Section 1

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Andrew Johnson

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Cards (495)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Andrew Johnson

Front

17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as Abraham Lincoln's vice president at the time of Lincoln's assassination. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on theNational Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. Johnson was soft on the south and vetoed Reconstruction legislation whenever he could. His enemies were the Radical Republicans, led by Thaddeus Stevens. Johnson would violate the Tenure of Office Act, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives. The first American president to be impeached, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote.

Back

Emancipation Proclamation

Front

Lincoln's statement affirming the abolition of slavery as a war aim (1862). 4 million slaves were automatically freed.

Back

Fugitive Slave Act

Front

A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states. The law was highly unpopular in the North and helped to convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery.

Back

Congressional Reconstruction

Front

December, 1865, many Southern states were reintegrated to the Union, such as former Confederates and Democrats, but Republicans were disgusted to see former enemies reclaim seats in Congress. Without the Democrats, Republicans passed legislation that favored the North, (Morrill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act) so many Republicans didn't want to the power that they gained in the war to be gone. Northerners realized the South would be stronger politically because Blacks counted for a whole person, Republicans feared that Northern and Southern Democrats would come together and take over Congress and the White House and their Black Codes would take over the nation, making what the Civil War gained disappear. December 6, 1865, President Johnson declared the Union was now restored.

Back

Transcontinental Railroad

Front

A train route across the United States. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.

Back

13th Amendment

Front

This abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States

Back

Equal Protection

Front

Requires states to guarantee the same rights, privileges, and protection to all citizens

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Reservation

Front

The system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. Within these reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.

Back

Black Codes

Front

Prevented colored people the right to vote, serve on juries, testify in court against whites, hold office, or serve in the military and regulated their marriages and labor contracts

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15th Amendment

Front

The amendment that stated that no one could be rejected voting rights based on race, color, or ex-slave.

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Indian Wars

Front

Were the multiple conflicts between American settlers or the United States government and the native peoples of North America from the time of earliest colonial settlement until 1890.

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Grandfather Clauses

Front

This was a statute enacted by many American southern states in the wake of Reconstruction that allowed potential white voters to circumvent literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to disfranchise southern blacks

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Solid South

Front

This was the electoral voting bloc of the Southern United States states for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of white Democrats in the Southern states.

Back

Poll Taxes

Front

This was enacted in Southern states had the effect of disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a prerequisite for voting.

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Literacy Tests

Front

This refers to state government practices of administering tests to prospective voters purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote. In practice, these tests were intended to disenfranchise African-Americans.

Back

Frontier

Front

The line separating areas of denser settlement from "unsettlement" territory

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Sharecropping

Front

Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant (freed slave) to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.

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Jefferson Davis

Front

Former US senator who in 1861, was chosen president of the Confederate States of America; had wide military and administrative experience

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

Front

The Act of Congress in 1854 annulling the Missouri Compromise, providing for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and permitting these territories self-determination on the question of slavery.

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Great Plains

Front

A vast grassland region of central North America extending from the North Dakota to Texas. Much of the area is used for cattle ranching and wheat farming. This frontier was settled by thousands during the Homestead Act of 1862

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Segregation

Front

Is the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.

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Dred Scott Decision

Front

(1857) *5th Amendment Property Rights Court rules that a slave is property, and are not citizens, and therefore don't have standing in court. Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional. Shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Scott, a slave, sought to be declared a free man on the basis that he had lived for a time in a "free" territory with his master. The Court decided that, under the Constitution, He was his master's property and was not a citizen of the United States.

Back

Gettysburg

Front

a battle of the American Civil War (1863); the defeat of Robert E. Lee's invading Confederate Army was a major victory for the Union.

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New South

Front

Means the modernization of society and attitudes, to integrate more fully with the United States, and reject the economy and traditions of the Old South and the slavery-based plantation system of the antebellum period.

Back

Scalawag

Front

They were Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.

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Presidential Reconstruction

Front

Restoration was to be simple. In Lincoln's plan for restoring the union, southern states would be integrated to the Union if they had 10% of its voters pledge the Union, and acknowledge emancipation of the slaves; it was called the Ten Percent Plan. Lincoln's plan was forgiving to the South. There was fear by the Radical Republicans the 10 % Plan re-enslaved the newly freed Blacks, so they pulled the Wade-Davis Bill through Congress. It required 50% of the states' voters to take allegiance and demand stronger safeguards for emancipation. Lincoln let it expire, the 10% Plan remained. It was clear there were two types of Republicans: moderates,(shared same views as Lincoln) and radicals, (believed the South should be punished.) But Lincoln was assassinated and the 10% Plan was in doubt. Andrew Johnson took over, he took Lincoln's policy and made his Reconstruction proclamation: some Confederates had the right to vote removed, and states ratifed the 13th Amendment.

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Radical Republicans

Front

Apart of the Republican Party before and after the Civil War that were critical of Johnson's plan. They were abolitionists before the war, led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner.

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Due Process

Front

According this no citizen may be denied his or her legal rights and all laws must conform to fundamental, accepted legal principles, as the right of the accused to confront his or her accusers.

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Sand Creek Massacre

Front

Was an atrocity in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70-163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.

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Reconstruction

Front

The plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War and extend the ideas of liberty and equality to the slaves that had been freed during the war. There are three brands: Presidential (Lincoln and Johnson), Radical (Radical Republicans), and Johnsonian (Johnson).

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Republican Party

Front

They were founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. Originally, it was composed mainly of northerners from both major parties of the time, the Democrats and the Whigs, with some former Know-Nothings as well.

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Appomattox

Front

Site Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant at the nearby hamlet of Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War..

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Jim Crow Laws

Front

These were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states, starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.

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Carpetbagger

Front

Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, especially during Reconstruction, in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.

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Wounded Knee

Front

A battle between the U.S. Army and the Dakota Sioux, in which several hundred Native Americans and 29 U.S. soldiers died. Tensions erupted violently over two major issues: the Sioux practice of the "Ghost Dance," which the U.S. government had outlawed, and the dispute over whether Sioux reservation land would be broken up because of the Dawes Act. Left some 150 Native Americans dead, in what was the final clash between federal troops and the Sioux.

Back

Missouri Compromise

Front

Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouri's request but also admitting Maine as a free state. It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

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Ku Klux Klan

Front

This was a secret organization. Extremely racist Whites who hated the Blacks and founded the "Invisible Empire of the South," in Tennessee 1866—an organization that scared Blacks into not voting or not seeking jobs, etc... they encouraged violence against the Blacks in addition to terror. This radical group threatened a lot of what abolitionists wanted to do.

Back

Sioux Indians

Front

A member of a group of Native American peoples, comprising the Lakota, the Santee, the Yankton, and the Yanktonai, inhabiting the northern Great Plains from Minnesota to eastern Montana and from southern Saskatchewan to Nebraska. Present-day Sioux populations are located mainly in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, and Nebraska.

Back

Buffalo Soldiers

Front

A member of one of the African-American regiments within the US Army after the Civil War, serving primarily in the Indian wars of the late 1860s.

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Vicksburg

Front

a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863); after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the Confederates surrendered

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Freedman

Front

An emancipated slave.

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Push-and-Pull Factors

Front

A negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave, esp. in one's country, region, organization, religion, etc.

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Freedman's Bureau

Front

Established by Congress to help former slaves adjust to freedom. It was Created to aid newly emancipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, education, and legal support. Its achievements were uneven and depended largely on the quality of local administrators.

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Plessy v Ferguson

Front

(1896) * "Seperate but equal" An 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision provided legal justification for the Jim Crow system until the 1950s.

Back

Impeachment

Front

Is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.

Back

Abraham Lincoln

Front

Republicans chose him to run against Senator Douglas (a Democrat) in the senatorial elections of 1858. Although he loss victory to senatorship that year, Lincoln came to be one of the most prominent northern politicians and emerged as a Republican nominee for president. Although he won the presidential elections of 1860, he was a minority and sectional president (he was not allowed on the ballot in ten southern states). 16th President of the United States; saved the Union during the American Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth.

Back

Debt Peonage

Front

System where if the sharecropping owed money or some debt to the landlord, they could not leave until it was paid off.

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14th Amendment

Front

This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.

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Little Big Horn

Front

A particularly violent example of the warfare between whites and Native Americans in the late nineteenth century, also know as "Custer's Last Stand." In two days, June 25 and 26, 1876, the combined forces of over 2,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians defeated and killed more than 250 U.S. soldiers, including Colonel George Custer. The battle came as the U.S. government tried to compel Native Americans to remain on the reservations and Native Americans tried to defend territory from white gold-seekers. This Indian advantage did not last long, however, as the union of these Indian fighters proved tenuous and the United States Army soon exacted retribution.

Back

Civil Rights Act

Front

This granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."

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Section 2

(50 cards)

Dawes Severalty Act

Front

(1887)An Act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold for money to fund U.S. government efforts to "civilize" Native Americans. Of 130 million acres held in Native American reservations before the Act, 90 million were sold to non-Native buyers. It tried to Americanize the American Indian.

