AP Chemistry Big Idea #2 More

AP Chemistry Big Idea #2 More

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Section 1

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Octahedral

Front

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Mar 1, 2020

Cards (64)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Octahedral

Front

the cental atom has 6 electron pairs, it has d²sp³ hybridization

Back

Why are metals good conductors of electricity?

Front

Valence electrons on each atom do not belong to a specific atom and are very mobile.

Back

Where are electrons localiyed in a network solid?

Front

in colvalent bonds between particular atoms

Back

Molecular Geometry

Front

The shape of a molecule that is assumes to keep different electron pairs as far apart as possible

Back

Doping

Front

a process in which an impurity is added to an existing lattice

Back

Network (covalent) Bonds

Front

hold together atoms in a network solid

Back

Which molecules are more likely to experience greater London-Dispersion forces?

Front

molecules with more electrons

Back

London Dispersion forces

Front

very weak attractions that occur because of the random motions of electrons on atoms within molecules

Back

Trigonal Bipyramidal

Front

The central atom has 5 electron pairs, it has dsp³ hybridization

Back

The larger the dipole moment...

Front

... The more polar the molecule

Back

How can you determine the length and strength of a bond in a resonance structure?

Front

using a bond order calculation pick one of the bonds in the resonance structure and add up the total bond order across the ressonance forms then divide that by the sum

Back

What give the molecule a dipole?

Front

One of the atoms (the more electronegative one) will exert a stronger pull on the electrons in the bond -- not enough to make the bond ionic, but enough to keep the electrons on one side of the molecule more than the other side

Back

Substitutional Alloy

Front

Forms between atoms of similar radii. ie. Brass

Back

What is p-doping?

Front

a missing bond (''hole'') creates a positive charge in the lattice and attracts other electrons to it to increase conductivity

Back

Hydrogen bonds

Front

the positively charged hydrogen end of a molecule is attracted to the negatively charged end of another molecule conatining an extremely electronegative element

Back

Sigma bond σ

Front

First covalent bond formed between two atoms

Back

What is the phase of a sunstance related to?

Front

the strength of the intermolecular forces

Back

Po bond π

Front

Additional bonds between two atoms that are formed

Back

Tetrahedral

Front

The central atom has 4 electron pairs, it has sp³hybridization, bond angles are about 109.5°

Back

Double and triple bonds are _____ and _____ than single bonds, but they are not _____ or _____ the strength

Front

Stronger Shorter Twice Triple

Back

Example of hydrogen bonds

Front

H-F H-N H-O

Back

What is n-doping?

Front

An extra valence electron is added to allow it to move freely in the lattice

Back

Intermolecular forces

Front

bonds that only exist in covalently bonded molecules

Back

What us the kinetic energy of an ideal gas related to?

Front

it is directly proportional to its absolute temperature: the greater the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy

Back

Properties of Network Solids

Front

very hard, high melting and boiling points

Back

Why are network solids poor conductors of electricity?

Front

Their electrons are not free to move about the lattice

Back

Interstitial Alloy

Front

Metal atoms with two vastly different radii combine. ie. Steel

Back

State and Boiling/Melting point of ionic bonds

Front

Solid at room temp Very high melting and boiling points

Back

Which side of the molecule is positive?

Front

The side where the electrons spend less time

Back

Dipole-dipole Forces

Front

positive of one polar molecule is attracted to the negative end of another polar molecule

Back

Expanded octets

Front

in molecules that have the d subshells available, the central atom can have more than 8 valence electrons but never more than 12

Back

Resonance forms

Front

Back

Average kinetic energy of a gas single molecule

Front

Back

Properties of London Dispersion forces

Front

weaker than dipole dipole low melting and boiling points gases at room temp

Back

Lewis Dot Structure

Front

Back

Trigonal Planar

Front

The central atom has 3 electron pairs, and it has sp² hybridization, bond angles are about 120°

Back

Covalent bonds

Front

Two atoms share electrons

Back

Why do ionic liquids conduct electricity?

Front

The ions are free to move about in the liquid phase

Back

Why are ionic solids poor conductors of electricity?

Front

Each electron is localized around a particular atom and do not move around the lattice

Back

Incomplete octets

Front

atoms that are stable with less than 8electrons in their outer shell

Back

Hybrid orbitals

Front

In a molecule with more than two atoms, the shape of the molecule is determined by the number of electron pairs on the central atom

Back

The melting/boiling point of a covalent susbtance is based entirely on ... but the melting point 0f an ionic substance is based on...

Front

the strength of its intermolecular forces its lattice energy

Back

VSEPR Valence Shell Ectron-Pair Repulsion

Front

Predicting the geometries of a molecule

Back

Properties of dipole-dipole forces

Front

high melting and boiling points relatively weak

Back

Linear Shape

Front

the central atom has 2 electron pairs, then it has sp hybridization

Back

Which side of the molecule is negative?

Front

The side where the electrons spend more time

Back

Number of covalent bonds an atom can form

Front

The number of unpaired electrons in its valence shell

Back

Ionic bonds

Front

Held together by the electrostatic attractions between ions that are next to one another in a lattice structure. They often occur between metals and nonmetals.

Back

Hydrogen bond properties

Front

high melting and boiling points

Back

How do you calculate the formal charge?

Front

take the number of valence electrons for that atom and subtract the number of assigned electrons in the Lewis Structure The total formal charge should be 0

Back

Section 2

(14 cards)

Dalton's Law equation

Front

Back

Mole fraction

Front

gives the fraction of moles of a given substance out of the total moles present in a sample .

Back

Ideal gas equation

Front

R= .0821

Back

What two things happen when molecules are packed to tightly?

Front

1. The volume of the gas molecules becomes insignificant 2. Gas molecules attract one another and stick together

Back

In what do polar/ ionic solutes dissolve in?

Front

Polar solvents

Back

Partial Pressure

Front

Xa= moles gas A/ total moles of gas

Back

What is dissociation?

Front

Ionic substance dissolves and breaks up into ions

Back

P₁V₁/T₁

Front

P₂V₂/T₂

Back

What dissolves in solvents?

Front

Like dissolves like

Back

Density of a gas

Front

Back

What does molarity express?

Front

concentration of a solution in terms of volume

Back

When do you use the ideal gas constant?

Front

to calculate any of the four variatbles relating to the gas, provided you already know the other 3

Back

Molarity

Front

Back

Dalton's Law

Front

the total pressure of a mixture of gases is just the sum of all the partial pressures of the individual gases in a mixture

Back