AP Human Geography AP Test

AP Human Geography AP Test

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Section 1

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dependency ratio

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Cards (175)

Section 1

(50 cards)

dependency ratio

Front

the number of people who are too young or old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years

Back

refugee

Front

someone forced to leave their home country, and crosses international boundary lines

Back

absolute distance

Front

exact measurement of space between two places

Back

scale

Front

representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of generalization or reduction

Back

contagious diffusion

Front

type of expansion diffusion: RAPID, UNIFORM spread, leads to distance decay

Back

diffusion

Front

the spread of a feature or trend from place to place

Back

environmental possibilism

Front

the idea that physical environment may limit some human activity, but generally humans are able to alter their environment to suit their needs

Back

cartogram

Front

thematic map: uses relative size of political units to convey a value

Back

perceptual or vernacular region

Front

fuzzy boundary lines- everyone's perception of the region is different

Back

Thomas Malthus

Front

argued that the world's rate of population increase was far outrunning food production (determinism)

Back

proportional symbol map

Front

thematic map: size of a symbol varies in proportion to the intensity of the mapped variable

Back

hearth

Front

the region from which ideas originate 5 Major: Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Nile River Valley, Huang He/Yellow River, Mesoamerica

Back

s curve

Front

population projection that predicts zero population growth at some point

Back

geographic information systems

Front

allows geographers to map, analyze, store, and model spatial data

Back

arithmetic density

Front

total population/total land area

Back

choropleth map

Front

thematic map: a variable is depicted with shading patterns or colors

Back

gravity model

Front

created by Hotelling, predicts that optimal location of a service is directly related to number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it

Back

population distributions

Front

the arrangement of people according to density, concentration, and/or pattern

Back

site

Front

the physical character of a place; what is there, why it is significant

Back

Esther Boserup

Front

viewed population growth as a positive force driving agricultural innovations that could support more people (possibilism)

Back

relocation diffusion

Front

the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another

Back

distance decay

Front

when contact between two groups diminishes because of distance between them

Back

neo-malthusian

Front

person who argues that population growth in LDCs and outstripping of resources other than food will create long term problems for the earth

Back

projection

Front

transferring data from the globe to a flat surface: distortions will occur

Back

cultural landscape

Front

the essence of how humans interact with nature; often leaving a visible imprint on the earth's surface

Back

carrying capacity

Front

the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water, and other infrastructure present

Back

dot map

Front

thematic map: dot on a map represents some frequency of the mapped variable

Back

hierarchal diffusion

Front

type of expansion diffusion: looks random but is not, usually related to modern technology, space time compression (if an area is connected, space/time/distance is no longer an issue)

Back

j curve

Front

when population projection shows exponential growth

Back

rate of natural increase

Front

the percentage by which a population grows each year

Back

demographic transition model

Front

shows 5 stages of population growth

Back

situation

Front

the location of a place relative to other places

Back

push factor

Front

something that causes people to leave their old residence and move to new places (environmental disaster, bad economy, famine, etc)

Back

formal region

Front

everyone shares in common one or more distinct characteristics; clear, defined boundary lines

Back

ecumene

Front

parts of earth's surface occupied by human settlement

Back

relative distance

Front

approximate measurement of the physical space between two places

Back

isoline map

Front

thematic map: uses lines of equal value to represent data like elevation, barometer pressure, temperature, or migration

Back

agricultural density

Front

# of farmers/unit of arable land- highest in LDCs

Back

sequent occupance

Front

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place (shown clearly in Rome)

Back

distribution

Front

the arrangement of something across Earth's surface

Back

epidemiological transition model

Front

shows distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model

Back

pull factor

Front

causes people to move into a new place (job opportunities, good weather, family)

Back

displaced person

Front

someone forced to leave home, but stays within international boundary lines

Back

environmental determinism

Front

the idea that physical environment causes human activity-humans must adapt to their environment/cannot change it

