AP Biology Exam Review

AP Biology Exam Review

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Section 1

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Cards (288)

Section 1

(50 cards)

homozygous

Front

term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait

Back

hybrids

Front

offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

Back

cell cycle

Front

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

Back

punnett square

Front

diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

Back

genes

Front

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Back

meiosis

Front

process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

Back

metaphase

Front

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Back

anaphase

Front

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Back

tetrad

Front

structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis

Back

genetics

Front

scientific study of heredity

Back

independent assortment

Front

independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes

Back

Cell

Front

Basic functional unit of all living things

Back

Ion Channels

Front

Allow the passage of ions across the membranes; gated channels open and close in response to specific stimuli i.e. Na+ and K+

Back

centrioles

Front

one of the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cels near the nuclear envelope

Back

alleles

Front

one of a number of different forms of a gene

Back

phenotype

Front

physical characteristics of an organism

Back

Fluid Mosaic Model

Front

Describes structure of the plasma membrane; scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipids

Back

codominance

Front

situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism

Back

cytokinesis

Front

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

Back

interphase

Front

period of the cell cycle between cell division

Back

spindle

Front

fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis

Back

cancer

Front

disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth

Back

genotype

Front

genetic makeup of an organism

Back

cyclin

Front

one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

Back

crossing-over

Front

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis

Back

probability

Front

likelihood that a particular event will occur

Back

incomplete dominance

Front

situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another

Back

gametes

Front

specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction

Back

true-breeding

Front

term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate

Back

prophase

Front

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the cell's DNA

Back

heterozygous

Front

term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait

Back

homologous

Front

term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent

Back

Porins

Front

Allow the passage of certain ions and small polar molecules; aquaporins increase the passage rate of water molecules

Back

fertilization

Front

process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

Back

polygenic traits

Front

trait controlled by two or more genes

Back

mitosis

Front

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

Back

centromeres

Front

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

Back

Channel Proteins

Front

Provide open passageways through the membrane

Back

haploid

Front

term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes

Back

Cytoplasm

Front

Consists of specialized bodies (organelles) suspended in a fluid matrix (cytosol)

Back

telophase

Front

fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

Back

Plasma Membrane

Front

Separates internal metabolic events from the external environment; controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell (selective permeability); lipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, proteins, cholesterol to provide some rigidity, and a glycocalyx of glycolipids (lipids + oligosaccharides) and glycoproteins (proteins + oligosaccharides)

Back

Transmembrane Proteins

Front

Integral proteins that span completely through the membrane; held in place by hydrophilic/hydrophobic regions

Back

segregation

Front

separation of alleles during gamete formation

Back

trait

Front

specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

Back

Integral Proteins

Front

Proteins that extend into the membrane

Back

Peripheral Proteins

Front

Proteins that attach to the inner or outer surface of the membrane

Back

diploid

Front

term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

Back

chromatids

Front

one of the two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome

Back

multiple alleles

Front

three or more alleles of the same gene

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Passive Transport

Front

Movement of substances from higher to lower concentration; does not require energy

Back

Microfilaments

Front

Made of actin; involved in motility of cell

Back

Lysosomes

Front

Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes; break down food, debris, and foreign invaders; they DO NOT occur in plant cells

Back

Anchoring Junctions

Front

Protein attachments between adjacent animal cells; desmosomes bind adjacent cells together and are associated with protein filaments that extend into the cell interior to hold structures together

Back

Adhesion Proteins

Front

Attach cells to neighboring cells and give cell stability

Back

Storage Vacuoles

Front

In plants; store starch, pigments, toxic substances (i.e. nicotine)

Back

Endocytosis

Front

The plasma membrane engulfs a substance and enters the cytoplasm in a vesicle; phagocytosis (undissolved, solid material) and pinocytosis (dissolved, liquid material), receptor-mediated (specific molecules bind to receptors)