Back

Sherman Antitrust Act

Front

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

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Capitalism

Front

An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state

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Ideology

Front

A system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.

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John D. Rockefeller

Front

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

Back

Thomas Edison

Front

Inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.

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Market Economy

Front

Is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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Corporation

Front

A company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Boom Town

Front

Community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. Sprang up overnight along the railroads and mining sites

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J.P. Morgan

Front

Was an American financier, banker, and philanthropist who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, to form the United States Steel Corporation

Back

Knights of Labor

Front

This Union that grew rapidly because of a combination of their open-membership policy, the continuing industrialization of the American economy, and the growth of urban population; welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigratns, and African Americans; were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and managements. Their goal was to create a cooperative society in which laborers owned the industries in which they worked.This openess alson leads to there demise.

Back

Bessemer Process

Front

A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort

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Vertical Integration

Front

Is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.

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Strike

Front

A work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.

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Lockout

Front

A temporary work stoppage or denial of employment initiated by the management of a company during a labor dispute.

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Capitalism

Front

An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.

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American Federation of Labor

Front

Was the first federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association and led by Samuel Gompers; an alliance of skilled workers in craft unions; concentrated on bread-and-butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.

Back

Sod House

Front

a house built of strips of soil, laid like brickwork, and used especially by settlers on the Great Plains, when timber was scarce.

Back

Alexander Graham Bell

Front

Was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

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Horizontal Integration

Front

Is a strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs which are alike - either complementary or competitive. One example would be when a company acquires competitors in the same industry doing the same stage of production for the creation of a monopoly.

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Haymarket Riot

Front

The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.

Back

Second Industrial Revolution

Front

The rapid rate of path breaking inventions. Is usually dated between 1870 and 1914, although a number of its characteristic events can be dated to the 1850s.

Back

George Westinghouse

Front

An American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry

Back

Transatlantic Cable

Front

Is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic.

Back

Elijah McCoy

Front

Inventor and engineer, who was notable for his 57 U.S. patents, most to do with lubrication of steam engines.

Back

Telegraph

Front

A system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection.

Back

Barbed Wire

Front

A wire or strand of wires having small pieces of sharply pointed wire twisted around it at short intervals, used chiefly for fencing in livestock, keeping out trespassers, etc. in the Open Range

Back

Mail-Order House

Front

A retail firm that conducts its business by receiving orders and shipping its merchandise through the mail and that supplies its customers with catalogs, circulars, etc.

Back

Trusts

Front

An economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.

Back

Stock

Front

The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a business or warehouse and available for sale or distribution.

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Homestead Act

Front

A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land. This originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres of unappropriated federal land within the boundaries of the public land states.

Back

Samuel Morse

Front

an American inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system and code.

Back

Entrepreneur

Front

A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so.

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Innovation

Front

Is a new idea, more effective device or process.Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, in articulated needs, or existing market needs.

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Pullman Strike

Front

1894,began when the national economy fell into a depression, the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages while maintaining rents and prices in a company town where 12,000 workers lived; halted a substantial portion of American railroad commerce; ended when President Cleveland ordered federal troops to Chicago, ostensibly to protect rail-carried mail, but in reality, to crush the strike.

Back

Open Range

Front

Large Public lands not belonging to anyone. Grazing land without fences or other barriers.

Back

Henry Flagler

Front

Was a self-made millionaire and industrialist who co-founded the Standard Oil Company. He masterminded the plan that transformed Standard Oil into the most successful monopoly of the nineteenth century. During the second half of his life, he developed land and built railroads in Florida, establishing agriculture and tourism as the state's leading industries.

Back

Wilbur and Orville Wright

Front

Were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight

Back

Labor Union

Front

An organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions.

Back

Samuel Gompers

Front

Head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). For 38 years, he worked for the AFL, making it a major force in the industrial world. He believed that if workers make good pay, it will make everyone prosperous. He believes in fair wages for all.

Back

Lewis Howard Latimer

Front

Was an African-American inventor and draftsman.Patented an improved method for producing the carbon filaments used in the new electric light bulb.

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Andrew Carnegie

Front

Was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He built a leadership role as a philanthropist. He gave away to charities and foundations about $350 million. Founder of Carnegie Steel who became the leader in the nation's steel industry

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Jan Ernst Matzeliger

Front

Was an African-American inventor that was awarded a patent for a machine which attached the upper part of a leather shoe it the sole, cutting the price of shoes in half

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Sarah Goode

Front

First African American woman to receive a patent, designed furniture and received a patent for a fold-away bed

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Homestead Strike

Front

1892, A strike at a Carnegie steel plant in Homestead, P.A., that ended in an armed battle between the strikers, three hundred armed "Pinkerton" detectives hired by Carnegie, and federal troops, which killed ten people and wounded more than sixty. The strike was part of a nationwide wave of labor unrest in the summer of 1892 that helped the Populists gain some support from industrial workers.

Back

Monopoly

Front

Is being the only one in a given selling a specific product, or having exclusive control over a certain thing, or the trade mark of a board game where the aim is to buy properties on the board and then build hotels on those properties.

Back

Social Darwinism

Front

This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.

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Cowboy

Front

A man or women who herds and tends cattle on a ranch, especially in the western U.S., and who traditionally goes about most of his work on horseback..

Back

George Pullman

Front

An American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, Pullman, for the workers who manufactured it.

Back

Madame C.J. Walker

Front

American entrepreneur who developed hair products especially for black women and built the most successful company owned by an African American at that time.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Temperance Movement

Front

A social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Back

Tammany Hall

Front

Was powerful New York political organization. It drew support from immigrants. The immigrants relied on Tammany Hall patronage, particularly for social services. This is significant in that it gave immigrants rights to vote.

Back

Americanization

Front

The influence of the U.S. on the culture of other countries. Also refers to the process of acculturation by immigrants or annexed populations to American customs and values.

Back

Direct Primary

Front

A primary in which members of a party nominate its candidates by direct vote.

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New Immigrants

Front

Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the wave of immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native-born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help immigrants assimilate.

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Angel Island

Front

An island in San Francisco Bay that has served a variety of purposes, including military forts, a US Public Health Service Quarantine Station, and a US Bureau of Immigration inspection and detention facility.

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Women's Suffrage

Front

The right of women to vote and to stand for electoral office.

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City manager

Front

An official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council-manager form of city government.

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Consumers

Front

A person who purchases goods and services for personal use.

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Ellis Island

Front

The gateway for millions of immigrants to the U.S. as the nation's busiest immigration inspection station from 1892 until 1954.

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Salvation Army

Front

A Christian denominational church and an international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion.

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Populist Party

Front

3rd political party created by farmers' organizations (Grange, other alliances) They demonstrated their power in the election of 1892 with Populist president candidate James B Weaver of Iowa. They consisted mostly of farmers who were engaged in type of farming being oppressed by new, mechanized commercial agriculture. They believed people should influence the political process.

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Initiative

Front

A progressive reform measure allowing voters to petition to have a law placed on the general ballot.

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"Cross of Gold" Speech

Front

Speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former U.S. Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity.

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Robert La Follette

Front

U.S. leader of the Progressive Movement, who as governor of Wisconsin and U.S. senator was noted for his support of reform legislation. He was the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Progressive party in 1924, winning almost five million votes, or about one-sixth of the total cast.

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Settlement House

Front

Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, they were found in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the US. Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed life-long passions for social activism. Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago was the most prominent.

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Referendum

Front

A progressive reform procedure allowing voters to place a bill or on the ballot for final approval, even after being passed by legislature.

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Muckrakers

Front

Bright young reporters at the turn of the 20th century who won this unfavorable moniker from Theodore Roosevelt, but boosted the circulations of their magazines by writing exposés of widespread corruption in American society.

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Gentlemen's Agreement

Front

An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be stopped. The agreement prevented a war that would have been caused by California, who was in Japan's eyes, oppressing their children.

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Municipal Reform

Front

Changes in city governments made to encourage greater efficiency, honesty, and responsiveness.

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Upton Sinclair

Front

He was a writer of novels of social protest and political tracts; he is best known for his 1906 expose of the meatpacking industry, "The Jungle."

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National Woman Suffrage Association

Front

NWSA American organization, founded in New York City, that was created by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women

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Tenement

Front

Originally referred simply to a multiple-family rental building; in late 1800s, used to describe slum dwellings only. Had many windowless rooms, little or no plumbing or central heating, & perhaps a row of privies in the basement

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Munn v. Illinois

Front

This 1876 Supreme Court case seemed like a victory for the Grangers movement and represented a step toward greater governmental regulation of the economy. The court decided that states had the right to regulate commerce within their states (particularly railroad and grain elevator companies), but this decision was largely overturned 10 years later by the Wabash case.

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Old Immigrants

Front

Immigrants who had come from North Western areas of Europe. Germans and Scandinavians from Western Europe who came before the 1880's. They discriminated against the "new immigration" and considered themselves "natives." The mixing of the other Europeans would tarnish their true Anglo-Saxon heritage

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Communism

Front

A social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production, absence of social classes, money, and the state. A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country

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Nativism

Front

The policy of protecting the interests of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

Back

Wabash v. Illinois

Front

Decided in 1886, a supreme court case that ruled that individual states did not have the right to regulate interstate commerce and led to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Interstate Commerce Commission

Back

Political Machine

Front

A political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses, who receive rewards for their efforts.

