Section 1

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PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

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Cards (95)

Section 1

(50 cards)

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

Front

- a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer - Like human languages, each language has its own syntax and grammar

Back

I/O DEVICES

Front

allows a computer system to interact with the outside world by moving data into and out of the system

Back

MAIN MEMORY

Front

- used to hold programs and data, that the processor is actively working with. - not used for long-term storage - sometimes called the RAM (Random Access Memory). - considered as volatile storage - means once the computer is turned off, all information residing in the main memory is erased

Back

String literals

Front

represent multiple characters and are enclosed by double quotes.

Back

Garbage collection thread

Front

- responsible for freeing any memory that can be freed. This happens automatically during the lifetime of the Java program. - programmer is freed from the burden of having to deallocate that memory themselves

Back

Comments

Front

- These are notes written to a code for documentation purposes. - Those texts are not part of the program and does not affect the flow of the program

Back

Class Loader

Front

- responsible for loading all classes needed for the Java program - adds security by separating the namespaces for the classes of the local file system from those that are imported from network sources - After loading all the classes, the memory layout of the executable is then determined. This adds protection against unauthorized access to restricted areas of the code since the memory layout is determined during runtime

Back

Text Editor

Front

- This is where you type your program codes - Ex: Notepad in windows

Back

MACHINE LANGUAGE

Front

Language that your computer understands.

Back

Bytecode verifier

Front

- tests the format of the code fragments and checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate access rights to objects

Back

SOFTWARE

Front

- a program that a computer uses in order to function - kept on some hardware device like a hard disk, but it itself is intangible - data that the computer uses can be anything that a program needs

Back

COMPILERS

Front

Translates computer programs to machine language

Back

JAVA TECHNOLOGY

Front

- A programming language - A development environment - An application environment - A deployment environment

Back

Literals

Front

are tokens that do not change or are constant.

Back

MOTIVATION FOR JAVA

Front

The need for platform independent language that could be embedded in various consumer electronic products like toasters and refrigerators.

Back

MEMORY

Front

where data and instructions needed by the CPU to do its appointed tasks can be found

Back

COMPILE-TIME ERROR/SYNTAX ERROR

Front

- occur if there is a syntax error in the code. - The compiler will detect the error and the program won't even compile. At this point, the programmer is unable to form an executable program that a user can run until the error is fixed.

Back

ALGORITHM

Front

- a clear and unambiguous specification of the steps needed to solve a problem. - It may be expressed in either : - Human language (English, Tagalog) - Graphical representation like a flowchart

Back

COMPUTER

Front

A machine that performs a variety of tasks according to specific instructions

Back

HARDWARE

Front

tangible part of the computer and composed of electronic and mechanical parts

Back

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

Front

- an imaginary machine that is implemented by emulating software on a real machine - provides the hardware platform specifications to which you compile all Java technology code

Back

C-style comments or multiline comments

Front

starts with a /* and ends with a */. - All text in between the two delimeters are treated as comments. - Unlike C++ style comments, it can span multiple lines.

Back

Console

Front

- This is where you type in commands - MSDOS Command Prompt (Windows)

Back

APPLICATION PROGRAMS

Front

- Programs that people use to get their work done - Examples: Word Processor, Game programs, Spreadsheets

Back

Bytecode

Front

- a special machine language that can be understood by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) - independent of any particular computer hardware, so any computer with a Java interpreter can execute the compiled Java program, no matter what type of computer the program was compiled on

Back

Special Javadoc comments

Front

are used for generating an HTML documentation for your Java programs. - You can create javadoc comments by starting the line with /** and ending it with */. - Like C-style comments, it can also span lines. - It can also contain certain tags to add more information to your comments.

Back

Statement

Front

one or more lines of code terminated by a semicolon.

Back

Integrated Development Environment or IDE

Front

a programming environment integrated into a software application that provides a GUI builder, a text or code editor, a compiler and/or interpreter and a debugger.

Back

Keywords

Front

are predefined identifiers reserved by Java for a specific purpose. -You cannot use keywords as names for your variables, classes, methods ... etc.