Back

Carrier Proteins

Front

Bind to specific molecules, undergo a change in shape, and then transfer the molecules across the membrane; i.e. the passage of glucose

Back

Contractile Vacuole

Front

Collect and pump excess water out of cell

Back

Chromatin

Front

Threadlike form of DNA

Back

hypothalamic-inhibiting hormone

Front

hormone produced in the hypothalamus that targets the anterior pituitary to inhibit anterior pituitary hormones

Back

Flagella and Cilia

Front

Structures that protrude from the cell membrane and make wavelike movements; flagella are long, few and move in snakelike motion; cilia are short, numerous, and move with back-and-forth movement; "9 +2" array of microtubules

Back

Ribosomes

Front

Consist of RNA molecules and proteins; the two subunits move across the nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm to be assembled; ribosomes assist in the assembly of amino acids into proteins

Back

Chloroplasts

Front

Carry out photosynthesis to convert energy from sunlight into carbohydrates

Back

Mitochondria

Front

Carry out aerobic respiration to obtain ATP from carbohydrates

Back

Nucleosomes

Front

Before cell division, histones organize DNA into bundles

Back

Communicating Junctions

Front

Allow the transfer of materials; gap junctions between animal cells involve connexins which prevent cytoplasm from mixing but allow the passage of ions and small molecules; plasmodesmata between plant cells involves with a desmotubule surrounded by cytoplasm and plasma membrane going between the two cells, with exchange occurring through the cytoplasm

Back

Plasmolysis

Front

Movement of water out of a cell resulting in the cell's collapse

Back

Transport Vesicles

Front

Move materials between organelles or between organelles and the plasma membrane

Back

Countercurrent Exchange

Front

Diffusion of substances between two regions in which they are moving by bulk flow in oposite directions

Back

Active Transport

Front

Movement of solutes against a gradient, requiring the expenditure of energy

Back

Peroxisomes

Front

Break down substances (i.e. hydrogen peroxide, fatty acids, and amino acids)

Back

Hypotonic Solution

Front

The solution that has the lower concentration of solutes than the other solution

Back

Recognition Proteins

Front

Give each cell type a unique identification so it can distinguish between "self" and "foreign" cells

Back

Transport Proteins

Front

Use ATP to transport materials through active transport; i.e. sodium-potassium pump maintaining higher sodium and potassium concentrations on opposite sides of the membrane

Back

Bulk Flow

Front

Collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure

Back

Dialysis

Front

Diffusion of SOLUTES across a selectively permeable membrane

Back

Cell Wall

Front

Provide support outside the plasma membrane; made of cellulose in plants; made of chitin in fungi

Back

Solute

Front

Substance being dissolved

Back

Hypertonic Solution

Front

The solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than the other solution

Back

Golgi Apparatus

Front

Flattened sacs arranged like a stack of bowls; modify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles; these vesicles bud out from the Golgi apparatus, migrate to the surface, and merge with the plasma membrane to release contents

Back

Nucleolus

Front

Concentrations of DNA within the nucleus that are in the process of manufacturing components of ribosomes

Back

Facilitated Diffusion

Front

Diffusion of solutes or water through channel proteins

Back

Solvent

Front

Substance that the solute is being dissolved in; i.e. water

Back

Exocytosis

Front

Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the outside

Back

hypothalamic-releasing hormone

Front

hormone produced in the hypothalamus that targets the anterior pituitary to release anterior pituitary hormones

Back

Nucleus

Front

Bounded by the nuclear envelope (consisting of two phospholipid bilayers); contains DNA in chromatin form; serves as the site of chromosome separation during cell division

Back

Receptor Proteins

Front

Provide sites that hormones or other trigger molecules can bind to in order to activate a cell response

Back

Food Vacuoles

Front

Store nutrients temporarily; may merge with lysosomes which digest food with their enzymes

Back

Osmosis

Front

Diffusion of WATER molecules across a selectively permeable membrane

Back

Centrioles and Basal Bodies

Front

Act as microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs); a centrosome outside the nuclear envelope gives rise to microtubules making the spindle apparatus in cell division; basal bodies are at the base of cilia and flagella and are made of nine triplets of microtubules