Back

17th Amendment

Front

Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.

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Boss Tweed

Front

An American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, ran the New York City Democratic party in the 1860s and swindled $200 million from the city through bribery, graft, and vote-buying. He was eventually jailed for his crimes and died behind bars.

Back

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Front

Passed in 1890 by the U.S. Congress to supplant the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. It not only required the U.S. government to purchase nearly twice as much silver as before, but also added substantially to the amount of money already in circulation.

Back

Social Gospel Movement

Front

A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor.

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Anarchism

Front

Political belief that all organized, coercive government is wrong in principle, and that society should be organized solely on the basis of free cooperation. Total absence of rule or government; confusion; disorder

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Urbanization

Front

The process of people moving to cities.

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Progressives

Front

Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or reform, as opposed to wishing to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters.

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Jacob Riis

Front

A Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the poor by publishing his book "How the other half lives."

Back

Secret Ballot

Front

A voting method in which a voter's choices in an election are anonymous.

Back

Child Labor

Front

Refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is deemed harmful.

Back

Jane Addams

Front

She a pioneer settlement social worker,public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. She helped turn the US to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace.

Back

Ghetto

Front

A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.

Back

Recall

Front

A progressive ballot procedure allowing voters to remove elected officials from office.

Back

Omaha Platform

Front

Populist Party platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers.

Back

Interstate Commerce Act

Front

It established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities and required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government

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Socialism

Front

Political belief in promoting social and economic equality through the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporation

Back

Political Machines

Front

A political machine is a political organization in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts.

Back

Chinese Exclusion Act

Front

1882, Federal legislation that prohibited most further Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first major legal restriction on immigration in U.S. history.

Back

Ida Tarbell

Front

An American teacher, author, and journalist. One of the leading muckrakers. She is known for her pioneering investigative reporting that led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Company's monopoly.

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William Jennings Bryan

Front

A dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the U.S. He served two terms as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Nebraska and was U.S. Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson.

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Granger Movement

Front

A farmers' organization and movement that started as a social/educational association; the Grange later organized politically to pass a series of laws to regulate railroads in various states.

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Section 4

(50 cards)

16th Amendment

Front

Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the U.S. Census.

Back

Pure Food and Drug Act

Front

A law passed by Congress to inspect and regulate the labeling of all foods and pharmaceuticals intended for human consumption.

Back

Anti-Imperialist League

Front

Objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

Back

Puerto Rico

Front

Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island given to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War.

Back

Boxer rebellion

Front

a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.

Back

Hawaii

Front

Is an isolated volcanic archipelago in the Central Pacific. U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898

Back

"Open Door" Policy

Front

Is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 Message delivered by John to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.

Back

Susan B. Anthony

Front

An American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement.

Back

U.S.S Maine

Front

The battleship sent to Havana to protect Americans and their property; an explosion sank it; killing 260 men. Newspapers said the ship was blown up by Spain and it became a Ralling call for war. "Remember the Maine"

Back

Cuba

Front

An Island south of the US that is brutally crushed by Spanish troops. US was concerned, having LOTS of investment in Cuba. Cubans are forced into prison/concentration camps, published in US newspapers and pitied.

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William Randolph Hearst

Front

Newspaper editor in New York City who grew competitive and employed yellow journalism in order to entice readers to buy their papers; both men stopped at nothing in order to get a good story, and so were able to deliver shocking stories and exciting anecdotes.

Back

Monroe Doctrine

Front

A principle of US policy, originated by President James Monroe in 1823, that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US.

Back

Yellow Fever

Front

A tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Caused problem in the construction of the Panama Canal.

Back

Jose Martí

Front

Led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War. Spoke against American occupation in Cuba.

Back

Treaty of Portsmouth

Front

Treaty ended the Russo-Japanese. It forced Japan to drop demands for a cash indemnity and Russian evacuation of Skhalin island, though it received control of Korea. This marked the emergence of a new era of diplomatic negotiations, multi-track diplomacy.

Back

Teller Amendment

Front

Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S

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Rough Riders

Front

The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen who volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Recruited by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.

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Humanitarian

Front

Concerned with or seeking to promote human welfare.

Back

Imperialism

Front

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

Back

Panama Canal

Front

a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.

Back

Coal Strike of 1902

Front

Was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities. President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received a 10% wage increase and reduced workdays from ten to nine hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.

Back

Governor Broward

Front

A river pilot and captain before becoming a politician. He was elected as the 19th Governor of the state of Florida from 1905 to 1909. He was best known for his major project to drain the Everglades to recover land for agricultural cultivation.

Back

Clayton Antitrust Act

Front

Law extending the anti-trust protections of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural organizations from antimonopoly constraints.

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Everglades

Front

A natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida.

Back

Manila Bay

Front

This Battle took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish-American War. The American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo that marked an end to wooden ships to the more powerful American Steel Navy.

Back

Spanish-American War

Front

A war between Spain and the United States fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba.

Back

Spheres of Influence

Front

A country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority.

Back

Roosevelt Corollary

Front

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

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Graduated Income Tax

Front

A progressive tax system, failure to index the brackets to inflation will result in effective tax increase, as inflation in wages will increase individual income and move individuals into higher tax brackets with higher percentage rate.

Back

De Lome letter

Front

This letter, written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, was re-printed in the New York Journal; it was highly critical of President McKinley and viewed by many as an official Spanish insult against the US.

Back

William Howard Taft

Front

27th President of the United States, he was progressive in his polices, and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States. He is the only person to have served in both of these offices.

Back

Federal Trade Commission

Front

A banner accomplishment of Woodrow Wilson's administration, this law empowered a standing, presidentially appointed commission to investigate illegal business practices in interstate commerce like unlawful competition false advertising, and mislabeling of goods.

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Mark Twain

Front

He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age". The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.

Back

Commodore Dewey

Front

Commodore during the Spanish-American War who captured the Philippines and Guam. Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay. His victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain, from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies.

Back

Yellow Journalism

Front

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Back

Platt Amendment

Front

This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treaties with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.

Back

"Big Stick" policy

Front

Refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly, and carry a big stick.

Back

Ostend Manifesto

Front

Was a secret document written by American diplomats in 1854 at Ostend, Belgium. The manifesto outlined a plan for the United States Government to acquire the island of Cuba from Spain. Located only 150 miles from Miami Florida, many American expansionalists believed the America had the "right" to Cuba.

Back

Alice Paul

Front

An American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the 19th Amendment.

Back

Woodrow Wilson

Front

28th U.S. president, served in office from 1913 to 1921 and led America through World War I. An advocate for democracy and world peace, He is often ranked by historians as one of the nation's greatest presidents. Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission. He tried to keep the United States neutral during World War I but ultimately called on Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. After the war, he helped negotiate a peace treaty that included a plan for the League of Nations. Although the Senate rejected U.S. membership in the League.

Back

"White Man's Burden"

Front

A phrase used to justify European imperialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; it is the title of a poem by Rudyard Kipling.

Back

Federal Reserve Act

Front

An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking secto

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Square Deal

Front

It was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. These three demands are often referred to as the "three C's."

Back

Meat Inspection Act

Front

A law passed by Congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspection.

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Alfred Thayer Mahan

Front

Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance; it stimulated the naval race among the great powers. Which describe "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century."

Back

Philippines

Front

Sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. An armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.

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Government Regulation

Front

A law that controls the way that a business can operate, or all of these laws considered together: Voters want some government regulation to prevent these financial disasters from happening

Back

Theodore Roosevelt

Front

He unexpectedly became the 26th president of the United States in September 1901, after the assassination of William McKinley. Young and physically robust, he brought a new energy to the White House, and won a second term on his own merits in 1904. Roosevelt confronted the bitter struggle between management and labor head-on and became known as the great "trust buster" for his strenuous efforts to break up industrial combinations under the Sherman Antitrust Act. He was also a dedicated conservationist, setting aside some 200 million acres for national forests, reserves and wildlife refuges during his presidency. In the foreign policy arena, Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace Prize for his negotiations to end the Russo-Japanese War and spearheaded the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal. He returned to politics in 1912, mounting a failed run for president at the head of a new Progressive Party.

Back

San Juan Hill

Front

One of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt and Rough Riders defeated Spain. Placed America at an advantage. Two days later, American ships destroyed the Spanish fleet in Cuba. In August, the US and Spain agreed to a treaty ending the war.

Back

Queen Liliuokalani

Front

Queen Liliuokalani was the last reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She took the throne in 1891 following the death of her brother, King Kalakaua. She was a strong voice for native Hawaiians, whose power had been limited by the increasing influence of U.S. settlers in Hawaii.

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

American Expeditionary Force

Front

American force of 14,500 that landed in France in June 1917 under the command of General John Pershing. Both women and blacks served during the war, mostly under white officers

Back

Airplanes

Front

A powered flying vehicle with fixed wings and a weight greater than that of the air it displaces. Was used in WWI for resonances.

