A & P Holes Chapter 3

A & P Holes Chapter 3

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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cell membrane

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Cards (113)

Section 1

(50 cards)

cell membrane

Front

Outer boundary of cell; composed of a double bilayer of phospholipid molecules with many proteins dipspersed within it

Back

nuclear membrane

Front

double membrane that separates the contents of the nucleus from cytoplasm; site where mRNA can pass out of the nucleus during protein synthesis and how ribosomes exit the nucleus

Back

Rough ER

Front

1. studded with ribosomes 2. function=protein synthesis

Back

chromosomes

Front

fibers of chromatin tightly coiled when cell is preparing to divide

Back

mitochondria

Front

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Back

ER

Front

network of interconnected parallel membranes (maze) that is continuous with the nuclear membrane

Back

Cell Membrane Surface Modifications are_____

Front

1. Cilia 2. Flagella 3. Microvilli

Back

MELAS

Front

-most common neurologic syndrome caused by mitochondrial abnormalities -tRNA mutations, cause by the defect mitochondria which cause mitochondria fail to convert to sugar and oxgen to energy onset in childhood affect CNS and muscle

Back

An example of filtration is________

Front

blood being filtered through the capillaries of the kidney

Back

All cells have...

Front

Cell or plasma membrane., cytoplasm, cellular organelles,and a nucleus

Back

Simple Diffusion is________

Front

1. Molecules spread spotaneously from regions where they are 2. higher concentrations to lower concentrations- down the concentration gradient 3. state of eqilibrium is reached

Back

Osmosis is significant when______

Front

solutions are infused into our blood or tissues

Back

In filtration, the concentration gradient is from _____

Front

high to low

Back

nucleus

Front

control center of the cell containing nucleoplasm

Back

Passive Transport Processes are______

Front

1. Simple Diffusion 2.Osmosis 3.Filtration 4. Facilitated Diffusion

Back

Examples of simple diffusion are______

Front

1. sugar cube dissolving in water 2.a drop of dye diffusing in water 3. an odor diffusing throughout the air in a room the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the cell membrane

Back

The nuclear membrane is______

Front

selectively permeable

Back

Smooth ER

Front

1. lacks ribosomes 2. function=lipid and cholesterol synthesis

Back

The solute concentration is isotonic in our cells at_______

Front

0.9% NaCl

Back

nucleosome

Front

fundamental unit of chromatin; sperical clusters of eight histone proteins connected like beads on DNA string

Back

Flagella/flagellum

Front

tail like projection that aids in cell locomotion; only one per cell in humans: sperm cell

Back

Filtration is_____

Front

when water and solutes are forced through a body membrane by the hydrostsic pressure of blood (blood Pressure)

Back

cellular organelles

Front

specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions

Back

nuclear pore

Front

nuclear bilayer fused together

Back

nucleoli

Front

a spherical body within the nucleus composed of RNA and proteins and function to synthesize ribosomes

Back

chromatin

Front

loosely coiled fibers of DNA and histone proteins present in the nucleus

Back

Peripheral proteins

Front

lie loosely on the inner and outer surface of the cell membrane and serve as enzymes or cytoskeleton anchors

Back

cytoplasm

Front

jelly like fluid that holds the cellular organelles

Back

autolysis

Front

the digestion of damaged or extra cells by the enzymes of their own lysosomes

Back

ribosomes

Front

1. small granuales dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and on the membranes of some endoplasmic reticulum 2. composed of RNA and protein 3. function for protein synthesis

Back

lysosomes

Front

1. sperical membranous sacs containing igestive enzymes 2. suicide sacs which destroy anything the cell no longer wants or needs

Back

Cells vary in their...

Front

shape size and arrangements

Back

Active Membrane Transports are______

Front

1. Active transport 2. endocytosis 3. receptor mediated endocytosis 4. exocytosis

Back

Cell membranes have ______ heads due to polar phosphate heads

Front

hydrophilic

Back

2 types of Membrane Transport

Front

Active and Passive

Back

golgi apparatus

Front

1. flattened membranous sacs (cisternae) arranged in stacks like pancakes associated with many vesicles 2. function+ modification, packaging, and transport of proteins 3. vesicles pinch off as secretory vesicles

Back

Cilia located in________

Front

lining of respratory tract and fallopian tube

Back

Cytoskeleton Elements

Front

structures called microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments that form the "muscles and bones" of the cell

Back

peroxisomes

Front

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals

Back

microvilli

Front

small finger like extensions of the external surface of the cell membrane located in the digestive tract to increase surface area

Back

3 regions of the nucleous include______

Front

1. nuclear membrane 2. Nucleoli 3. Chromatin

Back

Tay-Sachs Disease

Front

inherited disorder in humans. the brain cells of a baby with this disease are unable to metabolize certain lipids because a crucial enzyme does not work properly. as these lipids accumulate in the brain cells, an infant begins to suffer seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental preformance.

Back

Osmosis is_______

Front

diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane in an attempt to dilute a particular solute...only water can pass through the membrane and not the solute

Back

cristae

Front

(plural, cristae) An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

Back

Integral proteins

Front

1. Firmly inserted into and extend across the lipid bilayer 2. Most are gycoproteins 3. Serve as channels, transporters, receptors, or enzymes

Back

Cilia

Front

short hairlike cellular extensions (eyelashes) that help move substances through passageways

Back

centrosome and centrioles

Front

pair of microtubules located near the nucleus to aid in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis

Back

Adrenoleukodystrophy

Front

degenerative disorder of myelin, The disease is due to an X-linked inheritance of peroxisomes that cannot properly process long chain fatty acids in the brain.