Back

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Front

Without ribosomes; synthesizes lipids and hormones

Back

Chromosomes

Front

Chromatin condenses during cell division into rod-shaped bodies

Back

Microtubules

Front

Made of tubulin; provide support and motility for cellular activities; found in spindle apparatus of mitosis, and in cilia and flagella

Back

Central Vacuole

Front

Large bodies in plant cells; exert turgor pressure on cell walls when full and maintain rigidity this way

Back

Isotonic Solution

Front

The solution has the same concentration of solutes as the other solution

Back

Intermediate Filaments

Front

Provide support for the cell

Back

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Front

Stacks of flattened sacs with ribosomes; as ribosomes assemble polypeptides, polysaccharides are attached to them to create glycoproteins

Back

Tight Junctions

Front

Tightly stitched seams between animal cells; prevents passage of materials between cells so that materials must pass through them

Back

Simple Diffusion

Front

Random movement from high to low concentration

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Detritus

Front

dead organic matter that is a source of food for many benthic species; ex: dead plant matter, decaying organisms

Back

thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Front

hormone produced in the thyroid that targets all tissues to increase metabolic rate and regulate growth and development

Back

estrogen and progesterone

Front

hormone produced in the ovaries that targets gonads, skin, muscles, and bones to stimulate female characteristics

Back

Climate

Front

the long-term prevailing weather conditions in a particular area (compare to: weather: the short term temperatures or conditions)

Back

glucagon

Front

hormone produced by the pancreas that targets the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue to raise the blood glucose level

Back

Dispersal

Front

the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density; ex: turtles moving into the woods from pond, spreading out from original area of inhabitation

Back

Community

Front

a group of populations of all different species living in an area; ex: the whole pond ecosystem of organisms

Back

menalocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Front

hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that targets melanocytes in skin

Back

Biomes

Front

major terrestrial or aquatic life zones, characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial or physical environment in aquatic; ex: (see below types, defined)

Back

Ecosystem ecology

Front

studies the energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and their environment (aka study of ecosystem and organism's interaction)

Back

Organismal ecology

Front

has to do with how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior interact with its environment; includes physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology

Back

Tropics

Front

regions that lie between 23.5 N and 23.5 S latitude (cutting horizontally on the Earth); they and the equator get the most direct sunlight, therefore more heat and light per surface area

Back

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Front

hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that targets and stimulates the thyroid

Back

Global ecology

Front

studies how the exchange of materials and energy affect the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere (aka looking for global patterns, relationships, patterns)

Back

Aphotic zone

Front

area in a body of water where little light penetrates (part of: stratification of aquatic biomes)

Back

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Front

hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that targets and stimulates the adrenal cortex

Back

Benthos

Front

organism that occupy the benthic zone; ex: worms

Back

Microclimate

Front

very fine patterns of climate; ex: conditions that affect community living in pond grasses, under a log

Back

mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)

Front

hormone produced in adrenal cortex that stimulates the kidneys to stimulate reabsorbtion of sodium and excretion of potassium

Back

glucocorticoids (cortisol)

Front

hromone produced by the adrenal cortex that targets all tissues to raise blood glucose level and stimulate the breakdown of protien

Back

Landscape ecology

Front

studies the factors controlling the interactions and exchanges of energy, materials, and organism across multiple ecosystems; ex: between the pond at the edge of the forest and the forest itself

Back

calcitonin

Front

hormone produced in the thyroid that targets the bones, kidneys, and intestine to lower blood calcium level

Back

melatonin

Front

hormone produced in the pineal gland that targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs

Back

Biotic

Front

living (relates to: biotic factors: organisms that are part of an individual's environment; ex: certain plants in the pond, carnivore fish/alligators)