Back

Espionage Act

Front

A law prohibiting interference with the draft and other acts of national "disloyalty." Together with the Sedition Act of 1918, which added penalties for abusing the government in writing, it created a climate that was unfriendly to civil liberties

Back

Palmer Raids

Front

This was an attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to Palmer's methods. The Palmer Raids occurred in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.

Back

Quota system

Front

Limiting by nationality the number of immigrants who may enter the US each year.

Back

Chemical Warfare

Front

The first full-scale deployment of deadly chemical warfare agents during World War I was at the Second Battle of Ypres, on April 22, 1915, when the Germans attacked French, Canadian and Algerian troops with chlorine gas. Deaths were light, though casualties relatively heavy.

Back

Treaty of Versailles

Front

World War I concluded with this vengeful document, which secured peace but imposed sharp terms on Germany and created a territorial mandate system to manage former colonies of the world powers. To Woodrow Wilson's chagrin, it incorporated very few of his original Fourteen Points, although it did include the League of Nations that Wilson had long sought. Isolationists in the United States, deeply opposed to the League, led the opposition to the Treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate.

Back

War Industries Board

Front

Headed by Bernard Baruch, this federal agency coordinated industrial production during World War I, setting production quotas, allocating raw materials, and pushing companies to increase efficiency and eliminate waste. Under the economic mobilization of the War Industries Board, industrial production in the United States increased 20 percent during the war.

Back

Unrestricted submarine warfare

Front

Type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").

Back

Red scare

Front

A fear of Russia that ran high in the US even after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This resulted in a nationwide crusade against those whose Americanism was suspect.

Back

Warren G. Harding

Front

29th President of the United States. A Republican promised return to normality after WW1 used efforts of make no enemies during his presdiency. scandals affected his presidency such as the Ohio Gang that had to do with financial jobs that he offered his friends. Died into his presidency.

Back

Roaring Twenties

Front

Was a time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.

Back

Austria- Hungary

Front

A former monarchy (1867-1918) in central Europe that included what is now Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and parts of Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Italy. The empire was broken up after World War I

Back

"Watchful Waiting"

Front

Refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address.

Back

"Dollar Diplomacy"

Front

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries. Used by President Taft.

Back

Naval blockade

Front

The interdiction of a nation's lines of communication at sea by the use of naval power.

Back

Oliver Wendell Holmes

Front

A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the imposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.

Back

Zimmerman telegraph

Front

German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. When the note was intercepted and published in March 1917, it caused an uproar that made some Americans more willing to enter the war.

Back

Demobilization

Front

Is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary.

Back

Committee of Public Information

Front

A government office during World War I known popularity as the Creel Committee for its Chairman George Creel, it was dedicated to winning everyday Americans' support for the war effort. It regularly distributed pro-war propaganda and sent out an army of "four-minute men" to rally crowds and deliver "patriotic pep."

Back

Mobilization

Front

The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.

Back

Sacco and Vanzetti

Front

Were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.

Back

Allied Powers

Front

The victorious allied nations of World War I and World War II. In World War I, the Allies included Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States. In World War II, the Allies included Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

Back

Herbert Hoover

Front

Was the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Hoover, born to a Quaker family, was a professional mining engineer. He achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I.

Back

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

Front

A law that pushed tariff rates on manufactured goods to an all-time high, helped US manufacturers by enabling them to keep prices high and increase profits

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Nativism

Front

The policy of protecting of the interest of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

Back

War Bonds

Front

Debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. It is an emotional appeal to patriotic citizens to lend the government their money because these bonds offer a rate of return below the market rate.

Back

Nationalism

Front

Is a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.

Back

Disarmament

Front

The reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons. The reduction of armed forces and weapons

Back

Conscription

Front

Compulsory enlistment or draft for state service, typically into the armed forces.

Back

National Origins Act

Front

Reduced immigration until 1927 to 2 percent of each nationality's representation in the 1890 census; After 1927 (later postponed to 1929) the law set a cap of 150,000 immigrants per year and continued to tie admission into the U.S. to the quota system

Back

Convoys

Front

A group of ships traveling together, typically accompanied by armed troops and warships for protection.

Back

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Front

He was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On June 28, 1914 while paying a state visit to Sarajevo and was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. His assassination is what the catalyst that initiated World War I.

Back

Selective Service Act

Front

Enacted May 18, 1917 authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people.

Back

Militarism

Front

The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

Back

Lusitania

Front

A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war. Also caused Germany to say they would stop submarine warfare.

Back

Normality

Front

After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolatoinism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. People longed for the old America, and were ready to accept a lower quality president who would not force them to be so involved.

Back

Serbia

Front

Is a country on southeast Europe's Balkan peninsula. After Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated there. Austria-Hungary declared war on them. War was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the war's conclusion in November 1918.

Back

German Americans

Front

A person relating to, or descendent of Germany.

Back

Eugene Debs

Front

Was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.

Back

Great Migration

Front

Was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.

Back

Fourteen points

Front

Woodrow Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after World War I, calling for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations.

Back

Trench Warfare

Front

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. , Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Back

Conscientious Objectors

Front

A person who for reasons of conscience objects to serving in the armed forces.

Back

J. Edgar Hoover

Front

Ambitious assistant of Palmer, he helped orchestrate a series of raids on alleged radical centers throughout the country and arrested 6,000 people. (500, non- Americans were deported)., put in charge to fight against radicals during the Red Scare after World War 1.

Back

Sedition Act

Front

A series of laws, passed that prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government.

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War Guilt Clause

Front

Was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.

Back

Alliance System

Front

A formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes. A merging of efforts or interests by persons, families, states, or organizations: an alliance between church and state.

Back

Schenck v United States

Front

(1919) *Congressional War Powers Schenck circulated documents about how to avoid the draft. Court ruled freedom of speech is not constitutionally protected due to 'clear and present danger'. "Shouting fire in a crowded theater"

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Central Powers

Front

Germany and its allies (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) in World War I.

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Section 6

(50 cards)

WILPF

Front

The WILPF was the largest women's peace group in the post-world war I and pre-world war II years. The organization was headed by Jane Addams and Emily Greene Balch. This group was actually rather radical. Called for an end to American economic imperialism.

Back

League of Nations

Front

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Back

Economic Boom

Front

Was a period in American History often referred to as the Roaring Twenties. This period of economic boom was marked by rapid industrial growth and advances in technology. The Economic Boom in the 1920's saw increases in productivity, sales and wages accompanied by a rising demand for consumer products leading to massive profits for businesses and corporations.

Back

Buying on margin

Front

Buying on margin was the act of buying stock for just 10% of the price promising to later pay the rest of it. On top of that, investors often times borrowed money to pay this small percentage. This was a leading contributor to the Great Depression.

Back

W.E.B Du Bois

Front

One of Washington's harshest critics, believing that Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen mindset. He felt that immediate "ceaseless agitation" was the only way to truly attain equal rights. As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He eventually grew weary of the slow pace of racial equality in the United States and renounced his citizenship and moved to Ghana in 1961, where he died two years later. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.

Back

Bank Holiday

Front

All banks were to close while Congress met to discuss the bank situation. After four days, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act which allowed banks to reopen only if the Treasury Department inspected and testified that the bank had sufficient tax reserves.

Back

NAACP

Front

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) created in 1909 by a group of liberals (including Du Bois, Jane Addams and John Dewey) to eradicate racial discrimination

Back

Speculation Boom

Front

One who buys property, goods, or financial instruments not primarily for use but in anticipation of profitable resale after a general rise in value.

Back

Flappers

Front

Carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. They symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.

Back

Dust Bowl

Front

Severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains. This region became known as the dust bowl, named after the dust that constantly flew around and smothered everything. As the horrid conditions in the Dust Bowl coupled with poor farming practice, 350,000 farmers whose crops had been ruined migrated to California. These ex-farmers became known as Okies.

Back

Assembly line

Front

Manufacturing allowed workers to remain in one place and master one repetitive action, maximizing output. It became the production method of choice by the 1930s.

Back

Four Power Treaty

Front

US, Great Britain, France and Japan, intended to respect interests of others in Pacific Islands, notify in event that any other country launches an attack in area,no promises were made to help or restrain own freedom of action. It agreed to cease battleship production for ten years and reduce fleet of capital ships to a fixed ratio. It was expected to produce a balance of forces in the Pacific.

Back

Dawes Plan

Front

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Back

Gross National Product (GNP)

Front

Is the total value of all the goods and services produced by a nation in a single year.

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100 percent Americanism

Front

After World War I, deep feelings of patriotism and anti-German sentiment gave rise to this movement. The movement celebrated all things American while it attacked ideas (and people) it viewed as foreign and/or anti-American. (Extreme Nationalism)

Back

Great Migration

Front

The movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural southern US to the urban northeast, Midwest, and west.

Back

Fireside chats

Front

Roosevelt utilized the radio to reach out to the nation as whole. By talking to the nation over the radio Roosevelt was establishing a more "personal" connection. Fireside chats were Roosevelt's various radio addresses that people could listen to in the comfort of their own homes.

