocarbon

Back

Hydrocarbon with only one carbon atom has what prefix

Front

meth-

Back

Analogy: What type of compound is like a crowd of families or couples where each person has a special relationship with another

Front

Molecular compound

Back

Positive ion

Front

Cation

Back

Bond with compounds of the same makeup and create a larger whole with all the same compounds (covalent)

Front

Molecular compounds (e.g. H2O)

Back

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons relatively equally

Front

Non-polar covalent bond

Back

When a four atom compound's main element gets bonded left and right and then on the bottom (e.g. BH3)

Front

Trigonal planar

Back

If Oxygen (O) gained two electrons what would it become

Front

O(2-) because it only gained electrons not protons so it stays the same element but becomes an ion

Back

Saturated hydrocarbons are in what group

Front

alkane

Back

What type of bond has an electronegative difference of greater than 1.7

Front

Ionic bond

Back

What type of bond has an electronegative difference of 0-0.3

Front

non-polar covalent bond

Back

Negative ion

Front

Anion

Back

Must have polar covalent bonds and must be asymmetrical

Front

polar molecule

Back

Two or more compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

Front

Isomers

Back

If the molecule is geometrically symmetrical

Front

non-polar molecule

Back

When a compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds

Front

Polyatomic ions - ions made up of more than one atom so multiple bonds can form between different atoms

Back

When a three atom compound's main element can not share all of its electrons, thus causing an extra repulsive force

Front

bent (Bonding should appear bent when shown on Lewis Dot Diagrams)

Back

When a three atom compound's main element (e.g. CO2 main element is C) can share all of its electrons

Front

Linear (the bonding should appear to be in a line when shown on Lewis Dot Diagrams)

Back

columns of the periodic table

Front

groups of families

Back

An elements relative measure of its attraction for bonding electrons

Front

electronegativity

Back

elements in the first column of the periodic table

Front

alkali metals

Back

Analogy: What type of compound is like a crowd of strangers who have no relation to one another

Front

Ionic compound

Back

When atoms share electrons to fill their valance shell

Front

Covalent bond(e.g. N2+O2 -> 2NO or 2H2+O2 -> 2HO2)

Back

If hydrocarbon is double bonded it is given what suffix

Front

-ene

Back

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons but one atom attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in unequal sharing

Front

Polar covalent bond

Back

The formation of a diatomic compound's nuclie

Front

linear

Back

When anions bond with cations to create a neutral charged compound

Front

Ionic compound(e.g. Ca(2+) + O(2-) -> CaO)

Back

A covalent bond where a shared pair of electrons between two atoms in only provided by one of them

Front

Coordinate covalent bond

Back

Ionic compounds are called what?

Front

Salts

Back

Most electromagnetic element

Front

flourine (4.0)

Back

Na and Cl make up table salt. What is each grain made of and what are they?

Front

Each grain is made of the ionic compound of NaCl, with each also being a crystal. This makes the table salt an ionic crystal

Back

Usually don't conduct electricity in the solid state, but they are good conductors in molten or a aqueous(solution) form

Front

Ionic compounds

Back

compounds containing carbon

Front

organic compounds

Back

If hydrocarbon has one or more triple bonds it is given what suffix

Front

-yne

Back

Prefix given to hydrocarbons with three carbon atoms

Front

prop-

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

What is the oxidation number of Al

Front

3+

Back

Molecular formulas

Front

Keep all the subscripts and gives all the information

Back

What type of reaction is this: CH(4)+2O(2) -> CO(2)+2H(2)O

Front

Combustion Reaction

Back

What are the substances on the left-hand side of the arrow in a chemical equation

Front

Reactants

Back

How are binary compounds named

Front

The more electronegative element goes first and is followed by the other element with a profix ide