Back

Abiotic

Front

nonliving (relates to: abiotic factors: chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water and nutrients that influence the distribution and abundance of organism; ex: water temperature, salinity, oxygen)

Back

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Front

hormone produced in the parathyroid that targets bones, kidneys, and the intestine to raise blood calcium level

Back

Landscape (or Seascape)

Front

mosaic of connected ecosystems (might span great distance, a bunch of biomes)

Back

Ecosystem

Front

community of organisms in an area and the physical factors that they interact with; ex: the pond the organism live in

Back

Community ecology

Front

studies the interactions between species; including predation, competition, commensalism, symbiotic, etc; and how it affects a community's structure, organization, relationship

Back

Macroclimate

Front

climate patterns on the global, regional, and local level; ex: weather in Maryland

Back

Benthic zone

Front

bottom of all aquatic biomes; made up of substrate, sand, inorganic, and organic sediments

Back

prolactin (PRL)

Front

hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that targets mammary glands for milk production

Back

Ecology

Front

study of the integrations between organisms and the environment in which they live in; can range from individual (organismal) to global

Back

September Equinox

Front

alignment of the Earth when the equator faces the sun directly, the poles are not tilted, and all areas on the Earth experience 12/12 sun and darkness

Back

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Front

produced in the posterior pituitary that targets the kidneys to stimulate water absorbtion of the kidneys

Back

growth hormone (GH)

Front

hormone produced inteh anterior pituitary that targets soft tissues and bones to promote cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

Back

insulin

Front

hormone produced in the pancreas that targest the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue to lower blood glucose level and promote the formation of glycogen

Back

sex hormones

Front

hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that targets the gonads, skin, muscles, and bones to stimulate reproductive organs and bring about sex characteristics

Back

Photic zone

Front

area in a body of water where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis (part of: stratification of aquatic biomes)

Back

gonadotropic hormone (FSH or LH)

Front

hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that targets the gonads to simulate egg/sperm production and sex hormone production

Back

Population

Front

group of individuals of the same species living in an area; ex: painted turtles living in a pond

Back

Biosphere

Front

the global ecosystem, sum and collection of all the Earth's ecosystems

Back

June solstice

Front

the alignment of the Earth when the Northern Hemisphere tilts toward the sun and has the longest day/shortest night; the Southern Hemisphere tilts away from the sun and has shortest day/longest night

Back

oxytocin

Front

hormone produced in the posterior pituitary that targets the uterus and mammary glands to stimulate uterine muscle contraction or release milk from mammary glands

Back

December solstice

Front

the alignment of the Earth when the Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the sun and has the shortest day/longest night; Southern Hemisphere tilts towards the sun and has the longest day/shortest night

Back

March Equinox

Front

alignment of the Earth when the equator faces the sun directly, the poles are not tilted, and all areas on the Earth experience 12/12 sun and darkness

Back

Population ecology

Front

studies the factors that affect population size and how and why a population might change over time

Back

androgens (testosterone)

Front

hormone produced in the testes that targets gonads, skin, muscles, and bone to stimulate male characteristics

Back

epinepherine and norepinepherine

Front

hormone produced in the adrenal medulla that targets the cardiac and other muscles in emergency situations to raise blood glucose level

Back

thymosins

Front

hormone produced in thymus that targets T lymphocytes to stimulate production and maturation to T lymphocytes

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

Northern Coniferous forest (aka Taiga)

Front

found across northern North America and Eurasia to the edge of the arctic tundra—largest terrestrial biome on Earth; precipitation ranges from 30 to 70 cm, droughts are common; winters are cold and long while summers may be hot; plants include cone bearing trees (pine, spruce, fir, hemlock); migratory birds nest, year round bird species, moose, brown bears, Siberian tigers, insect outbreaks that kill trees; are being logged and therefore the old growth parts of these forests may disappear soon; ex: Rocky Mountain National park in Colorado

Back

Immigration

Front

the influx or arrival of new individuals from other areas; ex: new geese settle at the pond