Back

Fundamentalist Movement

Front

A movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming.

Back

Great Depression

Front

The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s. One of the darkest moments in World History.

Back

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Front

A government program created by Congress to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps, and maintaining National Parks. The CCC proved to be an important foundation for the post-World War II environmental movement.

Back

Washington Naval Conference

Front

Called to Convened from November 1921 to February 1922, by Warren G. Harding. The Washington Naval Conference brought many powerful nations together to discuss limits on naval armaments. Delegates were worried about the economic liability of a naval arms race and the threat of an expansionist Japan. The Five-Power Treaty, Nine-Power Treaty and the Four-Power Treaty all resulted from this conference.

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Harlem Renaissance

Front

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s when New York City's Harlem became an intellectual and cultural capital for African Americans; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

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Works Progress Administration (WPA)

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Works Progress Administration worked with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, or FERA, to build dikes that reduced the threat of flooding in the Everglades. May 6, 1935 It was established under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

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Booker T. Washington

Front

A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.

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Marcus Garvey

Front

Created the Universal Negro Improvement Association (which attracted thousands of members), promoted the "Back to Africa" movement, organized black businesses and established a corps of Black Cross nurses

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Relief, Recovery, Reform

Front

Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third "R" let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.

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Universal Negro Improvement Association

Front

Founded by Marcus Garvey, talked about racial pride, economic self-sufficiency, and the formation of an independent black nation in Africa.

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18th Amendment

Front

Prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women's rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era.

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Volstead Act

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A federal act enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages.

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National Recovery Act (NRA)

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Plan devised by the emergency congress designed to combine immediate relief and long-range recovery. It was designed to help the unemployed, labor, and industry.

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National Recovery Administration (NRA)

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Known by its critics as the "National Run Around," the NRA was an early New Deal program designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed through centralized planning mechanisms that monitored workers' earnings and working hours to distribute work and established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were followed by all firms in any particular industrial sector.

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"Hoovervilles"

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Grim shantytowns where impoverished victims of the Great Depression slept under newspapers and in makeshift tents. Their visibility (and sarcastic name) tarnished the reputation of the Hoover administration.

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19th Amendment

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Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

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Herbert Hoover

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He was a republican who believed in Laissez-Faire economics. Was elected to office in 1928. Hoover aimed to eliminate poverty during his presidency, however, was unable to prevent the Great Depression. He did not think it was the government's job to interfere in the economy and he feared that the federal aid would weaken individual character.

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Installment Buying

Front

A commodity over a period of time. The buyer gains the use of commodity immediately and then pays for it in periodic payments called installments.

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Black Tuesday

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On October 29th, 1929, the stock market boom came to an end as millions of panicked investors frantically traded shares with one another. As a result, stock prices rapidly collapsed, leading to the Great Depression

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Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF) Bonus Army

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Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF) 20,000 veterans who converged on the capital in the summer of 1932; they were demanding the immediate payment of their entire bonus, which was meant to be paid in later years. They set up public camps. The pending bonus bill failed to pass in Congress, and Hoover arranged to pay the return fare of 6000 of them, but the rest refused to leave and were forcibly removed by MacArthur in the Battle of Anacostia Flats

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Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

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A New Deal program designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers not to farm. It was based on the assumption that higher prices would increase farmers' purchasing power and thereby help alleviate the Great Depression.

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New Deal

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The 1st was to a collection of programs created in the early 1930s that aimed to improve the economic situation in America. The 2nd was a set of new programs put into place from 1934 to 1936. These included additional banking reforms, new tax laws, and new relief programs. The primary goal of the Second New Deal was to take a crack at "money classes" and use the tax dollars of the rich to help the country.

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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

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The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established by Roosevelt in the Glass-Steagall Act. This Act insured deposits up to $2500 and reduced the number of bank closings in 1934.

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Rosewood

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A racially motivated massacre of several African Americans in a Florida town in 1923 that ignited as a result of a rumor that a black man had assaulted a white woman

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Smoot-Hawley Tariff

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Was enacted in 1930. This treaty raised tariffs on many imported goods. Many American trading partners retaliated in response to this tariff. It might have even worsened the Great Depression. It reduced international trade.

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Kellogg- Briand Pact

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1928- Between France and US. Denounced war, called for a limitation of arms, and prohibited the use of war as an "instrument of national policy". It outlawed war as a tool of foreign policy.

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Jazz Age

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Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Front

The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

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Consumerism

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Concentration on producing and distributing goods for a market which must constantly be enlarged

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Ku Klux Klan

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Reconstruction-era organization that was revived in 1915 and rose to political power in the mid-1920s when membership reached 4 to 5 million; opposed to blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants, its membership was rural, white, native-born, and Protestant.

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Seminole Indians

Front

They lived in Florida. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce where their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.

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Bull Market

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This term describes a situation in which the value of stocks is rising quickly. This occurred in 1929 when the New York Stock Exchange had reached an all-time high, with stocks selling for more than 16 times their actual worth. Unfortunately, at this time, it was not a true rising market and it eventually crashed.

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Prohibition

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a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933.

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Section 7

(50 cards)

Holocaust

Front

Was the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a definition of the Holocaust that includes the additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to approximately eleven million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.

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Lend-Lease Act

Front

Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."

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Coral Sea

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The location where a key battle was fought during 4-8 May 1942, this major major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.

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Japanese-American Internment

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Similar to the Red Scare in WWI, many Americans feared Japanese Americans were a threat to American safety. 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into these camps because the US feared that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion. The camps deprived the Japanese-Americans of basic rights, and the internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property. In the Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the concentration camps.

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V-E Day

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Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe.

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Yalta Conference

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Meeting of FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, in February 1945 at an old Tsarist resort on the Black Sea, where the Big Three leaders laid the foundations for the postwar division of power in Europe, including a divided Germany an territorial concessions to the Soviet Union.

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A. Philip Randolph

Front

Labor and Civil Rights leader in the 1940s who led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; he demanded that FDR create a Fair Employment Commission to investigate job discrimination in war industries. FDR agreed only after he threatened a march on Washington by African Americans.

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Adolf Hitler

Front

This dictator (1889-1945) was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. German Nazi dictator during World War II.

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Dumbarton Oaks Conference

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A meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations. Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization was an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders.

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Nagasaki

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Japanese city which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

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The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Front

Is a U.S. Civil Rights Organization that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, it was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Though still existent, it has been much less influential since the end of the 1955-68 civil rights movement.

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Joseph Stalin

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Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.

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National Labor Relations Act

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This law also known as the Wagner Act. Established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

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Court-Packing Plan

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Franklin Roosevelt's politically motivated and ill-fated scheme to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. His objective was to overcome the Court's objections to New Deal reforms.

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Social security

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This Act provided old-age pensions for most privately employed workers. This act did not include farm workers and domestic servants due to wide opposition from southern Democrats. The act was not funded by general taxes but by mandatory contributions paid by workers and their employers.

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Superpower

Front

An extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations. After World War II - the United States and the Soviet Union.

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Battle of the Bulge

Front

(16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945) was a last major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard. United States forces bore the brunt of the attack and incurred their highest casualties for any operation during the war. The battle also severely depleted Germany's armored forces on the western front which Germany was largely unable to replace. German personnel and Luftwaffe aircraft also sustained heavy losses.

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Neutrality Acts

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Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. They were four laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents.

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Korematsu v. U.S

Front

(1941) *Executive Powers This was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship. Court ruled that the race was 'suspect classification', and exclusion was necessary during wartime.

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D-Day

Front

Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Prior this invation, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.

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Nazism

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The body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior, and supremacy of the führer

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Ghetto

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A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups. In WWII it was an area in Poland that was used to "quarantine" the Jews before they were shipped of to concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, located in the territory of General Government in occupied Poland during World War II. Established in November 1940, it was surrounded by wall and contained nearly 500,000 Jews. About 45,000 Jews died there in 1941 alone, as a result of overcrowding, hard labor, lack of sanitation, insufficient food, starvation, and disease.

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Sit-down strike

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The 1936-1937 Flint Sit-Down Strike changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.

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Double V Campaign

Front

The African American community in the United States resolved on a "Double Victory": African Americans pledged to fight not only for victory over Hitler in Europe, but also against racism at home.

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Homefront

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The civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad.

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V-J Day

Front

This is a name chosen for the day on which Japan surrendered, in effect ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made - to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and, because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 (when it was announced in the United States and the rest of the Americas and Eastern Pacific Islands) - as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.

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Hiroshima

Front

Japanese city which the first atomic bomb was dropped (August 6, 1945). (The US had warned Japan that it had weapons of mass destruction. The Japanese were warned to surrender or suffer the consequences.)

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Nuremburg Trials

Front

These trials were held for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, the Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949. The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) committed suicide and was never brought to trial. Although the legal justifications for the trials and their procedural innovations were controversial at the time, They are now regarded as a milestone toward the establishment of a permanent international court, and an important precedent for dealing with later instances of genocide and other crimes against humanity.

