AP Human Geography - Unit 6 Key Terms

AP Human Geography - Unit 6 Key Terms

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Section 1

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Concentric Zone Model

Front

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Cards (30)

Section 1

(30 cards)

Concentric Zone Model

Front

Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings radiating out from a central core, or central business district. Ex: Chicago

Back

Urban Renewal

Front

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

Back

Disamenity Sector

Front

The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords. Ex: Also known as barrios in Spanish-speaking countries or favelas in Brazil

Back

Zoning Laws

Front

Legal land restrictions that dictate how property owners can and cannot use their land Ex: Often restrict the types of building and economic activities that can happen

Back

Public housing

Front

Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents. Ex: Apartments

Back

Underclass

Front

what inner-city residents are frequently referred to as because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems Ex: Low-income families

Back

Shantytowns

Front

Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard. Ex: Cape Town

Back

New Urbanism

Front

A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community orientated cities. New urbanism is a reaction to the sprawling, automobile centered cities of the mid twentieth century Ex: Against urban sprawl

Back

Central Business District

Front

The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge. Ex: All US models are centered around it

Back

Metropolitan Statistical Area

Front

In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city Ex: Dallas to Fort Worth area

Back

Edge Cities

Front

A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area. Ex: Austin

Back

World City

Front

Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce. Ex: London, Paris

Back

Gentrification

Front

A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area. Ex: New York City is constantly changing to maintain its reputation

Back

Greenbelt

Front

A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area. Ex: The Highline in New York City

Back

Multiple Nuclei Model

Front

Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place. Ex: Chicago

Back

McMansions

Front

Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes Ex: In American suburbs

Back

Blockbusting

Front

A practice in which real estate agents illegally convince homeowners, mainly whites, to sell their property because of the fear that other minorities will move in and lower property values Ex: Contributed to white flight

Back

Squatter Settlement

Front

An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. Ex: Often occur near primate cities

Back

Food desert

Front

Urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food. Instead of supermarkets and grocery stores, these communities may have no food access or are served only by fast food restaurants and convenience stores that offer few healthy, affordable food options. Ex: Detroit and New York are common for these

Back

Zone in Transition

Front

The second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD. Ex: typically contains industry and poor-quality housing

Back

Brownfield

Front

Former industrial sites in urban communities that have fallen into disuse and decay. Ex: Rust Belt of US

Back

Ghetto

Front

A poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions Ex: Detroit

Back

Peripheral Model

Front

A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road Ex: Chicago

Back

Trade Area

Front

region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant

Back

Urban Sprawl

Front

The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land. Ex: After World Wars

Back

Central Place Theory

Front

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther. Ex: Larger cities in Texas attract more business services and have larger ranges of services, whereas smaller cities often feed into the larger ones.

Back

Rank-Size Rule

Front

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. Ex: Los Angeles is about half the size of New York

Back

Redlining

Front

A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice' name started with the red lines depicted on maps used by real estate agents Ex: Still present in some more discreet forms

Back

Primate City

Front

A country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country. Ex: London, Paris, Tokyo

Back

Suburbinization

Front

The rapid growth of the suburbs Ex: Increased after World War II

Back