Back

When mass is converted into energy so elements can turns into other elements

Front

Nuclear equations

Back

What type of reaction is this: K+NaCl -> KCl+Na

Front

Single replacement with metal

Back

When an element and a compound react together and one element in the compound leaves to join with the previously alone element (Metals(A is the metal): A+BC->AC+B this is because A will only attract the element B or C depending on whether it has an opposite oxidation sign, so if it is -1 it will only take the element in the compound that had a positive number) (Non-metals: A+BC->AB+C this is different because A is no longer a metal so it will attract a different element)

Front

Single Replacement

Back

A polyatomic ion usually has what profix

Front

-ate

Back

Formula unit

Front

The mass for the simplest ratio of cations to anions (e.g. NaCl the formula unit would be Na(+1) to Cl(-1))

Back

Do not have any bonds, and have an oxidation number of 0

Front

free element

Back

How would you find the molecular formula given the empirical formula and the molecular formula's molecular mass

Front

1) Find the mass of the given empirical formula 2) Divide the molecular mass by the empirical mass 3) Multiply the empirical subscripts by the given quotient

Back

If an element is reduced what does it mean

Front

the oxidation number has gone down due to gain in electrons

Back

When two ionic compounds react in an aqueous solution, and an ion from one compound replaces the similar ion from the other compound (AB+CD -> CB+AD)

Front

Double replacement

Back

When a more complex substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances, that could be elements or compounds (AB -> A+B)

Front

Decomposition reaction

Back

What is the equation to convert between empirical or molecular

Front

x= (Molecular mass)/(Empirical mass) To get molecular formula: CxH2xOx=C6H12O6 To get empirical formula: C6/xH12/xO6/x=CH2O

Back

When two or more simple compounds or elements combine to form a more complex substance (A+B -> AB)

Front

Synthesis reaction

Back

Molecular mass

Front

The mass of molecular compounds ONLY

Back

How to find the mass of any compound

Front

Look at all the elements in the compound and find their masses on the periodic table, then use these masses and add them up based on how many times that element appears in the compound.

Back

(1)0^e

Front

positron

Back

(-1)0^e

Front

Beta particle

Back

The element or compound that causes the loss of electrons in another element (Element takes electrons)

Front

oxidizing agent

Back

What reaction is this: 2H(2)+O(2)->2H(2)O

Front

Synthesis reaction

Back

Formula mass

Front

The mass of one formula unit

Back

What are the five categories of chemical reactions

Front

Synthesis, Decomposition, Single replacement, Double replacement, and Combustion

Back

What type of reaction is this: Ba(OH)(2)+H(2)SO(4) -> BaSO(4)+2H(2)O

Front

Double replacement

Back

Can the subscripts in a chemical equation ever be changed while balancing?

Front

No, only the coefficients

Back

If there is a polyatomic ion what cannot be changed

Front

The subscript or in other words the amount of it (You can multiply it like this: (NO3)2

Back

What happens if the molecular formula cannot be reduced

Front

Both the molecular and empirical formulas will be the same

Back

How to find the oxidation number of an element?

Front

Find how many electrons it would have to gain or loose to to fill its valence shell and which ever contains the least is the number

Back

Mnemonic device for the five major categories of chemical reactions

Front

Sally Dyed Sammy's red Dog really Crudely

Back

What is an element called when it looses electrons after a reaction (e.g. C+O(2) -> C^4+O(2)^2-)

Front

oxidized (Carbon in the example)

Back

What is an element called when is gains electrons after a reaction (e.g. C+O(2) -> C^4+O(2)^2-)

Front

reduction (Oxygen in the example)

Back

(1)1^p

Front

proton

Back

How to find the correct chemical formula for a compound

Front

Take the oxidation of all the elements and add more ions using subscripts in order to make it neutral

Back

How to find the empirical formula with the percent composition of mass of a compound