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Mary McLeod Bethune

Front

An American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida, that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University and for being an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. She was known as "The First Lady of The Struggle" because of her commitment to bettering African Americans.

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Atlantic Charter

Front

This was a policy issued on August 14, 1941 by Great Britain and the US early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It outlined a vision in which a world would abandon their traditional beliefs in military alliances and spheres of influence and govern their relations with one another though democratic process, with an international organization serving as the arbiter of disputes and the protector of every nation's right of self determination.

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General Assembly

Front

This is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.

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Auschwitz

Front

This was the largest of the Nazi concentration and death camps opened in 1940. Located in southern Poland initially served as a detention center for political prisoners. However, it evolved into a network of camps where Jewish people and other perceived enemies of the Nazi state were exterminated, often in gas chambers, or used as slave labor. Some prisoners were also subjected to barbaric medical experiments led by Josef Mengele (1911-79). During World War II (1939-45), more than 1 million people, by some accounts, lost their lives at Auschwitz. In January 1945, with the Soviet army approaching, Nazi officials ordered the camp abandoned and sent an estimated 60,000 prisoners on a forced march to other locations. When the Soviets entered Auschwitz, they found thousands of emaciated detainees and piles of corpses left behind.

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San Francisco Conference

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(April 25-June 26, 1945), international meeting that established the United Nations. It concluded with the signing of the Charter of the United Nations by 50 nations on June 26.

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"Four Freedoms"

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These were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: Freedom of speech Freedom of worship Freedom from want Freedom from fear

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United Nations

Front

UN is international body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of preventing further world wars; much like the former League of Nations in ambition, it was more realistic in recognizing the authority of the Big Five Powers in keeping peace in the world, thus guaranting veto power to all permant members of its Security Council (Britian, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States)

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Midway

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U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II. This was a crucial and decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Between 3 and 6 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy under Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance decisively defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondo near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that proved irreparable. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare." It was Japan's first naval defeat since the Battle of Shimonoseki Straits in 1863.

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Normandy

Front

The invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.

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Blitzkrieg

Front

A German term for "lightning war," This is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery.

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Stalingrad

Front

(July 17, 1942-Feb. 2, 1943), was the location of the successful Soviet defense (now Volgograd) in the U.S.S.R. during World War II. Russians consider it to be the greatest battle of their Great Patriotic War, and most historians consider it to be the greatest battle of the entire conflict. It stopped the German advance into the Soviet Union and marked the turning of the tide of war in favor of the Allies. The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the bloodiest battles in history, with combined military and civilian casualties of nearly 2 million.

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Security Council

Front

Important part of the United Nations; has to maintain international peace and security; takes care of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action

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Fascism

Front

A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.

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Benito Mussolini

Front

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy., right-wing movement, socialist, influenced by Nietzsche; after WWI broke out, he wanted Italy to participate with France. There was many problems going on in Italy, thus he promised improvement and got into power.

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Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Front

Created to deal with one of the poorest regions of the country, the Tennessee Valley. This idea of regional planning had been suggested by Sen. George Norris of Nebraska but rejected--late 1920s. Built hydroelectric power plants and dams to increase electric power and decrease flood control. Provided numerous jobs, soil conservation and reforestation. Many criticized as socialistic--government entered into private enterprise, provided electric power.

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Pearl Harbor

Front

(December 7, 1941) The US thought the Japanses would attack British Malaya or the Philipines. But instead they attacked here, at several naval bases wiping out many ships and killing 3000 men. The next day the US declares war on Japan. The Day after that the Germans and Italy declare war on the US. The US decided this was the only way to keep the US safe from anarchy.The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II

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Tehran Conference

Front

A war time conference held in Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe

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Salerno

Front

The Allied Invasion of Italy was the Allied landing on mainland Italy on 3 September 1943, by General Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group (comprising Lieutenant General Mark Clark's U.S. Fifth Army and General Bernard Montgomery's British Eighth Army) during the Second World War. The operation followed the successful invasion of Sicily during the Italian Campaign. The main invasion force landed around Salerno on the western coast in Operation Avalanche, while two supporting operations took place in Calabria (Operation Baytown) and Taranto (Operation Slapstick).

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Spanish Civil War

Front

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

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Appeasement

Front

In a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict. In WWII it was the term for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands.

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Final Solution

Front

This was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide. This policy was formulated in procedural terms at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, and culminated in the Holocaust which saw the killing of two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

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Quarantine Speech

Front

Speech given by Franklin D. Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervene. No countries were directly mentioned in the speech, although it was interpreted as referring to Japan, Italy, and Germany. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. Public response to the speech was mixed.

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Section 8

(50 cards)

Thurgood Marshall

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The first African American judge of the US Supreme Court. He is remembered especially for winning the 1954 case before the Supreme Court which ended segregation in public schools.

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Warsaw Pact

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A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Organization of communist countries set up to counter NATO

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Demobilization

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Act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops; "demobilization of factories";"immediate demobilization of the reserves"

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Brown v Board of Education

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1954) *Equal Protection Whether black youths were being deprived of equal protection by the law. Court rejects 'separate but equal' and declares it unconstitutional. The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power.".

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March on Washington (1963)

Front

A large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. a. Philip Randolph.

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Voting Rights Act of 1965

Front

Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibited states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." specifically no literacy tests. signed into law by LBJ.

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Busing

Front

Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools in such a manner as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.

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East Berlin

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The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Soviet Union World War II.

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Fidel Castro

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Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US.

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National Urban League

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Formerly known as the National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes, is a nonpartisan Civil Rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. It also helped African Americans moving from the South to find jobs and homes.

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Berlin Airlift

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Year-long mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War.

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Affirmative Action

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An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.

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Harry S. Truman

Front

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

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NAACP

Front

An organization that promotes the rights and welfare of black people. The The National Association for the Advacement of Colored People is the oldest civil rights organization in the United States, founded in 1909. Among the it's achievements was a lawsuit that resulted in the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown versus Board of Education, in 1954, which declared the segregation of public schools unconstitutional.

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Truman Doctrine

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1947; Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

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Cuban Missile Crisis

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Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favour and represented a foreign policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world's superpowers perilously close the brink of nuclear confrontation.

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Nikita Khrushchev

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Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958-1964, he was a communist party offical who emerge from the power struggle after Stalin's death in 1953 to lead the USSR. He crushed a pro-Western uprising of Hngary in 1956, and, in 1958, issued an ultimatum for Western evacuation of Berline. Defended Soviet-style economic planning in the Kitchen Debate with Richard Nixon in 1959 and attempted to send missiles to Cuba in 1962 but backed down when comfronted by JFK.

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Integration

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Mixing races in public places. It includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture.

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Letter from Birmingham Jail

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(1963) A letter that Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed to his fellow clergymen while he was in jail in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, after a nonviolent protest against racial segregation

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John F. Kennedy

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President of the United States who narrowly defeated the incumbent vice-president Nixon in 1960 to become the youngest person ever elected president. Launched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights; assumed the blame for the Bay of Pigs ivasion and was credited as well for the superb handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assasinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald

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Bay of Pigs Invasion

Front

CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power. The mission failed and became a public relations disaster early in John F. Kennedy's presidency.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

Front

Landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

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G.I Bill of Rights

Front

A law passed in 1944 that provided educational and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in World War II. Benefits are still available to persons honorably discharged from the armed forces. Suburbs Neighborhoods formed away from the city

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Iron Curtain

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A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Front

Military alliance of Western European powers and the US and Canada established in 1949 to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union, marking a giant stride forward for European unity and American internationalism.

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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Front

One of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April of 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 a week salary. Many unpaid volunteers also worked with SNCC on projects in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, and Maryland. played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, the Freedom Summer, and the MFDP. young people.

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Nuclear Proliferation

Front

The spread of nuclear weapons to new nations. Treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons. The treaty came into force on 5 March 1970 and currently there are 189 states party to the treaty, five of which are recognized as nuclear weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council)

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Social Activism

Front

The attitude of taking an active part in events, especially in a social context.

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Freedom Riders

Front

A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. Freedom Riders were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.

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Segregation

Front

The act or policy of separating people of different races, religions or sexes and treating them in a different way

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Montgomery Bus Boycott

Front

A political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 21, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.

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Dwight Eisenhower

Front

Supreme Commander of the US Forces in Europe during World War II; became President of the US and during his two terms presided over the conomically prosperous 1950s. He was praised for his dignity and decency, though critcized for not being more assertive on civil rights

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Berlin Blockade

Front

An attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much-needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War II, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.

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West Berlin

Front

The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Americans, Brits and French after World War II.

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Cold War

Front

The 45 year diplomatic tension between the US and the Soviet Union that divided much of the world into polarized camps, capitalist against communist.

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Korean War

Front

First "hot war" or the Cold War. Began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN Forces, dominated by the US, and the war ended in stalemate in 1953.

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Interstate Highway System

Front

A network of U.S. highways connecting the 48 contiguous states and most of the cities with populations above 50,000, begun in the 1950s and estimated to carry about a fifth of the nation's traffic. This was passed by President Eisenhower.

