Section 1

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When can you descend below MDA/DA

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Cards (107)

Section 1

(50 cards)

When can you descend below MDA/DA

Front

All three conditions must be met: 1. a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal manuevers 2. Flight visibility is not less than the minimums published 3. at least one of the following visual references must be indentified -The approach light system,except you may descend below 100 feet above the touchdown zone only if the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are also visible -The threshold -The threshold markings -The threshold lights -The runway end identifier lights -The visual approach slope indicator -The touchdown zone or its markings -The touchdown zone lights -The runway or runway markings -The runway lights

Back

Cloud clearances

Front

A-None IFR B-3-clr C-3-152 D-3-152 E-3-152 below 10,000 5-111 above 10,000 G-5-111 above 10,000 1-clr below 1200 AGL 1-152 above 1200 AGL below 10,000

Back

Standard Rate turn angle of bank calculation

Front

airspeed/10 +5 3 degrees per second 360 degrees in 2 min

Back

Minimum equipment for IFR flight

Front

FOR DAY Tachometer Oil pressure gauge Manifold pressure gauge* Airspeed indicator Temperature gauge * Oil temperature gauge Flotation if out of glide Fuel quantitty for each tank *Landing gear position lights Anti collision Altimeter Magnetic compass Elt Seat belt Shoulder harness Generator/altenator Radios Altimeter (baro sensing) Ball (slip-skid indicator) Clock (digital or sweep) Attitude indicator Rate of turn Directional gyro DME above FL24 NIGHT TIME all above equipment plus Fuses Landing light (for hire) Anti collision Position lights Source of power

Back

currency to act as PIC

Front

flight review in the last 24 calendar months

Back

required documents for flight

Front

-Pilot certificate -Medical certificate -governemnt issued ID

Back

Instrument approach types

Front

Precision (lateral + vertical guidance) -ILS instrument landing system -MLS microwave landing system -PAR precision approach radar -GLS GNSS landing system -TLS transponder landing system Non precision (lateral course guidance_ -Vor -NDB -RNAV/GNSS (lnav minimums) -LOC -LDA -SDF -ASR

Back

MVFR

Front

-1000-3000 ft ceiling -3-5 sm visibility

Back

VOR

Front

-Very High Omni Directional Range -full scale deflection 10 degrees -Distance off course is 200 ft per dot

Back

Types of altitudes

Front

-Indicated:altitude indicated on the dial -Pressure: altitude corrected for that days pressure -Density: pressure altitude corrected for non standard temperature -True: actual altitude above MSL -Absolute: height AGL

Back

Mandatory reporting points

Front

Missed approach Airspeed +- 10 kts/5% change of filed TAS Reaching a holding fix (report time and altitude) VFR on top ETA change +- 3 min * Leaving a holding fix/point Outer marker* Unforecasted weather Safety of flight Vacating an altitude Final approach fix* Radio/ nav failure Compulsory reporting points* 500 unable climb/descent 500 fpm * required only in a non radar enviroment

Back

Standard Terminal Arrivals (STARs)

Front

-serves as a transition from the enroute structure to a point from which an approach can begin -transitions routes connect en route fixed to the basic STAR procedure -Usually named according to the fix at which the basic procedure begins -may put no STARs in flight plan -RNAV STARs require RNAV 1 performance

Back

Alernate Minimums

Front

123 rule 1 hour before to 1 hour after ETA weather is less than -2000 foot ceilings Or -3 sm visibility if going to an alternate minimums are -600 ft ceilings and 2sm visibility-precision approach -800 ft ceilings and 2 sm visilibilty-non precision approach -for no instrumant approach must be able to conduct landing under basic VFR, be able to descend from Mea vfr

Back

Aircraft maintance inspections for IFR

Front

Annual inspection(12 calander months) Vor (30 days) I00 hour Gps (28 days) Altimeter and statit system (24 calander months) Transponder (24 calander months) Elt (every 12 calander months, half battery life or 1 hour cum use) Magnetometer (24 calander months)

Back

Lost Coms Procedures

Front

Altitude to fly (fly the highest) -MEA -Expected -Assigned Route to fly (follow by order) -Assigned -Vectored -Expected -Filed

Back

VDP

Front

A defined point on the final approach course of a non precision straight in approach procedure from which a normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown zone may begin provided adaquete visual reference is established HAT/300 if no vdp is listed

Back

required aircraft documents for flight

Front

Airworthiness Registration certificate (federal 3 years, state 1 year) Radios operational permit (international flights) Operations manual Weight and balance