Back

Survivorship curve

Front

a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each age; (types: Type I (curve is flat at the start, reflecting low death rates during early and middle life, and then drops steeply as death rates increase among older age groups; ex: humans); Type II (intermediate, with a constant death rate over the organism's life span; ex: squirrels); Type III (the curve drops sharply at the start, reflecting very high death rates for the young, but flattens out as death rates decline for those few individuals that survive the early period of die-off; ex: oysters))

Back

Density independent

Front

a birth rate or a death rate that does not change with population density; ex: physical factors like drought that affect grass

Back

Temperate broadleaf forest

Front

located in the mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere and some in Australia and New Zealand; precipitation ranges from 70 to 200 cm in all seasons including winter snow; winter temperatures are around freezing and summers are hot and humid; distinct vertical layer forest (closed canopy, one or two strata of understory trees, a shrub layer, and an herbaceous stratum), dominant trees are deciduous which drop their leaves before the winter; many mammals hibernate during the winter and birds migrate to warmer areas; heavily settled, logged, cleared for agriculture and urban development; ex: Maryland, up and down the East Coast

Back

Abyssal

Front

zone that is very deep, continuously cold and pressurized

Back

R-selection or density-independent selection

Front

selection for life history traits that maximize reproductive success in un-crowded environments (low density); ex: fish that lay eggs

Back

Population ecology

Front

the study of populations in relation to their environment; explores how biotic and abiotic factors influence the density, distribution, size, and age structure of populations

Back

Emigration

Front

the movement of individuals out of a population; ex: baby ducks leave the pond and settle somewhere else

Back

Savanna

Front

equatorial and subequatorial regions, seasonal rainfall and dry season that is eight or nine months, warm year round, scattered trees are thorny with small leaves, fires are common, grasses and forbs make up the ground cover, large plant eating mammals, predators like lions, termites galore, cattle ranching and overhunting threatening animal populations; ex: Africa (Kenya)

Back

Cohort

Front

a group of individuals of the same age (related to: life table (follow a cohort from birth until death for data))

Back

Littoral zone

Front

the shallow, well-lighted waters close to shore, rooted and floating aquatic plants live in this zone

Back

Zero population growth (ZPG)

Front

occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal (r=b-d; r=0)

Back

Deserts

Front

occur 30 N and 30 S latitude, precipitation is low and highly variable, temperature is variable seasonally and daily, landscapes include scattered vegetation and lots of bare ground; succulents such as cacti and other plants that have adapted to heat and desiccation tolerance, water storage, and reduced leaf surface area (some plants exhibit C4 or CAM photosynthesis); animas have adapted—water conservation, nocturnal; conversion to agriculture and urbanization threatens; ex: southwest USA

Back

Density

Front

the number of individuals per unit area or volume; ex: number of sloths per acre of trees

Back

Repeated reproduction or iteroparity

Front

produce a few large eggs/offspring and then reproduce annually; may be favored in dependable environments where adults are more likely to survive to breed again and where competition for resources may be intense; ex: lizards

Back

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents

Front

hot, dark environments found on mid-ocean ridges, the food producers are chemoautotrophic prokaryotes that obtain energy by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide by a reaction with hot water and dissolved sulfate

Back

Limnetic zone

Front

zone farther from shore where the water is too deep to support rooted aquatic plants, inhabited by a variety of phytoplankton and cyanbacteria; more offshore in a lake

Back

Climograph

Front

a plot of the temperature and precipitation in a particular region; (relate to: biomes)

Back

Dispersion

Front

the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population; (relates to: patterns of dispersion—clumped, uniform, or random)

Back

Demography

Front

the study of the vital statistic of populations and how they change over time; (related to: life table)