Back

SOFTWARE

Front

Intangible part of a computer and consists of data and the computer programs

Back

Run-time Errors

Front

- errors that will not display until you run or execute your program - Even programs that compile successfully may display wrong answers if the programmer has not thought through the logical processes and structures of the program.

Back

C++-Style Comments

Front

starts with // - All the text after // are treated as comments

Back

SYSTEMS PROGRAMS

Front

- Programs that are needed to keep all the hardware and software systems running together smoothly - Examples: Operating Systems like Linux, Windows, Unix, Solaris, Mac O.S.

Back

Character Literals

Front

represent single Unicode characters. Unicode character - a 16-bit character set that replaces the 8-bit ASCII character set. - Unicode allows the inclusion of symbols and special characters from other languages. enclose the character in single quote delimiters.

Back

SECONDARY MEMORY

Front

- used to hold programs and data for long term use. - Examples of secondary memory are hard disks and cd-rom. - considered as non-volatile storage

Back

RUN TIME ERRORS

Front

Compilers aren't perfect and so can't catch all errors at compile time. This is especially true for logic errors such as infinite loops. This type of error is called run-time error.

Back

PSEUDOCODE

Front

which is a cross between human language and a programming language

Back

HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

Front

- a programming language that is more user-friendly, to some extent platform-independent, and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses - A programming statement may be translated into one or several machine instructions by a compiler. - Examples: Java, C, C++, Basic, Fortran

Back

TYPES OF COMPUTER PROGRAM

Front

- Systems Programs - Application Programs - Compilers

Back

CPU

Front

-Central processing unit -the "brain" of the computer - It does the fundamental computing within the system - Examples: Pentium, Athlon and SPARC.

Back

LOW LEVEL ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

Front

- Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers - Assembly languages are available for each CPU family, and each assembly instruction is translated into one machine instruction by an assembler program

Back

Identifiers

Front

- are tokens that represent names of variables, methods, classes, etc. - Examples of identifiers are: Hello, main, System, out. Java identifiers are case-sensitive. - This means that the identifier Hello is not the same as hello

Back

Block

Front

- is one or more statements bounded by an opening and closing curly braces that groups the statements as one unit. - Block statements can be nested indefinitely. - Any amount of white space is allowed.

Back

PROGRAMS

Front

act like instructions for the processor.

Back

STAR 7

Front

One of the first projects developed using Java, a personal hand-held remote control.

Back

Java Run time Environment(JRE)

Front

- runs code compiled for a JVM and performs class loading (through the class loader), code verification (through the bytecode verifier) and finally code execution

Back

Syntax Errors

Front

- errors are usually typing errors

Back

DEBUGGING

Front

The process of fixing some errors (bugs) in your program

Back

Code security

Front

attained in Java through the implementation of its Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

Back

JAVA

Front

- was created in 1991 - by James Gosling et al. of Sun Microsystems. - Initially called Oak, in honor of the tree outside Gosling's window, its name was changed to Java because there was already a language called Oak.

Back

Section 2

(45 cards)

return statement

Front

- used to exit from the current method. - flow of control returns to the statement that follows the original method call.

Back

repetition control structures

Front

allows us to execute specific sections of the code a number of times - are Java statements that allows us to execute specific blocks of code a number of times.

Back

Assignment Operators

Front

used in converting (casting) one type into another type or an object into another object.

Back

Branching statements

Front

allows us to redirect the flow of program execution.

Back

Logical Operators

Front

often used with relational operators to construct more complex decision-making expressions.

Back

Operators

Front

These operators follow a certain kind of precedence so that the compiler will know which operator to evaluate first in case multiple operators are used in one statement.

Back

switch-statement

Front

allows branching on multiple outcomes.

Back

if-else Statement

Front

The if statement enables your program to selectively execute other statements, based on some criteria. The else statement performs a different set of statements if the expression is false.

Back

foreach loop

Front

is for traversing items in a collection. -it is usually used in place of a standard for statement. It usually maintain no explicit counter: they essentially say "do this to everything in this set", rather than "do this x times".

Back

if-else statement

Front

used when we want to execute a certain statement if a condition is true, and a different statement if the condition is false

Back

decision control structures

Front

allows us to select specific sections of code to be executed - Java statements that allows us to select and execute specific blocks of code while skipping other sections

Back

break statement

Front

causes the program flow to exit prematurely from the body of the loop statement.