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Sit-Ins

Front

A form of protest where people from an unwanted race sat in an area where their kind was not wanted. Famous one in North Carolina, Greensboro at Woolworth's store.

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Alliance for Progress

Front

A program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries. JFK's "ten-year plan for americans" promised Latin American leaders that U.S. would reverse the cycle of poverty and stimulate exonomic growth at the cost of $20 billion.

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Berlin Wall

Front

Fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on orders from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West. Until its destruction in 1989, the wall was a vivid symbol of the divide between the communist and capitalist worlds.

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Rosa Parks

Front

Was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She got arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott

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General Douglas MacArthur

Front

Was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.

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Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Front

Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.

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Potsdam Conference

Front

From July 17 to August 2, 1945, President Harry S Truman met with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and British leaders Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee near Berlin to deliver an ultimatum to Japan: surrender of be destroyed.

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Baby Boomers

Front

A person who was born between 1946 and 1964. The Baby Boomer generation makes up a substantial portion of the North American population. Representing nearly 20% of the American public, baby boomers have a significant impact on the economy.

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Containment

Front

America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan, and declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure.

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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Front

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

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Eisenhower Doctrine

Front

Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country. Restatement of the containment policy.

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Arms Race

Front

The buildup of arms was also a characteristic of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though the development of nuclear weapons changed the stakes for the par.

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Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Front

(1978) *Equal Protection Dealt with affirmative action programs that used race as a basis of selecting participants. Court invalidated the special admissions program but allowed racial consideration to affect admissions process.

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Section 9

(50 cards)

Paris Peace Accords

Front

This intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War. It ended direct U.S. military combat, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam.

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Black Power

Front

This group emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, advance black values, and secure black autonomy. a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of separate social institutions and a self-sufficient economy (separatism help usher in black radical thought, and action against white supremacy.

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Black Panthers

Front

An African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.They achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.

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Détente

Front

An easing of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.

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Betty Friedan

Front

Was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique which criticized the culture for forcing women to be only housewives and mothers

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Nation of Islam

Front

Religious group known as black Muslims founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion

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Cambodia

Front

Is a Southeast Asian nation were a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. These invasions were a result of policy of former President Richard Nixon whose decision it was to invade. A total of 13 major operations were conducted

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Guerrilla Warfare

Front

Is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Project Head Start

Front

Is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.

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War Powers Act

Front

This act stated that the president must report to Congress within 2 days of putting troops in danger in a foreign country, and there would be a 60 to 90 day limit for over seas troop presence.

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Equal Rights Amendment

Front

Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.

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John F. Kennedy

Front

President of the United States from 1960-1963 when he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. He was perhaps one of the most well-loved presidents in history as he was youthful and seemed to represent America moving forward in a new direction. He was the first media president, swaying many voters by his performance in the first televised presidential debate. He won the election on an extremely small margin... promised to be more active in the fight against communism

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Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

Front

This organization formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel

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Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Front

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

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Watergate Scandal

Front

Was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in Aug. 9, 1974

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Domino Theory

Front

A 20th Century Foreign Policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino.

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Vietnam War

Front

Was a Cold War conflict. A protracted military conflict (1954-1975) between South Vietnam, supported by United States forces, and Communist North Vietnam. The war resulted in a North Vietnamese victory and unification of Vietnam under Communist rule.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Front

Last leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed control in 1985 and ushered in a period of reforms known as glasnost and perestroika. On four occasions, he met U.S. president Ronald Reagan to negotiate arms reduction treaties and other measures to thaw the Cold War. In 1991, after surviving a failed military coup against him, he dissolved the Soviet Union and disbanded the Communist Party.

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Panama Canal Treaty

Front

1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.

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Reagan Doctrine

Front

Was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. The United States provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movements in an effort to "roll back" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The doctrine was designed to diminish Soviet influence in these regions as part of the administration's overall Cold War strategy.

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Indochina

Front

The federation was accepted in Cambodia and Laos. Vietnamese nationalists, however, demanded (1945) the complete independence of Annam, Tonkin, and Cochin China as Vietnam, and after Dec., 1946, these regions were plunged into bitter fighting between the French and the extreme nationalists, oftentimes led by Communists. The war in Vietnam dragged on for years, culminating in the French defeat at Dienbienphu. The Geneva Conference in 1954 effectively ended French control of Indochina.

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Medicare

Front

Is the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease

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National Organization of Women

Front

Founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination

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Geneva Accords

Front

Arranged a settlement which brought about an end to the First Indochina War. The agreement was reached at the end of the Geneva Conference. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region.

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Jimmy Carter

Front

A democratic candidate and elected in 1976 as a Washington "outsider" (1977 1981) He defeated Gerald Ford in 1976. As President, he arranged the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel in 1978 but saw his foreign policy legacy tarnished by the Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis in 1979. Domestically, he tried to rally the American spirit in the face of economic decline, but was unable to stop the rapid increase in inflation. After leaving the presidency, he achieved widespread respect as an elder statesman and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

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SEATO

Front

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.

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Apartheid

Front

South African's systematic separation of the white and black race that led Congress in 1986 to pass an economic sanctions bill over Reagan's veto; they limited trade and investment to pressure South Africa to abolish apartheid, including a ban on new investments in South Africa and prohibition of imports of South African products; many private companies and universities also refused to do business with South Africa

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Vietnamization

Front

Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.

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Medicaid

Front

A joint federal and state program that helps low-income individuals or families pay for the costs associated with long-term medical and custodial care, provided they qualify. Although largely funded by the federal government, Medicaid is run by the state where coverage may vary.

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Iranian Revolution

Front

(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic Republic with Khomeini as its leader, the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US, Many Iranians opposed Reza Shah Pahlavi, there was also a hatred of Westernization. There was a revival in Islam, and Ayatollah Khomeini soon emerged as the religious opposition to the Shah. He organized demonstrations and riots, and the Shah eventually left. Khomeini then seized power in Iran.

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Malcolm X

Front

American activist. A member of the Nation of Islam(1952-1963), he advocated separatism and blackpride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964) and was assassinated in Harlem.

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Lyndon B Johnson

Front

He came into power after Kennedy's assassination in Texas. He was a champion of civil rights legislation and the "war on poverty." He was bent on accruing a reputation like that of FDR for his Great Society, a dream of an American society of equality and opportunity, but instead was saddled with the Vietnam war. Known for his push for Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the Immigration Act of 1965 which did away with national-origins quotas and increased legal immigration. Vietnam: When he was unable to turn the tide with Operation Rolling Thunder and bombing, he adopted the meatgrinder strategy of imposing unacceptable casualties, resulting in a massive increase in the number of troops

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Richard M. Nixon

Front

He was in 1956 Eisenhower's Vice-President., When he was elected there was high inflation and economic recession from high spending in the war. His greatest success was easing coldwar tensions and with forign countries. He was impeached because of the Watergate Scandal but resigned before he was removed from office., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew 540,000 American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. He was also the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.

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"Credibility Gap"

Front

An apparent difference between what is said or promised and what happens or is true.

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Hawks vs. Doves

Front

Popularly, "hawks" are those who advocate an aggressive foreign policy based on strong military power. "Doves" try to resolve international conflicts without the threat of force.

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Iran Hostage Crisis

Front

The 444 days in which American embassy workers were held captive by Iranian revolutionaries after young Muslim fundamentalists overthrew the oppressive regime of the American-backed shah, forcing him into exile. These revolutionaries triggered an energy crisis by cutting off Iranian oil. The crisis began when revolutionaries stormed the American embassy, demanding that the United States return the shah to Iran for trial. The episode was marked by botched diplomacy and failed rescue attempts by the Carter Administration. After permanently damaging relations between the two countries, the crisis ended with the hostage's release the day Ronald Reagan became president

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Vietcong

Front

Communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.

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Warren Court

Front

Lead by Chief Justice Earl Warren, it was known for preserving individual rights and many claimed that the decisions it made overstepped its jurisdiction and was too involved in people's lives. Cases included Brown v. Board of Education, Gideon v. Wainwright, Griswold v. State of CT, Miranda v. Arizona, and Loving v. State of VA.

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Antiwar protests

Front

was a student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world. All members of the Anti-War Movement shared an opposition to war in Vietnam and condemned U.S. presence there. They claimed this was violating Vietnam's rights. This movement resulted in growing activism on campuses aimed at social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement. CULTURAL.

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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Front

Group of oil-exporting nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil.

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Dr. Henry Kissinger

Front

Was an American diplomat and political scientist. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.

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Ronald Reagan

Front

First elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reaganomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns., 1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, Jesse Jackson first black presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman), Was an Army Captain, Hollywood actor and Governor of California before becoming president; Berlin Wall separating Germany was torn down; appointed the first woman to the Supreme Court

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Women's Liberation Movement

Front

This refers to a series of campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence

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Media

Front

The main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively. Vietnam- * Network coverage of war damaged Johnson's popularity. * Scenes of death and devastation undermined justification for war . * Print media became more skeptical towards Johnson overtime.