Back

Tundra

Front

found in the areas of the Arctic and even on very high mountaintops at all altitudes where the high winds and low temperatures create an alpine tundra; precipitation around 20 to 60 cm; winters are long and cold while summers are short with low temperatures; mostly herbaceous vegetation with grasses, mosses, forbs, small shrubs and trees, lichens; contains a permanently frozen soil layer called permafrost; large grazing musk, caribou, reindeer, bears, wolves, foxes; birds migrate to the tundra for summer nesting; sparsely settled by can be harmed by oil drilling; ex: Alaska, upper parts of Russia

Back

Temperate grasslands

Front

located in south Africa, Hungary, Argentina, Uruguay, Russia, and North America; precipitation is highly seasonal with dry winters and wet summers; periodic drought is common; winters are cold and summers are hot; grasses and forbs dominate and can sprout quickly after fire; large grazers like bison and wild horses; also burrowing animals such as prairie dogs; with deep, fertile soil, they have been converted to farmland and in some places ruined by cattle grazing; ex: plains of North America, the Dakotas

Back

Abyssal zone

Front

the benthic zone that lies between 2,000 and 6,000 m below the surface in an ocean; ex: Mariana trench

Back

Tropical rain forest

Front

equatorial and subequatorial regions, rainfall is relatively constant, (compare to: Tropical dry forests: precipitation is highly seasonal with a many month dry season), temperatures are high year round, vertically layered and competition for light is intense—emergent trees, canopy, sub canopy, shrub, herb layers, epiphytes; thorny shrubs and succulents in dry tropical forests; home to millions of species—diversity highest; rapid population growth is leading to agricultural and development of rain forests; ex: Brazil

Back

Big-bang reproduction or semelparity

Front

producing thousands of offspring in a single reproductive opportunity before the organism dies; may be favored in highly variable or unpredictable environments which will increase the probability that some of the offspring will survive with so many produced; ex: salmon

Back

Ecotone

Front

area of intergradation between different terrestrial biomes; ex: area between a grassland and temperate forest

Back

Carrying capacity

Front

symbolized as K, is the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain; energy, shelter, refute from predators, nutrient availability, water, and suitable nesting sites can all be limiting factors

Back

Population

Front

a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area; they rely on the same resources and are affected by similar environmental factors; they interact and breed with one another as well; ex: a population of turtles living in the pond

Back

Estuary

Front

a transition area between river and sea; seawater flows up during rising tide and out with falling tide; salinity varies; networks of tidal channels, islands, natural levees, and mudflats; salt marshes, breeding ground for fishes, birds; worms, oysters, crabs, etc.; pollution is harming, filling, and dredging; ex: Chesapeake Bay

Back

Canopy

Front

layer in a forest that makes up the upper layer and includes tall, wide breadth trees; (relate to: layers of a forests—upper canopy, low tree layer, shrub understory, ground layer of herbaceous plants, the forest floor, root layer)

Back

Wetland

Front

a habitat that is flooded with water at least some of the time and supports plants adapted to water-saturated soil; high organic production and decomposition by microbes= periodically low in dissolved oxygen, good at filtering dissolved nutrients and pollutants; basin wetlands (form in shallow basins), riverine wetlands (form along periodically flooded banks of rivers and streams), fringe wetlands (occur at the coasts of large lakes and seas); most productive biomes on Earth, woody plants dominate swamps while sphagnum mosses in bogs; human draining and filling has destroyed 90% of wetlands; ex: Jug Bay

Back

Logistic population growth

Front

the per capita rate of increase approaches zero as the carrying capacity is reached; (dN)/(dt)=rmaxN((K-N)/K); creates an S-shaped curve

Back

Life tables

Front

are age-specific summaries of the survival patterns of a population (females vs. males at different ages, etc)

Back

Intertidal zone

Front

an aquatic biome that is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides (2 times a day); zones experience variations in exposure to air, temperature, and salinity; oxygen and nutrient levels are high; configuration of coastline and substrate influences the magnitude of tide and exposure received; high diversity and biomass of attached marine algae inhabit the rocky intertidal zones, they attach to the hard surfaces; oil pollution disrupts; ex: Oregon tidal pools