Back

Obstacle departure Procedures (ODPs)

Front

-Only provides obstacle clearance -May be flown without an ATC clearance unless a SID or other instructions are assigned -Graphic ODP denote "obstacle" in the chart tile -found in the front of booklets arranged by city -if object is in the way (within 48 feet of the nautical mile odp issued)

Back

Recent flight experience requirements

Front

66 hit -within 6 calendar months -6 instrument approaches -Holding procedures and tasks -Intercept and track course through the use of electronic navigation 6 months pass by you can get current with a safety pilot (atleast a private pilot rated in the appropriate category or class), instructor, or pilot examiner 12 months pass and not current..you need to do a IPC (instrument proficiency check)

Back

Pre flight required for IFR

Front

Runway lenghts Alternate Weather Fuel requirements Atc delays Take off and landing distances

Back

Max holding speeds

Front

0-6000 MSL-200KTS 6001-14000 MSL- 230 KTS Above 14000 MSL-265 KTS

Back

types of speeds

Front

-indicated: speed indicated on the dial -calibrated:IAS corrected for instrument and position errors -equivalent: CAS corrected for compressibility error -True: actual speeed through the air. EAS corrected for nonstandard temperature and pressure -Ground: actual speed over the ground. TAS corrected for wind conditinos

Back

GPS

Front

-24 satalites so that 5 are in view at any given location on earth GPS familiarization 1.using raim 2.intserting departure procedure into the flight plan 3.programming destination airport 4.programming and flying approaches 5. changing to another approach after selecting one 6. programming and flying direct missed approaches 7.programing and flying routed missed approaches 8. entering, flying, and exiting holding patterns 9.programming and flying a route from a holding pattern 10.programing and flying approach with radar vectors 11.indication of the actions required for raim failure 12. programming a radial and distance from a VOR

Back

Enroute weather frequency

Front

Contact Fss for flight watch Highwas Metars

Back

WAAS

Front

-Wide area augmentation system -a system of satalites and ground stations that provide gps signal corrections -makes GPS approaches precisinon

Back

Raim

Front

-Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring -needs a total of 6-5 satatlites to eliminate a corrupt satalite

Back

ILS

Front

Consists of -localizer -glide slope -marker beacon

Back

Do not fly Procedure turn when

Front

SHARPTT -Straight in approach -Holding in lieu of a procedure turn -Arc -Radar vectored to final -P NO PT depicted on chart -Timed approach -Teardrop course reversal

Back

VOR Service volumes

Front

Terminal -1000-12000FT-25NM (Radius) Low 1000-18000FT-40NM (Radius) High 1000-14500FT-40NM (Radius) 14500-18000FT-100NM (Radius) 18000-45000FT-130NM (Radius) 45000-60000FT-100NM (Radius)

Back

IFR flight plan

Front

-Required before entering controlled airspace and a clearance -file atleast 30 min before departure -stored in system for 1.5 hours from proposed time of departure Cancelation -towered airports cancel automatically for you -non towered airports you have to close by contacting atc or FSS - can cancel anytime not in IMC and outside class A airspace Prefered routes should be put on the flight plan and can be found in the AFD

Back

required navigation performance (RNP)

Front

Enroute-2NM Terminal-1NM Approach-.3NM

Back

cruising altitudes

Front

-0-179 odd thousands of feet -180-359 even thousands of feet

Back

LIFR (light IFR)

Front

-less than 500 ft ceilings -less than 1 mile visibility

Back

Take off minimums

Front

-None for part 91 -part 121,125,129,135 prescribed T/O minimums for specific runway,or if none -1-2 engines 1 sm visibility -more than 2 engines:1/2 sm visibility

Back

Departure clearance

Front

Clearance limit Route Alltitude Frequancy Transponder code -Clearance void time: the time at which your clearance is void and after which you may not takeoff. you must notify ATC within 30 min after the void time if you do not depart -Release time: the earliest time the aircraft may depart under IFR -Hold for release time: you may not takeoff until being realeased for ifr departure -Expect Departure clearance time (EDCT)- A runway release time givin under traffic managment programs in busy airports. Aircraft are expected to depart no earlier and no later than 5 min from the EDCT

Back

currency to carry passangers

Front

3 take offs and landings in the last 90 days in the same category and class at night 3 take offs and landings to a full stop (1 hour after sunset and 1 hour before sunrise) in the last 90 days