Front

1) Assume your dealing with a 100-gram sample (e.g. 28.5% Oxygen and 71.5% Calcium = 28.5 grams of Oxygen an 71.5 grams of Calcium) 2)Divide these masses by their masses from the periodic table (e.g. Calcium -> 71.5/40.1=1.78 parts Oxygen -> 28.5/16=1.78 parts) 3) find the ratio of these two quotients (e.g. 1.78:1.78=1:1) 4) Use this ratio to get the empirical formula (e.g. CaO)

Back

What is hydrogen's oxidation number in a hydride compound

Front

-1

Back

(2)4^He

Front

Alpha particle

Back

A superscript showing the oxidation number of a polyatomic ion is different than when it is present on singe ions

Front

It applies to the entire polyatomic ion, and isn't multiplied by the subscript

Back

How are binary compounds written if an element can have multiple oxidation numbers but only one fits the current compound

Front

With the needed oxidation number written in roman numerals in parenthesis after the element in question

Back

(19)40^K (Not real notation look in book pg.78)

Front

19 = nuclear charge 40 = mass number

Back

What reaction is this: CaCO(3)->CaO+CO(2)

Front

Decomposition reaction

Back

What is the difference between a coefficient and subscript in a formula

Front

A subscript shows connected elements or compounds while a coefficient shows individual elements or compounds (e.g. C6H12O6 would show all these atoms are together and work as a whole, while 6CO2 shows 6 CO2 pieces that are in the formula)

Back

The element that causes the gain of electrons in another element (element gives electrons)

Front

Reducing agent

Back

When a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide (Hydrocarbon+Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide+Water)

Front

Combustion Reaction

Back

Equations that show the individual ions that exist in a solution

Front

Ionic equation

Back

What are the substances on the right-hand side of the arrow in a chemical equation

Front

Products

Back

What compounds are measured with formula mass

Front

Ionic compounds

Back

Empirical formulas

Front

When all the subscripts are simplified (divided) e.g. C6H12 = CH6

Back

(0)1^n

Front

neutron

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

What law states: The volume of a gas decreases as the temperature(ONLY KELVIN) decreases and vise versa

Front

Charles's Law

Back

Solvent

Front

substance that does the dissolving

Back

Solubility

Front

the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance

Back

Formula for Charles's Law (ONLY KELVIN)

Front

V(1)/T(1)=V(2)/T(2)

Back

Supersaturated Solution

Front

When a large quantity of solute is applied relative to the ratio of grams of solute to solvent

Back

Examples of units that measure pressure

Front

Pascals, atm, torr, mm or mercury (mm of Hg)

Back

Equation for Boyle's Law

Front

P(1)V(1)=P(2)V(2)

Back

In the IGL V=?

Front

Volume

Back

In the IGL n=?

Front

Number of moles

Back

Why are Ideal Gases a thing

Front

All gases are treated like ideal gases in order to do calculations

Back

Combined Gas Law Equation

Front

V(2)=[V(1)P(1)T(2)]/[P(2)T(1)]

Back

What does Avogadro's Principle tell us?

Front

equal volumes of gases, at equal temperatures and pressures, contain an equal number of particles

Back

Dry gas

Front

A gas not including water

Back

Atomic mass

Front

Mass of one atom of that element

Back

What are the two points stated by the KMT(Kinetic Molecular Theory)

Front

- all gases are made of individual particles - the net kinetic energy of a gas stays the same despite particle collisions

Back

Conversions of above units

Front

1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 760 torr = 760 mm of Hg 1 kPa = 7.5 mm of Hg

Back

Mole to Mole ratios

Front

In a chemical equation you can look at the coefficients to get the mole ratios (e.g. 2C4H2+O2 the mole ratio would be 2:1 and for every 2 moles of C4H2 molecules there will be 1 mole of O2)

Back

In the IGL P=?