Back

thematic maps

Front

maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute

Back

functional or nodal region

Front

boundary line that a specific service will cover

Back

reference maps

Front

literal maps, tell what a place looks like

Back

physiological density

Front

total population/unit of arable land

Back

population pyramid

Front

population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph- closer to rectangle shape is best

Back

time space compression

Front

the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking due to technology

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

geopolitics

Front

the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur

Back

universalizing religion

Front

a religion that seeks converts

Back

Christianity

Front

universalizing religion: monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus, originated in SW Asia (split into three branches: Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant)

Back

Sino Tibetan language family

Front

language area that spreads through most of SE Asia and China

Back

NAFTA

Front

allows the opening of trade borders between Mexico, Canada, and the US

Back

city-state

Front

a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside

Back

domino theory

Front

the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries

Back

periodic migration

Front

people migrate for a certain period of time, and plan to return to their home at some point. ex: migration to college or old people going to florida for the winter

Back

acculturation

Front

process of only adopting certain customs of a culture to suit one's lifestyle

Back

Islam

Front

universalizing religion: originated on Arabian peninsula, monotheistic, founded by Muhammed, five pillars, pilgrimage to Mecca, split into Sunni (majority) and Shia

Back

federalism

Front

opposite of unitary: system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government

Back

assimilation

Front

less dominant culture loses their culture to a more dominant culture

Back

enclave

Front

a country or part of a country that is mostly or completely surrounded by the territory of another country (Lesotho)

Back

frontier

Front

a zone where no state exercises complete political control

Back

cyclical migration

Front

people migrate daily to work or school

Back

Hinduism

Front

ethnic religion: originated in Indus River Valley, followers believe in ritual bathing, reincarnation, and Karma, caste system

Back

nation-state

Front

country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity- territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

Back

ethnic religion

Front

a religion that does not seek converts

Back

animism

Front

belief that objects like plants and animals or natural events have a discrete spirit and life

Back

forward capital

Front

a symbolically relocated capital usually because of either economic or strategic reasons (ex: Brasilia)

Back

agribusiness

Front

the set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes- companies control everything from "seed to store"

Back

Confucianism

Front

ethnic: complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought that has influenced Chinese civilization

Back

Hajj

Front

the pilgrimage to Mecca for Islam followers: one of five pillars of faith

Back

devolution

Front

decentralization of a government from a unitary to a federal system or fracturing of a government: worked in UK with Scotland, not in Yugoslavia

Back

step migration

Front

people must go to multiple places before arriving at their final location

Back

Balkanization

Front

the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities (Yugoslavia)

Back

exclave

Front

a country which is geographically separated from the main part by a surrounding alien territory

Back

east/west divide

Front

iron curtain: geographic separation between the largely democratic and free market countries of the west and communist and socialist countries of the east

Back

gerrymandering

Front

redrawing legislative boundary lines to benefit the political party in power

Back

Judaism

Front

ethnic religion: originated in SW Asia, first major monotheistic religion, covenant between God and Abraham, Zionism

Back

centrifugal force

Front

a factor that causes a country to be forced apart (religious differences, environmental disaster, bad leader)

Back

Mormonism

Front

term to describe religious, idealogical, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement

Back

reincarnation

Front

the belief that after this life you will come back in another life as either a plant, animal, or human life (one of the beliefs of Hinduism)

Back

Rimland Theory

Front

Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest

Back

lingua franca

Front

universal language, used for quick and efficient communication: previously Latin, now English

Back

microstate

Front

a state or territory that is small in both population and area

Back

exclusive economic zone

Front

a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources

Back

World Systems Theory

Front

theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections

Back

decolonization

Front

the movement of European colonies gaining independence

Back

IndoEuropean language family

Front

includes Germanic and Romance languages, spoken by about 50% of the world

Back

imperialism

Front

a country has control over a territory already occupied by an indigenous society

Back

Heartland Theory

Front

Mackinder's theory that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to dominate the world