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"Great Society"

Front

Johnson demanded an end to poverty and racial injustice, promising to carry on JFK's legacy but wanting to add in his own plans and ideas. He was bent on fixing the inequalities of US society and planned to end segregation among other racial injustices. He wanted to secure a reputation like that of FDR with a similar New Deal kind of structure. This is what Johnson wanted to be known and remembered for but instead he was stuck with the Vietnam war which ended up taking all his time so he was unable puruse his Great Society to any extent.

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Camp David Accords

Front

Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter. Was signed by Israel's leader, Menachem Begin, and Egypt's leader, Anwar el-Sadat, on Sept. 17,1978, creating a framework for peace in the Middle East. The treaty, however, fell apart when Sadat was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists in 1981.

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Ho Chi Minh

Front

Was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

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Roe v Wade

Front

(1973) *Right of Privacy Whether the Texas law against abortion violates a woman's personal liberty and her right to privacy. Court ruled first trimester abortions OK, and prohibitions of such are unconstitutional. The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.

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Tet offensive

Front

Executed by the North Vietnam Army and the Viet Kong in '68, the Viet Kong almost succeeded in taking the capital of S.V. and took over the US Embassy. This was captured live on TV and after all that Johnson had been promising, it had a huge impact on the American public. There was much doubt directed at the Johnson administration and the spark of the belief that perhaps it was time to just pull out of the war. This was a turning point. It represented a loss of American morale and the flame of larger anti-war protests. Veterans marched against the war. In 1968 US counter culture spread globally and there were protests around the world

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"War on Poverty"

Front

Waged by Johnson's Great Society programs that presented a classic liberal platform. • Civil and voting rights acts • Public school funding—when the rich moved to the suburbs all the poverty and squalor remained in the cities, destroying the tax base which of course had negative effects on public education • Medicare and Medicaid • National endowment for arts and humanities (PBS) • Clean air and water quality acts • Endangered species preservation act (1966)

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Section 10

(45 cards)

Terrorism

Front

The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes.

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Social Movements

Front

Is a type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues.

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USA Patriot Act

Front

After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. It gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country. Act is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.

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Glasnost

Front

Meaning "openness," a cornerstone along with Perestroika of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev's reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s. These policies resulted in greater market liberalization, access to the West, and ultimately the end of communist rule. (1039)

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September 11, 2001

Front

A Terrorist attack. A total of 19 hijackers, 15 were from Saudi Arabia, the others were from Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, They hijacked 4 planes, one hit the Pentagon, two hit the Twin Towers, and the 4th one was hijacked and the passengers took the plane and crashed the plane in Pennsylvania to protect any other Americans from harm.

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Climate Change

Front

A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.

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Barack Obama

Front

The 44th president of the United States (took office in 2009). He previously served in the Senate, representing Illinois (2004-2008). Early in his presidency, he increased government spending to address a severe credit crisis and deep recession. In 2009, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in diplomacy

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Iran Contra Affair

Front

(1987) Major political scandal of Ronald Reagan's second term. An illicit arrangement of selling "arms for hostages" with Iran and using money to support the contras in Nicaragua, the scandal deeply damaged Reagan's credibility.

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Perestroika

Front

Meaning "restructuring," a cornerstone along with Glasnost of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev's reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s. These policies resulted in greater market liberalization, access to the West, and ultimately the end of communist rule. (1039)

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Roe v Wade (1973)

Front

(1973) *Right of Privacy Whether the Texas law against abortion violates a woman's personal liberty and her right to privacy. Court ruled first trimester abortions OK, and prohibitions of such are unconstitutional.

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Al Qaeda

Front

Arabic for "The Base," an international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s. Founded by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union, the group is headed by Osama Bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, from its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. Since the U.S-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the launch of the "Global War on Terror," the group has been weakened, but still poses significant threats around the world.

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Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

Front

(1961) *Right to Privacy Whether denying federal forces without a warrant and then being bombarded violated her rights. Court ruled her 4th and 14th amendments were violated. "unreasonable searches and seizures

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Jihad

Front

A "holy war" waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty

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Seminole Indians

Front

The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida. They comprise three federally recognized tribes and independent groups, most living in Oklahoma with a minority in Florida.

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Bill Clinton

Front

Elected President in 1992 as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.

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Taliban

Front

An Islamic Fundamentalist government ruling Afghanistan. Extreme conservative Muslims, protected Osama bin Laden by allowing him to hide in Afghanistan after he masterminded the September 11, 2001, attack on the United States, government of Afghanistan until 2001, harbored and encouraged Al-Qaeda

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Saddam Hussein

Front

Iraqi dictator who led the Ba'ath party in a coup in 1968 and ruled Iraq until the U.S. invasion. He inaugurated hostilities with neighboring Iran in 1980, leading to the protracted and bloody Iran-Iraq War. Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, prompting a broad-based military operation led by the United States to liberate the country. After that war, Hussein retained power under strict sanctions and no-fly demilitarized zones throughout the 1990s, but he stymied international atomic weapons inspectors. After his fall in 2003, he went into hiding but was ultimately captured, tried, and executed by the Iraqi government.

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Miranda v Arizona (1966)

Front

(1966) *Rights of the Accused Police failed to inform Miranda of his rights when questioned by the police. Court ruled that the police were in error, and must inform suspects of their 'Miranda Rights'.

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Bosnia & Kosovo

Front

Serbian dictator Solobodan Milosevic carried out a series of armed conflicts to suppress independence movements in the former Yugoslav provinces of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo; hundreds of thousands of members of ethnic and religious minorities were killed in a process that was labeled "ethnic cleansing"

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September 11, 2001

Front

Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.

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Oklahoma City Bombing

Front

A domestic terrorist attack. Truck-bomb explosion of the Murrah Federal Building. It killed 168 people on April 19, 1995. The attack was perpetrated by anti-government militant Timothy McVeigh.

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Front

Legislation passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. Under this Act, discrimination against a disabled person is illegal in employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and government activities.

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Immigration and Naturalization act of 1965

Front

Also known as the Hart-Celler Act, abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.

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Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)

Front

(1971) *School Desegregation Whether forced busing was a good method to desegregate schools. Court ruled that a school district has broad powers to fashion a remedy that will assure a unitary school system.

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George H.W. Bush

Front

41st President of the United States. A former congressman, diplomat, businessman, Republican party chairman, and director the CIA, Bush served for eight years as Reagan's vice president before being elected President in 1988. As president, he oversaw the end of the Cold War and the revitalization of the American military in the Persian Gulf War. He faced a severe economic recession late in his term that severely damaged his popularity, and he lost his bid for reelection in 1992.

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Gun Control

Front

These Laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms.

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Persian Gulf War

Front

After Iraq invaded Kuwait, the US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia; also called Operation: Desert Storm

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Osama Bin Laden

Front

Founder of al-Qaeda, the Sunni militant Islamist organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. He was killed by Navy Seals in 2011.

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Globalization

Front

The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Increased imports and exports link the U.S. economy with the world. Brought more products at lower prices but took industrial jobs overseas.

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Illegal Alien

Front

A person who enteres the United States illegally without the proper authorization and documents, or is an alien who once entered the United States legally and has since violated the terms of the status in which he entered the United States or has overstayed the time

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United Farm Workers (UFW)

Front

Is a union for agricultural laborers, primarily in California. Founded by charismatic leader, Cesar Chavez, UFW reached the peak of its influence in the 1970s, then declined until his death in 1993.

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Iraq War

Front

A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. US combat troops were withdrawn in 2010.

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Terrorism

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The unlawful use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to achieve political, religious, or idealoigal goals

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World Trade Organization (WTO)

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International trade organization that was promoted by Clinton, this organization was the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, taking a step toward a global free-trade system. This was highly protested within the United States.

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American Indian Movement (AIM)

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A coalition that fought for Indian rights guaranteed by treaties(broken by the U.S. government many, many times over) and better conditions and opportunities for American Indians.

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Refugee

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A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.

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Affirmative Action

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An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.

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Wounded Knee (1973)

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In February 1973, members of the American Indian Movement occupied Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which was the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops. They insisted that the government honor treaty obligations of the past.

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Election of 2000

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The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush, and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President. Bill Clinton, the incumbent President, was vacating the position after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Bush narrowly won the November 7 election, with 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 (with one elector abstaining in the official tally). The election was noteworthy for a controversy over the awarding of Florida's 25 electoral votes, the subsequent recount process in that state, and the unusual event of the winning candidate having received fewer popular votes than the runner-up.

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Regents of the University of California v Bakke (1978)

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(1978) *Equal Protection Dealt with affirmative action programs that used race as a basis of selecting participants. Court invalidated the special admissions program but allowed racial consideration to affect admissions process.

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Gray Panthers

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This is an Elder rights organization in the United States, which was founded in 1970 by Maggie Kuhn in response to her forced retirement at age 65.

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Cesar Chavez

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Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963. He helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right.

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George W. Bush

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The son of George H.W. Bush and elected president in 2000.

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26th Amendment

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This Amendment prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old the right to vote.

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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

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A free trade plan initiated in the Bush administration and enacted by a narrow vote in Congress in the early months of the Clinton administration. It established a common market without tariff barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

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