Back

BufferedReader class

Front

- Found in the java.io package - Used to get input

Back

unlabeled continue statement

Front

- skips to the end of the innermost loop's body and evaluates the boolean expression that controls the loop, basically skipping the remainder of this iteration of the loop.

Back

default keyword

Front

is comparable to the else part of the if statement. The statements associated with this keyword is executed if the value of the switch variable does not match any of the case constants.

Back

labeled continue statement

Front

- skips the current iteration of an outer loop marked with the given label.

Back

Identifiers

Front

are names that are given by the programmer as name of variables, methods or functions, classes etc. The name used as an identifier must follow the following rules in Java™ technology: Each character is either a digit, letter, underscore or currency symbol. First character cannot be a digit. The identifier name must not be a reserved word.

Back

Ternary Operator

Front

an operator that deals with three operands.

Back

do-while loop

Front

facilitates evaluation of condition or expression at the end of the loop to ensure that the statements are executed at least once .

Back

break statement

Front

causes the program flow to exit from the body of the switch construct.

Back

Relational operators

Front

compare two values and determines the relationship between those values. -The output of evaluation are the boolean values true or false.

Back

Reference Variables

Front

- variables that stores the address in the memory location - points to another memory location where the actual data is - When you declare a variable of a certain class, you are actually declaring a reference variable to the object with that certain class.

Back

unlabeled break

Front

- terminates the enclosing switch statement, and flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the switch. - This can also be used to terminate a for, while, or do-while loop

Back

WRAPPER CLASSES

Front

are used in converting one data type (such as a String) into another data type (such as int or double). It is also used in wrapping a primitive value into an object.

Back

labeled break statement

Front

- terminates an outer statement, which is identified by the label specified in the break statement. - the flow of control transfers to the statement immediately following the labeled (terminated) statement.

Back

while loop

Front

- is a statement or block of statements that is repeated as long as some condition is satisfied. - The statements inside the while loop are executed as long as the boolean_expression evaluates to true.

Back

if-statement

Front

specifies that a statement (or block of code) will be executed if and only if a certain boolean statement is true.

Back

Primitive Variables

Front

- variables with primitive data types. - stores data in the actual memory location of where the variable is

Back

Control structures

Front

allows us to change the ordering of how the statements in our programs are executed

Back

label

Front

identifies any valid statement to which control must be transferred

Back

while loop

Front

executes a given statement or block of statements repeatedly as long as the value of the expression is true.

Back

Shift Operators

Front

performs bit manipulation on data by shifting the bits of its first operand right or left. This table summarizes the shift operators available in the Java programming language.

Back

for loop

Front

- allows execution of the same code a number of times.

Back

Cast Operators

Front

used in converting (casting) one type into another type or an object into another object.

Back

if-else-else if statement

Front

The statement in the else-clause of an if-else block can be another if-else structures. This cascading of structures allows us to make more complex selections.

Back

Packages

Front

contain classes that have related purpose.

Back

for loop

Front

executes a given statement or a block of statements for a definite number of times.

Back

JOptionPane class

Front

Another way to get input from the user is by using this which is found in the javax.swing package. makes it easy to pop up a standard dialog box that prompts users for a value or informs them of something.

Back

continue statement

Front

causes the program flow to skip over and jump to the end of the loop body, and then return the control to the loop control statement.

Back

do-while-loop

Front

-statements inside a do-while loop are executed several times as long as the condition is satisfied - The main difference between a while and do-while loop: the statements inside a do-while loop are executed at least once.

Back

Logical operators

Front

have one or two boolean operands that yield a boolean result.

Back

Relational Operators

Front

compares two values and determines the relationship between them.

Back

Bitwise Operators

Front

works on integer values, by manipulating its bit-pattern equivalent.

Back

variable

Front

is an item of data used to store the state of objects. has a: - data type The data type indicates the type of value that the variable can hold. - name The variable name must follow rules for identifiers.

Back

switch statement

Front

is used to conditionally perform statements based on an integer expression.

Back