Back

Standard instrument departures (SIDs

Front

-Provide obstacle clearance and helps reduce radio congestion and workload by simplifying clearances -Pilot NAV SIDs-pilot navigates by charted routes with minimal radio instructions -Vector SIDs- Navigation is based on radio vectors. Routes are not printed on the chart -some SIDs depict non standard radio faulure procedures -File NO SIDs in the remarks of your flight plan if you do not want to use one -RNAV SIDs and all graphical RNAV ODPs require RNAV 1 performance (+-1 NM for 95% of the total flight time)

Back

Logging instrument time

Front

when controlling the aircraft solely by reference to instruments under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions

Back

IFR Altitudes

Front

-DA/H-descent altitude/height -MAA-Maximum authorized altitude -MCA-Minimum crossing altitude -MDA/H-Minimum descent altitude/height -MEA-Minimum enroute altitude (nav coverage and obstacle clearance -MOCA-Minimum obstruction clearance altitude (nav coverage and obstacle clearance within 22nm of nav aid) -MORA- Minimum off route altitude -MRA-Minimum reception altitude -MVA-Minimum vectoring altitude -OROCA- Off route obstruction clearance altitude

Back

fuel requirments

Front

45 min of fuel at normal cruise to airport, and if alternate is required,fuel to destination and alternate plus 45 min

Back

What distance do you have guaranteed obstacle clearance in a circling approach

Front

1.3 miles from the approach end of the runway

Back

Approach Clearnaces

Front

Contact approach -Must be requested by pilot -Requires at least 1 sm reported ground visibility and clear of clouds -available only at airports with approved instrument approach procedures Visual Approach -initiated by the pilot or ATC -requires 1000 ft ceilings and 3sm vis -must have airport or traffic to follow in sight

Back

holding pattern timing

Front

-adjust the outbound leg so the inbound leg takes -at or below 14,000 MSL-1 min -above 14,000 MSL-1.5 min

Back

VOR reveiver checks

Front

-VOT: a ground station located at an airport that broadcasts the 360 radial can receive the signal anywhere at the airport (360 from and 180 to) -Repair Station +-4 -VOR ground: check a marked location at an airport (KPKB)+-4 -VOR airborne check a radial should be received over point established by ATC +- 6 -Dual VOR +-4 -Above a prominent ground landmark +-6 atleast 20 nm from VOR

Back

operating with inoperative equipment

Front

1.MEL (what equipment you can fly with thats broken) 2.Ferry permit 3.equipment removed, or disabled and placarded

Back

minimum altitudes

Front

-mountainous area: 2000ft above highest obstacle within 4 nm of course -non mountainous are: 1000 ft above highest abstacle within 4 nm of course

Back

Position reports items

Front

APTAFENR -Aircraft ID -Position -Time -Altitude -Type of flight plan (expect when talking to ARTCC/approach control) -ETA -The name only of the next succeeding reporting point along the route of flight -any pertinent remarks

Back

IFR

Front

-500-1000 foot ceilings -1-3 sm visibility

Back

Recent flight experience requirements (Simulator)

Front

in the last 2 calander months -3 hours instrument experience holding procedures and tasks -2 unusual attitudes up -2 unusual attitudes down

Back

VOR check signoff

Front

Date Error Place Signature

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

3 senses

Front

-vestibular: motion -vision -somotosensory- nerves, sense of gravity

Back

low pressure

Front

-rotates left and in -cyclone -warm moist air -usuallly stormy weather

Back

IMSAFE

Front

Illness Medication Stress Alcahol Fatigue Emotional, eating

Back

Upslope Fog

Front

Moist, stable air is forced up a terrain slope and cooled down to its dew point by adiabatic cooling

Back

Instrument ice

Front

structural ice forming over aircraft instruments and sensors such as pitot and static

Back

Airmets

Front

-every 6 hours -good for 6 hours 3 types -sierra-mountain obscurations/IFR -Tengo-Turbulance (descibes moderate turbulance,sustained surface winds of 30 kts or greater and or non convective low level wind shear.) -Zulu-Icing

Back

hazourdous attitudes

Front

-Anti authority (dont tell me) -Impulsivity( do it quickly) -Resignition (whats the use) -macho (i can do it) -invulnerability (it wont happen to me) antidotes -follow the rules they are usually righ -not so fast think first -Im not helpless i can make a difference -taking chances are foolish -it could happen to me

Back

gyroscopic instruments

Front

-run on rigidity in space and precession -heading indicator -Attitude indicator -turn cordinator -turn and slip indicators Warrior has 1 it's the attitude and its electrically driven and electrical source is seperate from the battery