Back

Cell membranes have a _________internal portion due to the non-polar fatty acid tails

Front

Hydrophobic

Back

examples of solutes in filtration are__________

Front

1. glucose 2. gases 3. ions 4. hormones 5. vitamins

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Length of cell cycle depends on____

Front

1. cell type 2. location 3. temperature

Back

Average length of a cell cycle is _______

Front

19-26 hours

Back

malignant

Front

harmful or cancerous

Back

Rett Syndrome

Front

genetic disorder, deterioration occurs after a period of normal development, receptive & expressive communication skills deteriorate, muscle wasting making children prone to scoliosis and eventually needing a wheelchair, stereotypical movements such as: licking, biting, slapping of hands, deteriorating skin

Back

What are cells measured by?

Front

micrometers

Back

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Front

The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances

Back

What happens when cell division goes awry?

Front

1. a tumor 2. a growth 3. neoplasm

Back

anaphase

Front

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles; Centromere holding the chromosomes separate; nucleoli and nuclear envelopes develop: cytokenesis begins

Back

endocytosis

Front

Uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane

Back

Cancer is

Front

abnormal cell division

Back

pinocytosis

Front

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment, cell drinking

Back

Which group of enzymes participate in cell cycle division?

Front

cdc2 proteins

Back

How many different varieties of cells are in the human body?

Front

260

Back

centromere

Front

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

Back

The 3 things important from the cell cycle are_____

Front

1. To form a multicelled organism from a one celled one 2. growth of an organism 3. tissue repair

Back

oncologist

Front

a physician who treats patients with tumors

Back

What do cdc2 proteins do?

Front

They transfer a phosphate group from ATP to proteins to help regulate cell activities

Back

What characteristic of a cell determines its function?

Front

shape

Back

Mitotic Phase

Front

The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

Back

phagocytosis

Front

Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.

Back

MPF stands for ____-

Front

Maturation Promoting Factor and induces cell division when it becomes activated

Back

Active Transport

Front

energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

Back

Mitosis has 4 parts that include______

Front

1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase

Back

In facilitated diffusion the concentration gradient is from______________

Front

high to low

Back

How big is a blood cell?

Front

7.5 micrometers

Back

2 ways malignant tumors spread_______

Front

1. By mestasis to other tissues 2. through blood stream or lymph system

Back

How big is a human egg cell?

Front

140 micrometers

Back

Which cells do not reproduce?

Front

1. Neurons 2. Skeletal muscle 3. red blood cells

Back

metaphase

Front

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell; centromeres holding each pair of chromosomes attaches to a spindle fiber between the centrioles

Back

3 phases of interphase are______

Front

1. G1 2. S 3. G2

Back

What does a micometer equal?

Front

1/1000 of a millimeter

Back

exocytosis

Front

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out; how cells transport secretory proteins out

Back

During G2________________________

Front

growth and final preps for cell division

Back

benign

Front

not cancerous

Back

Which protein has a level that rises and falls during cell division?

Front

Cyclin

Back

Chromosomes are made from_______________

Front

identical sister chromatids

Back

What does cyclin do?

Front

It builds up during interphase and activtes the cdc2 proteins of MPF

Back

Facilitated diffusion most significant because_________________

Front

this is the process by which glucose enters and leaves most human cells

Back

During S ____________________

Front

growth and DNA replication

Back

centrioles

Front

Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division

Back

oncology

Front

the study of tumors

Back

During G1 _______________________

Front

rapid growth and replication of centrioles

Back

interphase

Front

cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases; cell growth and DNA replication

Back

spindle fibers

Front

made of microtubules and as the centrosomes seperate they radiate in preperation for metaphase

Back

2 major portions of cell cycle are______

Front

interphase and mitotic phase

Back

cytokenesis

Front

The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.

Back

Facilitated diffusion is_________

Front

is a special case of diffusion where special carrier protein molecules within the cell membrane act as shuttle buses to transport a molecule in/out of a cell.

Back

telophase

Front

fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material: cleavage furrow nearly complete; spindle fibers disappear

Back

An adult human body contains about how many cells?

Front

75 Trillion

Back

prophase

Front

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus: nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear

Back

Section 3

(13 cards)

What is contained in the nucleus?

Front

DNA which directs the cell's functions

Back

light microscope

Front

microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object

Back

Eukaryotic

Front

true nucleus; cells with a nucleus

Back

scanning probe microscope

Front

A nonlight imaging device that bypasses light and optics. It drags an ultra-thin needle over the surface of a sample to produce an image.(3-D)

Back

virus

Front

genetic material simpler than cells in a protein coat; cannot reproduce without a host

Back

What is contained in the cytoplasm?

Front

organelles in a liquid called cytoplasm

Back

prokaryotic

Front

before nucleus; cells of bacteria with no nucleus

Back

transmission electron microscope

Front

a microscope that transmits a beam of electrons through a very thin slice of specimen and that can magnify up to 200,000 times (abbreviation, TEM)

Back

scanning electron microscope

Front

a microscope that produces an enlarged, three-dimensional image of an object by using a beam of electrons rather than light

Back

confocal microscope

Front

Similar to simple light microscope except that visualizes 3D image in detail., Laser illuminated, a laser scans over the specimen with the help of some scanning mirrors and the image is put on a computer for analysis, lasers are used becuase of their wavelength, salt can be seen in this microscope

Back

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Front

controls the entrance and exit of substances

Back

What are differentiated cells?

Front

cells with special charcteristics

Back

micrographs

Front

photograph taken through a microscrope

Back