Front

Pressure

Back

How is atmospheric pressure measured

Front

with a devise called a barometer or closed manometer

Back

One mole of STP gas will occupy what volume

Front

22.4 dm^3

Back

What if an element is in excess

Front

it will never run out so you don't have to incorporate it during solving problems with them

Back

Equation for Graham's Law

Front

V(1)/V(2) = sqrt(M(1)/M(2))

Back

Saturated Solution

Front

When too much solute is present in the solution based on the temperature so it doesn't all dissolve (e.g. chocolate at bottom after drinking hot chocolate)

Back

Ideal Gas Law

Front

Show the relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles of a gas

Back

Graham's Law

Front

The speed of gases based on pressure and temperature

Back

In the IGL R=?

Front

Ideal Gas Constant=8.31

Back

STP

Front

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Back

Formula for Dalton's Law

Front

P(total) = P(1)+P(2)+P(3)......

Back

Solute

Front

substance that gets dissolved into a solution

Back

Limiting Reactant

Front

The substance on the reactant side of a formula that will get used up by the reaction

Back

Immiscible

Front

When two liquids fail to mix

Back

Volume of gas (STP) -> Moles of gas (STP)

Front

volume of gas (STP)/22.4=moles

Back

How much MgO is produced by 2g of Mg reacting with an excess of O ( 2MgO+O2->2MgO)

Front

2Mg = 2/24.3 = 0.0823 moles ratio 2:2 = 1:1 so the 2MgO produced = 0.0823*40.3=3.32 g

Back

What law states: if you change the volume of a gas, without changing temperature or number of particles of the gas, you get an inversely proportional change in the gas sample's pressure.

Front

Boyle's Law

Back

What law states: the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of each of the partial pressures(pressure of each individual gas) of the gases in the mixture

Front

Dalton's Law

Back

Unsaturated Solution

Front

When a solution is holding less solute than it can at that temperature, because when solutes are in a solvent a certain ratio in grams in present based on the temperature

Back

Formula for pressure

Front

Pressure = Force/Area

Back

In all nuclear equation what two values must be conserved

Front

The nuclear charge and mass number

Back

How to calculate the pressure of a dry gas by removing that of the water vapor's pressure

Front

1) Measure the temperature of the sample 2) Look at a Vapor Pressure of Water chart to find the pressure of the water vapor based on the temperature 3) Subtract that pressure of the total pressure

Back

Ideal Gas Law Equation

Front

PV=nRT

Back

How to find the molar mass of an element

Front

Take the atomic mass and instead of atomic mass units use grams (e.g. Carbon = 12 u so the molar mass of carbon is 12 g)

Back

Molarity

Front

A measurement for the concentration of a solution

Back

Miscible

Front

When liquids mix well

Back

In the IGL T=?

Front

Temperature (Kelvin)

Back

Standard Temperature

Front

273 K->31.73 Fahrenheit -> -0.15 Celsius

Back

Properties of Ideal Gases

Front

1) The molecules in the gas take up no space (most gases have molecules that take up very little space) 2) No attraction between particles in gas

Back

Molar mass

Front

the mass of 6.02*10^23 pieces

Back

What is a Mole (Avogadro's number)

Front

6.02*10^23 and it is a quantity like a dozen describes 12 things

Back

Standard Pressure

Front

101.3 kPa

Back

Mole arithmetic

Front

Mass -> Mole: Total Mass/mass in one mole=moles Moles->Mass: Moles * mass in one mole = mass Moles->Particles: (6.0210^23) moles = particles

Back

Section 5

(49 cards)

Titration reaction

Front

a neutralization reaction using a solution with a known concentration in order to find the concentration of an unknown solution

Back

What happened: 1s^2 2s^1 2p^3

Front

an exited electron jumped up and skipped the 2s second electron

Back

Kb

Front

ionization constant for bases, and shows the strength of the base as it increases

Back

what is the strength of the conjugate base of a strong acid

Front

weak

Back

What is the Ion-product Constant for Water

Front

k(w) = [H(3)O+] [OH-] = 110^-14 M

Back

Equation to find values in a titration reaction

Front

V(a)M(a) = V(b)M(b) where V(a) = volume of the acid M(a) = the molar concentration of the H+ ions in the acid V(b) = the volume of the base M(b) = the molar concentration of the OH- ions in the base