Back

secularism

Front

belief that religion and government should be separate

Back

Apartheid

Front

segregation of blacks in S. Africa from 1948 to 1994

Back

fundamentalism

Front

literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion

Back

sovereignty

Front

supreme or independent political power

Back

desertification

Front

the process by which formally fertile lands become increasingly arid (happening in between the sahara and sub-saharan Africa bc of goat grazing)

Back

chain migration

Front

people move to places where they have family or people who share their beliefs

Back

Buddhism

Front

universalizing religion: system of beliefs that seeks to explain ultimate realities of all people- originated in N. India and Nepal

Back

centripetal force

Front

a factor that pulls a country together (common enemy, good economy, charismatic leader)

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

market gardening

Front

the small scale production of fruits, vegetable, and flowers sold directly to local consumers

Back

extensive agriculture

Front

an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area

Back

CBD

Front

the downtown nucleus of a city where retail, offices, and cultural activities are centered

Back

squatter settlements

Front

residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land outside of cities that is not owned or legally rented by its occupants (favelas in Brazil, barrios in Mexico)

Back

pastoralism

Front

agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter

Back

ecotourism

Front

tourism based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders

Back

mediterranean agriculture

Front

an agricultural system in which the climate provides moist and moderate winters; ideal for grapes, olives, and nuts

Back

annexation

Front

legally adding land area to a city

Back

dependency theory

Front

introduced by Wallerstein-explains low development levels as a result of LDCs continuing economic dependency on MDCs

Back

redlining

Front

a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries (this is technically illegal)

Back

fordism

Front

system of standardized mass production

Back

bulk gaining industries

Front

industries whose products weigh more after assembly than they did previously-creates need to be near their markets

Back

shifting cultivation

Front

slash-and-burn: use of tropical forests for crop production until their fertility is lost

Back

swidden

Front

land that is prepared for agriculture using the slash and burn agriculture

Back

bid rent theory

Front

the price/demand for land increases closer to the CBD

Back

gross national product

Front

the total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country

Back

feedlots

Front

places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains to prepare them for slaughter

Back

gentrification

Front

the process in which lower cost neighborhoods are renovated by the middle class to increase property values

Back

rank size rule

Front

the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country's hierarchy (the nth biggest county should have 1/n of the population of the biggest city)

Back

Rostow's ladder of development

Front

a model of economic development that describes a country's progression from an LDC to an MDC "ladder rungs": 1. traditional subsistence, 2. preconditions for takeoff (investment), 3. "takeoff" (sustained industrial growth), 4. drive to maturity (increased technology, rise of services), 5. age of mass consumption (consumer goods)

Back

spaces of consumption

Front

areas of a city where the main purpose is to encourage people to purchase goods and services (Navy Pier, Times Square)

Back

purchasing power parity

Front

aka per capita GDP: a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries

Back

livestock ranching

Front

extensive commercial agriculture that includes the grazing of livestock

Back

outsourcing

Front

sending industrial processes out for external production

Back

sector model

Front

developed by Hoyt- urban land use that placed the CBD in the middle with wedge shaped sectors radiating outwards along transportation corridors

Back

zone of transition

Front

an area located between the factory and working class areas of a city with both commercial and residential land use

Back

organic farming

Front

producing food naturally with no GMOs

Back

human development index

Front

measure used by the UN to calculate the development of a country based on human welfare (life expectancy, education, etc)

Back

least cost theory

Front

Weber's theory to describe the optimal location of manufacturing in relation to transportation and labor costs

Back

primate city

Front

a country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionally larger than other urban areas within the same country

Back

intensive cultivation

Front

agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield- wet rice production

Back

transhumance

Front

the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns

Back

staple grains

Front

most produced grains; maize, wheat, and rice

Back

deindustrialization

Front

loss of industrial activity in a region (rust belt)

Back

maquiladoras

Front

factories located just along the US/Mexican border that cheaply assemble goods for export to the US

Back

edge city

Front

cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and service many of the same functions as urban areas-often located near freeway intersections, often include shopping, hotels, restaurants, etc.

