ap human geography political geography

ap human geography political geography

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Section 1

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Berlin Conference 1884

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (64)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Berlin Conference 1884

Front

diplomatic meeting between the European colonial powers to set the political boundaries in Africa

Back

antecedent boundaries

Front

lines that exist from prehistoric times

Back

relic boundaries

Front

former boundaries that still have political or cultural meaning

Back

absolute monarchy

Front

when the supreme aristocrat is the head of state and head of government

Back

subsequent example

Front

Kalingrad to the USSR in 1946

Back

superimposed boundaries

Front

lines made for political reasons, on top of cultural boundaries

Back

relic example

Front

Scotland-England border after the Act of Union

Back

citizenship

Front

legal identity of a person based on the state where they were born or naturalized

Back

definitional example

Front

Russian-Japanese Kuril Islands in 1945

Back

physical boundaries

Front

natural boundaries like rivers, mountains, oceans, deserts

Back

high seas

Front

outside 12 mile limit but marriage and arrest are cool

Back

demarcation

Front

markers are placed on the ground to show where borders are

Back

geometric boundaries

Front

boundaries made along lines of latitude and longitude

Back

constitutional monarchy examples

Front

1. Great Britain 2. Japan 3. Spain

Back

definitional border dispute

Front

border treaties are interpreted two different ways by states

Back

nation-state

Front

a single culture under a single government

Back

stateless nation

Front

a culture group does not have a sovereign state

Back

locational border dispute

Front

border moves, like a river changing course

Back

country

Front

an identifiable land area

Back

finite lines

Front

borders between political states and sub-unit areas

Back

territorial sea

Front

sovereign territory, 12 nautical miles out

Back

state

Front

a population under a single government

Back

annexation

Front

when a territory is added

Back

UNCLOS

Front

proposed standard oceanic boundaries for all UN states

Back

examples of stateless nations

Front

1. Kurds 2. Basques 3. Hmong

Back

subsequent boundaries

Front

lines resulting from conflict or cultural changes

Back

examples of supranational organizations

Front

1. UN 2. EU

Back

delimitation

Front

borders are put on the map

Back

locational example

Front

India-Bangladesh

Back

absolute monarchy examples

Front

1. Saudi Arabia 2. Brunei 3. Morocco 4. Emirates in the UAE

Back

allocational border dispute

Front

a resource lies on two sides of a border

Back

antecedent example

Front

French-Spanish Pyrenees border

Back

operational example

Front

new passport requirements to enter US after 9/11

Back

supranationalism

Front

concept of two or more sovereign states aligned together for a common purpose

Back

value-added tax (VAT)

Front

a standard 20 percent sales tax that is the EU government's main source of revenue

Back

aristocracy

Front

kings, queens, lords, princes

Back

definition

Front

borders are claimed, negotiated, or captured

Back

exclave

Front

a fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated by land from the main part of the state's territory

Back

territoriality

Front

expression of political control over space

Back

cultural boundaries

Front

estimated boundaries between nations, ethnic groups, tribes

Back

gerrymandering

Front

the irregular shaping of districts for the advantage of a candidate or party

Back

allocational example

Front

Mexico-US Colorado and Rio Grande rivers

Back

enclave

Front

a minority cultural group concentrated inside a country that is dominated by a different, larger culture group

Back

nation

Front

a population with a single culture

Back

operational border dispute

Front

passage across the border is the issue

Back

exclusive economic zone (EEZ)

Front

a state controls the natural resources, 200 nautical miles out

Back

superimposed example

Front

Sub-Saharan Africa after Berlin Conference of 1884

Back

constitutional monarchy

Front

when the supreme aristocrat is the head of state but the leader of the elected parliament is the head of government

Back

microstates

Front

sovereign states that are v small

Back

multiethnic states

Front

made up of a number of different nations represented by the multitude of culture groups who have migrated and intermixed around the world

Back

Section 2

(14 cards)

Shatterbelt theory

Front

pivot area is surrounded by inner crescent, areas of geopolitical weakness are called shatterbelts, Cohen

Back

rimland

Front

German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Romania

Back

Containment theory

Front

capturing buffer states will contain the core Communist states

Back

irredentism

Front

when a minority ethnic group wants to break away from a multiethnic state

Back

free-market democracies

Front

countries that balance the relationship between elected representative government, its citizens, and business interests

Back

balkanization

Front

process by which a state breaks down due to ethnic conflict

Back

republic

Front

a state where the citizens elect representatives to govern

Back

landwolves

Front

France, Italy

Back

heartland

Front

Eastern European steppe and the area from the Urals to Siberia

Back

centrifugal forces

Front

factors that push things apart, force apart

Back

centripetal forces

Front

factors that bring things together, pull in

Back

Heartland-Rimland model

Front

land is the primary commodity of conflict, the agricultural and resource heartland is surrounded by the rimland, Mackinder

Back

seawolves

Front

Great Britain, Japan

Back

Marxist-Socialism

Front

a class-free society where everyone was equal and the government would direct economic productivity, aka Communism

Back