Back

Thermocline

Front

a narrow layer of abrupt temperature changed in the ocean and most lakes; ex: from surface to colder, deeper waters

Back

Oligotrophic lakes

Front

nutrient-poor and oxygen rich lakes, low amounts of decomposable organic sediments; ex: lake in Grand Tetons, very clear water

Back

Reproductive table

Front

(aka fertility schedule) an age specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population

Back

Life history

Front

made up of the traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival; three variables include when reproduction begins, how often the organism reproduces, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode; are evolutionary outcomes reflected in development, physiology, and behavior

Back

Disturbance

Front

an event that changes a community, which may remove organisms from an area and alter resource availability; ex: fire, flood, storm, human activity

Back

Mark-recapture method

Front

used to help determine density; scientists capture a random sample of individuals in a population, tag and release the first sample; then after waiting for the first sample to mix back in with the population, they capture a second sample and figure out how many individuals were recaptured from the first (x), how many total in the second sampling (n), total in the first sampling (m), and the population size (N) to create this formula: (x/n)= (m/N) or N=((mn)/x)

Back

Coral reefs

Front

formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals, occur in relatively stable tropical marine environments with high water clarity, very sensitive to temperatures; require high oxygen levels; require solid substrate for attachment (young fringing reef to offshore barrier to island coral atoll); corals are a group of cnidarians, fish diversity high; overfishing, global warming and climate change contribute to bleaching, bottom trawl nets ruin coral reefs, development in mangrove forests reduce the spawning grounds of many tropical fishes; ex: Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Back

Exponential population growth

Front

population growth under ideal conditions; aka geometric population growth; rmaxN=(dN)/(dt); results in a J-shaped curve

Back

K-selection or density dependent selection

Front

selection for life history traits that are sensitive to population density; competition strong; ex: elephant that raise a young so that it will have the best chance to survive

Back

Eutrophic lakes

Front

nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen in the deepest zone in the summer and if covered in ice in the winter, high amounts of decomposable organic bottom sediments; ex: Swan park's lake

Back

Marine benthic zone

Front

consists of the seafloor below the surface waters of the neritic zone and the offshore pelagic (open water) zone, receive no sunlight, water temperatures decline with depth as pressure increases, oxygen usually present, invertebrates and fishes, giant tube worms at the vents; many of them nourished by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes that live as symbionts within their bodies; overfishing has decimated the benthic fish populations and dumping of organic wastes has created a lack of oxygen in the areas; ex: everywhere on the seafloor, even in deep trenches

Back

Chaparral

Front

mid-latitude coastal regions on several continents, precipitation is highly seasonal with rainy winters and long dry summers; fall , winter and spring are cool and summer hotter; dominated by shrubs and small trees and grasses, adapted to reduce water lose and to fire; mammals include browsers like deer and other amphibians and birds, insects; highly settled and reduced through conversion to agriculture and urbanization, humans contribute to fires; ex: Californian coast

Back

Neritic

Front

coastal zone, comes before the main oceanic zone, shallow

Back

Oceanic pelagic zone

Front

(aka: open water) a vast realm of open water that is constantly mixed by the wind-driven ocean currents; oxygen levels are generally high, turnover renews nutrients; covers 70% of earth's surface; phytoplankton and photosynthetic bacteria drift and account for half of photosynthetic activity on Earth; zooplankton abundant, invertebrates, free swimming animals; overfishing harms and polluted by waste dumping; ex: Atlantic ocean

Back

Turnover

Front

bodies of water that undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters as a result changing temperatures; it brings oxygenated water from a lake's surface to the bottom and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the surface in both spring and autumn; related to: important for survival and growth of organisms at all levels in aquatic ecosystem

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

Endoparasites

Front

parasites that live within the body of their host; ex: tapeworms

Back

Dominant species

Front

species in a community that are the most abundant or that collectively have the highest biomass, exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species

Back

Energetic hypothesis

Front

suggests that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain; (relates to: only about 10% of energy is transferred to the next level)