Back

export-processing zones

Front

areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions that attract export oriented industries

Back

Von Thunen Model

Front

spatially describes agricultural activities in terms of transportation costs- developed in 1800s so is now outdated

Back

plantation

Front

a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of land devoted to the production of a single export crop- coffee, tea, sugar, cocoa

Back

GMOs

Front

foods that are mostly products of organisms that had their genes altered in a laboratory

Back

agglomeration

Front

grouping together of many firms of the same industry in a single area-in Weber model, based on sharing of location/resources, in Hotelling model, based on customer convenience

Back

Burgess model

Front

describes urban environments as a series of rings with distinct land use

Back

Green Revolution

Front

1970s-1980s: the development of higher yield and faster growing crops through increased technology and fertilizers- developed strategies in an attempt to make LDCs as productive as MDCs-created large economic gap between rich and poor

Back

break of bulk point

Front

a location where multiple forms of transportation overlap-shipments of goods can be taken from one form of transportation to another; Chicago is a good example

Back

urbanization

Front

an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements

Back

cottage industries

Front

an industry in which the production of goods and services based in homes

Back

blockbusting

Front

realtors convince white families to sell their homes for a low price out of fear that blacks will move in and decrease property value

Back

globalization

Front

the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected

Back

industrial revolution

Front

the rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system- started in England, spread throughout W. Europe and N. America

Back

gender equality

Front

a measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country- microcredit loans targeting women

Back

Section 4

(25 cards)

Weber's model

Front

location model that states manufacturing plants will locate where costs are the least (least cost theory)- takes into account transportation and labor costs, whether industry is bulk-gaining or bulk-reducing), and agglomeration

Back

isogloss

Front

a geographic boundary within which a particular language feature occurs

Back

cultural realm

Front

an assemblage of culture or geographic regions, the most highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography

Back

race

Front

identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor-can be supported by DNA

Back

delimination

Front

mapped boundary

Back

ethnicity

Front

identity with a group who share cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth- from greek word "ethnikos", political scientists would call this "nation"

Back

geometric boundary

Front

straight line boundary totally unrelated to physical features (N and S Korea

Back

large scale

Front

zoomed in- shows a smaller area in detail

Back

small scale

Front

zoomed out- shows a large area with less detail

Back

anatolian hearth theory

Front

indo-european languages originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion (Colin Renfrew)

Back

nationality

Front

identify with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country

Back

agora and acropolis

Front

the economic and political centers of ancient Greece (Roman forum combined the two)

Back

creole language

Front

a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and has become the native language of a group of people

Back

defined

Front

legally created boundary usually made by someone who is not directly involved in the country

Back

megalopolis

Front

places where metropolises overlap Boston/Washington DC Milwaukee/Chicago/Indianapolis

Back

Hotelling's model

Front

all products being equal, customers will go to the most convenient location-gas stations, walgreens, etc.

Back

Losch's model

Front

manufacturing plants choose locations where they can maximize profit-dependent on socioeconomics of an area (wouldn't locate whole foods or expensive car dealership in a poor area)

Back

supranational organizations

Front

countries that make alliances for specific purposes (OPEC, EU, NATO, CIS, UN)

Back

demarcation boundary

Front

marked with posts, walls, fences, etc.

Back

organic theory (Ratzel)

Front

geopolitics-nations must expand to maintain vitality

Back

neolocalism

Front

seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world

Back

counter urbanization

Front

people who have given up on suburban life, move to rural areas

Back

second agricultural revolution

Front

17th and 18th centuries, series of innovations and techniques used to improve output of agricultural surpluses (started before industrial revolution)- seed drill, irrigation, barbed wire

Back

pidgin language

Front

a language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure

Back

the first agricultural revolution

Front

plant domestication began in S/SE Asia (root crops, 14,000 years ago), SW Asia (fertile crescent, 10,000 years ago, seed crops)

Back