Back

emergency frequency (guard)

Front

121.5

Back

Structural Icing

Front

2 conditions -visible moisture -aircraft surface temperature below freezing -Clear Ice: most dangerous type, heavy, hard and difficult to remove. Forms when water drops freeze slowly as a smooth sheet of solid ice. Usually occurs at temperatures close to the freezing point by large supercooled drops of water -Rime Ice: opaque, white, rough ice formed by small supercooled water drops freezing quickly.Occurs at lower temperatures then clear ice does. Mixed Ice: clear and rime ice formed simultaneously If you encounter ice turn around Most likely to get ice on tail because not a lot of movement

Back

convective sigmets

Front

-hourly at 55 min past the hour -good for 2 hours -embedded thunderstomrs -line of Thunderstorms atleast 60 miles long effecting 40% of its length -thunderstorms effecting grater then or equal to 40% or more of an area atleast 3000 square miles -tornados -squal line Thunderstorms -storm producing hail greater then or equal to 3/4 inch -surface winds greater than or equal to 50 kts

Back

sigmets

Front

-come out when needed -good for 4 hours -severe icing not associated with thunderstorms -sever or extreme turbulance or clear air turbulance not associated with thunderstorms -dust storms,sandstorms,lwoering surface visibility below 3 miles

Back

Engine

Front

-lycoming -O-320-D3G -160 hp -2700 RPM -4 cyclinder -direct drive -air cooled -float type carburator Oil -2-8 quarts -ou is 5-7 oil Temp 100-245 0il pressure 25-115

Back

Winds aloft

Front

-2 times a day -0,12 zulu -winds ommited when station is within 1500 feet -Temps ommited when withinin 2500 feet of station -temperatures negative above FL240

Back

weather

Front

78% nitrogen 21% oxygen unequal heating of earth creates pressure which drives weather troposphere stratosphere mesosphere thermosphere

Back

area forecast

Front

-3 times a day -valid for 18 hours -FA abbreviation -6 areas -Dallas fortworth -salt lake city -san francisco -boston -miami -chicago

Back

warm front

Front

-warm moist air -winds variable -steady rise, then warm -clouds, stratus,then clearing with scattered clouds -drizzle, then usuall none,sometimes light showers -poor visibilit, slowly improving, hazzyy

Back

Hypoxia

Front

-Hypoxic hypoxia: insufficient supply of oxygen in the body as a whole (high altitudes) -Hypemic Hypoxia: inability of the blood to carry oxygen (Carbon monoxide poisoning) -Histotoxic hypoxia: inability of the body cells to affectively use the oxygen supplied by the blood (alcahol or drugs) -Stagnant hypoxia: caused by the blood not flowing to a body tissue(execcisve Gs) -fingers and lips turn blue -headache -disorianted -numbness lack of judgemnt

Back

PAVE

Front

Pilot (health, current) Airplane (airworthines) enViroment (weather, terain, runways to use) External pressures (meetings,people waiting)

Back

Ice Fog

Front

Forms when the temperature is much below freezing and water vapor turns directly itno ice crystals. common in the arctic regions but also occurs in mid lattitudes

Back

weather depiction charts

Front

-gives you ceiling information -issued every 3 hours

Back

Fog

Front

a cloud that begins within 50 ft of the surface. occurs when the air temperature near the ground reaches its dew point, or when the dew point is raised to the existing temperature by added moisture to the air

Back

oxygen requirements

Front

12500-14000: crew must use suplemental oxygen for periods of flight over 30 min above 14000: crew must be provided with and use the entire time at these altitudes above 15000: each occupant must be provided with supplemental oxygen

Back

light gun signals

Front

On the ground -steady green:clear for takeoff -flashing green:clear to taxi -steady red:stop -flashing red: taxi clear of RWY -red and green:excersize extreme caution -white-return to starting point of airport in the air -steady green:clear to land -flashing green:return for landing -steady red:give way to other aircraft and continue circling -flashing red: airport unsafe do not land -red and green: excersize extreme caution -white:N/A

Back

propellor

Front

-sensanich -74 (max) -72 (min) -fixed pitch

Back

conditions for a thunderstorm

Front

1. Sufficient water vapor 2.an unstable temperature lapse rate 3.An a initial uplifting force

Back

troughs

Front

- an elongated area of low pressure

Back

hyperventalation

Front

-inbalance of carbon dioxide in the body -breath in a bag and slow your breathing rate down -same as hypoxia -shortness of breath -muscle spazms