Back

Arrhenius Theory

Front

- An acid is a substance that releases H+ ions in aqueous solutions - A base is a substance that releases OH- ions in aqueous soltuion

Back

What prefix denotes two carbons in a hydrocarbon

Front

eth-

Back

solutions have a pOH of less than 7

Front

base

Back

have solutions with a pH less than 7

Front

acid

Back

Double bond

Front

Both elements are giving two electrons and sharing the four total electrons covalently

Back

slippery and taste bitter

Front

base

Back

What does the profix -ite show

Front

the compound with the lower amount of oxygen or other ending element

Back

What makes an acid classified as strong or weak

Front

the strongest acids are the ones that are considered to ionize completely, donating the greatest number of protons to the solution

Back

reacts with fats to form compounds called soaps

Front

base

Back

alkyne

Front

any of the series of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a triple bond, including acetylene

Back

What makes a base classified as strong or weak

Front

its affinity to collect protons that are given and form positive ions

Back

Form of a alkyne (triple bonded hydrocarbon)

Front

C(n)H(2n-2)

Back

Conversion between molarity concentration and pH or pOH

Front

pH=-log[H(3)O+] where you take the negative log of the molarity concentration of the substance

Back

hexene

Front

C6H12

Back

Conjugate acid

Front

substance left after a base accepts a proton

Back

octene

Front

C8H18

Back

Form of a double bonded hydrocarbon

Front

C(n)H(2n)

Back

Conjugate base

Front

substance left after an acid donates a proton

Back

have solutions with a pH value of greater than 7

Front

base

Back

Halogen

Front

Flourine(F), Chlorine (CL), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I), Astatine (At) From Claire an Brodual In Athens

Back

Tetrahedral shaped Molecule

Front

A molecule that is bonded like a tetra hedron (triangular pyramid) so it has a center that bonds with four similar elements

Back

often taste tart or sour

Front

acid

Back

what does the profix -ate show

Front

the compound with a higher amount of oxygen or other ending element

Back

Bronsted-Lowry Theory

Front

- An acid is a substance that donates a proton in a solution - A base is a substance that accepts protons

Back

reacts with some metals to produce hydrogen gas

Front

acid

Back

Ka

Front

ionization constant for acids, and shows the strength of an acid as it increases

Back

a group of covalently bonded atoms, which obtain a charge

Front

polyatomic ion

Back

reacts with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide

Front

acid

Back

What generally occurs from an acid and a base neutralizing

Front

salt and water

Back

End point or Equivalence point

Front

The time when neutralization occurs

Back

the type of bond that forms between the in a diatomic molecule such as H2

Front

non-polar covalent bond

Back

How would CuO be written in words

Front

Cu(II)O

Back

When can H(2)O+H(2)O -> H(3)O+ + OH-

Front

when two water molecules hit each other with enough kinetic energy for one hydrogen atom to fly off

Back

A saturated hydrocarbon must have what form

Front

C(n)H(2n+2)

Back

amphoteric substance

Front

acts as a base in some cases and an acid in others

Back

How many valence electrons: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^4

Front

6 (2 from 2s and 4 from 2p)

Back

How would Cu(2)O be written in words (hint: roman numerals)

Front

Cu(I)O

Back

What is pH and pOH

Front

a shorthand notation to represent the concentration of those substances

Back

Equation for molarity

Front

M = moles of solute/liters of solution

Back

From of a Tetrahedral shaped molecule

Front

X Y4, e.g. CBr4

Back

Lewis Acid-Base Theory

Front

- An acid is a substance that accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond - A base is a substance that provides a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond (but if must have a pair of unshared electrons in its valence shell)

Back

solutions have a pOH of greater than 7

Front

acid

Back

If something is in brackets like [H+] what does it mean

Front

the concentration of the substance

Back