Programming Language Concepts

Programming Language Concepts

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Section 1

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Java

Front

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Cards (35)

Section 1

(35 cards)

Java

Front

Currently the most widely used general purpose language. Built around the concept of "write once, run anywhere". Compiled into bytecode, which is then interpreted by each machine using the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Evolved from C and other languages. Current language of the CS AP test.

Back

Machine Language

Front

The low-level binary language, consisting of only 0s and 1s, easily understood and executed by a computer, most often the result of a translation process from a high level language using a compiler or interpreter.

Back

C

Front

A general, all-purpose programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in the late 60's and early 70s at the AT&T Bell Labs, which became one of the most widely used programming languages of all time

Back

Bytecode

Front

A universally portable software file compiled from source code that is then translated into machine language by a software interpreter. Java works this way, where a .java file is compiled into a .class file, which contains bytecode, and then is translated by whatever device executes that file, using the JVM bytecode interpreter

Back

C++

Front

A programming language also developed at AT&T Bell Labs in the late 70s by Bjarne Stroustrup, derived from C with added object oriented features

Back

Interpreting

Front

The translation process in some programming languages which executes a program one line at a time, instead of compiling the entire program into one executable file

Back

Void Method

Front

A method that has no return type. A return statement may be used, but no data will be returned to the calling method

Back

Pascal

Front

A procedural programming language devised and published by Niklaus Wirth in 1970, primarily intended to teach good structured programming habits.

Back

FORTRAN

Front

Used primarily in science and engineering. Developed in the 1950s by John Backus. Still has active users.

Back

Syntax Diagram

Front

A diagram system, sometimes referred to as railroad diagrams, which is a way to represent a context-free grammar, developed as a graphic alternative to BNF.

Back

Pseudocode

Front

An informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm (non-executable)

Back

Python

Front

An interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than C++ or Java.

Back

COBOL

Front

Developed specifically for business use. Developed in the late 1950s, early 60s by a team led by Grace Hopper. Language has evolved some but is also still in active use.

Back

Java

Front

A general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and is designed to run on any platform through the use of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

Back

COBOL

Front

An acronym for common business-oriented language, a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use

Back

BASIC

Front

(Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) A family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use

Back

Code

Front

A term that refers to the source code, or set of instructions found in a computer program

Back

Compiling

Front

The process of transforming source code from a high-level programming language into object code, most typically machine language or bytecode in Java

Back

Python

Front

Popular back-end language of the web. Also popular as a teaching language. Emphasizes readability and simplicity. Invented by a Googler.

Back

Compiler

Front

A computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for converting a source code is to create an executable program

Back

Syntax

Front

The rules in a scripted language that control punctuation, spelling, and grammar, such as ending statement with a semicolon, requiring matching braces or parentheses, and so on

Back

BASIC

Front

Built to be easier to use. Has evolved into Microsoft's Visual Basic. Excellent for beginners.

Back

Executable Code

Front

The code that is a result of the compile process translated from source code in order to execute/run a program

Back

High Level Language

Front

A programming language using words and commands easy for humans to understand and organize, but which must be translated into a low-level language like machine language or object code for the computer to understand and execute

Back

Backus Naur Notation

Front

A formal notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing

Back

Assembly Language

Front

A low-level programming language (difficult for humans, easy for machines) that uses mnemonic opcodes, such as mov, sto, and load, to interact directly with a computer's CPU and registers, used by expert programmers to produce highly efficient and fast programs

Back

Low Level Language

Front

A language easily understood and executed by a computer, like machine language, assembly, or bytecode

Back

Visual Basic

Front

An event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft, first released in 1991, to be relatively easy to learn and use to create GUI based programs.

Back

Programming Language

Front

A formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a computer

Back

Assembler

Front

A computer program which translates assembly language to an object file or machine language format

Back

C++

Front

Evolved from the C language. Added object-oriented features. Very common language.

Back

FORTRAN

Front

One of the original high level languages, short for Formula Translation, created by John Backus to make programming easier for math and science applications

Back

Pascal

Front

Designed as a teaching language. Also enjoyed some use in the real world. Is considered a dying language.

Back

Code Block

Front

A section of code in a computer program which is grouped together. Blocks consist of one or more declarations and statements

Back

XML Extensible Markup Language

Front

A markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is both human readable and machine-readable

Back