Back

Steam Fog

Front

cold, dry air moves over warm water. Moistyre is added to the airmass and steam fog forms

Back

3 P

Front

Perceive hazards Process level of risk Perform risk managment

Back

TAF

Front

terminal area forecast -4 times a day -0,6,12,18 zulu -valid for 24 hours, 30 hours for class B -5 sm from center of airport

Back

ridges

Front

- an elonged area of high pressure

Back

Metar

Front

comes out hourly

Back

surface analysis charts

Front

-come out every 3 hours

Back

5 P

Front

Plan Plane Pilot Passangers Programing

Back

Frost

Front

Ice crystals caused by sublmation when both the temperature and the dew point are below freezing

Back

Radiation Fog

Front

occurs at calm clear nights when the ground cools rapidly due to the release of ground radiation

Back

Life Cycle of a Thunderstorm

Front

-Cumulus stage:lifting action of the air begins -Mature stage:Begins when precipitation has become to fall from the cloud base, thunderstorms are at the greatest intensity here -Dissipating: characterized by strong downdrafts and the cell is dying rapidly

Back

stable air

Front

bad visibility stratus clouds stable,smooth air wide spread precip (light)

Back

radar summary

Front

-35 min past the hour, every hour

Back

high pressure

Front

-rotates right and goes out -cool dry air -associated with fair weather, and sunny skys -light winds -anti cycolne

Back

cold front

Front

-a mass of cold, dense air. -winds gust -temperature drops, then continues dropoing -minimum drop pressure, then a stready rise -cumulous, and cumulonimbus clouds -heavy rains, sometimimes sever, then slowly clearing out -poor visibility, then improving

Back

decompression sickeness

Front

altitudes above 8000 wait 24 hours below 8000 wait 12 hours if uncontrolled and 24 hours if controlled -can cause the bendz which is nitrogen in the joints

Back

K index

Front

-Top number:severity 0 to -2:weak -3 to -5: moderate -6 or less :heavy -Bottom number: percent of happening -goes from less than 5 to over 40 -smaller number less chance of it happening

Back

unstable air

Front

good visibility upward lift turbulant showery precip

Back

occluded front

Front

when a cold front takes over a warm front and causes storms

Back

DECIDE

Front

Detect change Estimate the need to react to the change Choose a desirable outcome Identify solutions Do the necassary actions Evaluate the effect of action

Back

thunderstorm hazzards

Front

-limited visibility -wind shear -strong updrafts and downdrafts -icing -lightning -tornados

Back

Induction Ice

Front

ice reducing the amount of air for the engine intake -Intake ice: blocks the engine intake -Carburator ice: May form due to steep temperature drop in the carburator venturi. can form at temps of -7 to 21 celcius and a high relative humidity

Back

Advection Fog

Front

warm, moist air moves over cold surface, winds are required for advection fog to form

Back

Section 3

(7 cards)

pito tube

Front

senses ram air pressure, used for the airspeed indicator

Back

Pitostatic system

Front

-Airspeed indicator -Vertical speed indicator -altimeter

Back

Altimeter

Front

-uses just static port - aneroid wafer -senses ambiant air pressure as the plane increases and decreases altitude -aneroid wafer is sealed and as you go up pressure decreases which makes the aneroid wafer expand and show u high and vise versa -if static port is blocked it will freeze where it was last

Back

static port

Front

senses pressure of static or non moving air

Back

magnetic compass errors and limitations

Front

Deviation (electrical interference) Variation (difference between true and magnetic north) Oscilattion (erratic movement) Magnetic dip (prominent on east weat heading) North/south turn errors (heading u role out on) -Undershoot north overshoot south Acceleration errors -Accalerate north decelerate south

Back

vertical speed indicator

Front

-Diaphram -static port is connected to the diaphram -calibrated leak, so when u are climbing or descending things are delayed in the case which gives you the trend and rate information -if static port is blocked will freeze at 0

Back

Airspeed indicator

Front

-uses pito tube and static port -ram air goes through the pito and into the diaphram -Pressure does not effect the ASI, only temperature because of the static port keeping the pressure inside the box the same, temperature effects the ASI because colder air is denser so its excerting more pressure on the diaphram Problems -if the pito tube is blocked but drain hole is open the airspeed will leak out of it and the ASI will read 0 -if the pito and drain hole are blocked it will act like an altimeter ex going from low to high the high pressure inside the ASI will squeeze the diaphram and will show you lower than you are -If just drain hole is blocked it will become wild and eratic -just the static port is blocked it will be inverse of altimeter

Back