AP Human Geography Chapter 9 - Urban Geography

AP Human Geography Chapter 9 - Urban Geography

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Section 1

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Situation

Front

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (56)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Situation

Front

The external locational attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places

Back

Commercialization

Front

transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity

Back

Sunbelt Phenomenon

Front

The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions of the United States

Back

Urban Realm

Front

a spatial generalization of the large, late-20th-century city in the US. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown

Back

Central City

Front

The urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs

Back

Zoning Laws

Front

legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas.

Back

Zone

Front

Area of the city with a relatively uniform land use

Back

Acropolis

Front

upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city; usually devoted to religious purposes

Back

Agricultural Village

Front

a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops

Back

Nile River Valley

Front

2nd urban hearth, dating to 3200 BCE

Back

Blockbusting

Front

rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods

Back

Concentric Zone Model

Front

A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center

Back

Forum

Front

The focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora

Back

Spaces of Consumption

Front

areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry

Back

Primate City

Front

a country's largest city most expressive of the national culture and usually the capital city as well

Back

World City

Front

dominant city in terms of its roles in the global political economy. World's biggest city in terms of strategic control of the world economy

Back

Griffin-Ford Model

Front

developed by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene. AKA - Latin American model

Back

Peru

Front

6th urban hearth, developed around 900 BCE

Back

Site

Front

The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting

Back

City

Front

conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics

Back

Suburbanization

Front

Movement of upper and middle class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as the deteriorating social conditions.

Back

Gated Communitites

Front

restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests

Back

Social Stratification

Front

differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige

Back

Mesoamerica

Front

5th urban hearth, dating to 1100 BCE

Back

McMansions

Front

homes referred to as such because of their super size and similarity in appearance to other such homes; often built in place of tear-downs

Back

Tear-Downs

Front

homes bought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes

Back

Urban Sprawl

Front

unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning

Back

Trade Area

Front

Region adjacent to every town and city within it which its influence is dominant

Back

Disamenity Sector

Front

the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords

Back

First Urban Revolution

Front

innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths

Back

Edge Cities

Front

A term introduced by Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings

Back

Functional Zonation

Front

The division of the city into different regions or zones for certain purposes or functions

Back

Informal Economy

Front

economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a gov; and is not included in that gov's gross national product

Back

Mesopotamia

Front

region of great cities located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban heart, dating to 3500 BCE, and which was founded in the Fertile Crescent

Back

Gentrification

Front

rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents

Back

Central Business District

Front

The downtown part of the central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings

Back

Central Place Theory

Front

Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another

Back

Huang He and Wei

Front

rivers in China; confluence of the Huang He and Wei RIvers where the 4th urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE

Back

Agora

Front

in ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, socialized, and traded

Back

McGee Model

Front

developed by T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of SE Asia

Back

Rank-Size Rule

Front

In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy

Back

Redlining

Front

discriminatory real estate practice in NA in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase property in white dominant neighborhoods

Back

Indus River Valley

Front

3rd urban hearth, dating to 2200 BCE

Back

Shantytowns

Front

unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard

Back

Agricultural Surplus

Front

agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of their family and which is then sold for consumption by others

Back

Urban

Front

entire built-up, nonrural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages

Back

New Urbanism

Front

outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs

Back

Urban Morphology

Front

study of the physical form and structure of urban places

Back

Suburb

Front

A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connecting to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls

Back

Leadership Class

Front

group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives of others

Back

Section 2

(6 cards)

megacities

Front

cities with 10 million or more residents

Back

multiple nuclei model

Front

a structural model of the American city that suggests a decline in significance of the CBD and the associated rise in significance of regions within metropolitan areas with their own nuclei.

Back

galactic city

Front

a modern city in which the old downtown plays the role of a festival or recreational area, and widely dispersed industrial parks, shopping centers, high-tech industrial spaces, edge-city downtowns, and industrial suburbs are the new centers of economic activity.

Back

Secondary hearth

Front

Greece is an example of this because the Greek city influenced urban developments in Europe and beyond, however it developed as a result of diffusion from Mesopotamia.

Back

urbicide

Front

deliberate killing of a city, for example when cities are targeted for destruction during wars.

Back

Sector Model

Front

a structural model of the American city that suggests that low rent and other types of areas can extend from the CDB to the city's outer edge, created zones that are shaped like a pie piece

Back