Back

Shannon diversity (H)

Front

H=-[(pAlnpA) + ( pBlnpB) ... etc where A, B, C etc are the species in the community and p is the relative abundance of each species

Back

Resource partitioning

Front

the differentiation of niches that enable similar species to coexist in a community; ex: one lizard on sunny branches and the other on shady branches; (relates to: realized and fundamental niche)

Back

Top-down model

Front

proposes the opposite of above; VH, also called a trophic cascade model, predators limit H and H limit V so removing primary carnivores would increase the H and decrease V causing nutrients to rise—alternating +/- effects

Back

Intermediate disturbance hypothesis

Front

states that moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance

Back

Aposematic coloration

Front

animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit these bring colors, or warning coloration; ex: poison dart frog

Back

Species richness

Front

the number of different species in the community

Back

Batesian mimicry

Front

a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model

Back

Population dynamics

Front

the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variations in the size of populations; (relates to: stability, fluctuation, population cycles, immigration, emigration, metapopulations)

Back

Dynamic stability hypothesis

Front

proposes that long food chains are less stable than short chains

Back

Herbivory

Front

+/- interaction in which an organism eats parts of a plant or alga; ex: grasshopper eating grass

Back

Nonequilibrium model

Front

describes most communities as constantly changing after being affected by disturbances

Back

Mutualism

Front

+/+ an Interspecific interaction that benefits both species; ex: photosynthesis by unicellular algae in corals, or even nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root nodules of legumes; (relates to: obligate mutualism in which at least one species has lost the ability to survive without its partner; facultative mutualism: both species can survive alone)

Back

Biomass

Front

the total mass of all individuals in a population; most evidence supports this hypothesis

Back

Demographic transition

Front

movement toward zero population growth that comes about by a low birth rate minus a low death rate; related to an increase in the quality of health care and sanitation as well as improved access to education, especially for women

Back

Character displacement

Front

the tendency for characteristics to diverge more in sympatric (geographically overlapping) populations of two species than in allopatric (geographically separate) populations of the same two species; ex: Darwin's finches; the ones on the same island together began to differ and change while others of the same species on different islands did not

Back

Age structure

Front

the relative number of individuals of each age in the population; usually represented in a pyramid (aka: age pyramids—rapid growth has a lot of young, not much old (Afghanistan); slow growth as fairly equal amount of younger up to 40 (USA) ; no growth has few young kids, more older (Italy)))

Back

Predation

Front

a +/- interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey; ex: snake eats a frog; caterpillar eats a plant

Back

Keystone species

Front

might not necessarily be abundant in a community by exert a strong control on community structure by their pivotal ecological roles, or niches; ex: otters, sea urchins, seaweed

Back

Biomanipulation

Front

when ecologists apply models to help mitigate pollution or remedy environmental problems; ex: using the top-down model to improve water quality in polluted lakes

Back

Primary succession

Front

when succession begins in a lifeless area where soil has not yet formed, like on a volcanic island or after a glacier retreats; prokaryotes present, lichens and mosses are the first to colonize, soil develops as rocks weather and grasses shrubs, trees, vegetation

Back

Cryptic coloration or camouflage

Front

makes prey difficult to spot; ex: a spotted toad that blends with leaves

Back

Food chain

Front

the transfer of food energy up the trophic levels starts at its source in plants and other autotrophic organisms (primary produces), herbivores (primary consumers), carnivores (secondary, tertiary, and quaternary consumers), and decomposers

Back

Ectoparasites

Front

parasites that feed on the external surface of a host; ex: ticks

Back

Parasitism

Front

+/- symbiotic interaction in which the parasite derives its nourishment from the host, which is harmed in the process

Back

Density dependent

Front

birth or death rates that falls/rises as population density rises; (include: competition for resources, territoriality, disease, predation, toxic wastes, intrinsic factors (physiological))

Back

Relative abundance

Front

the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community

Back

Invasive species

Front

organisms that take hold outside their native range, typically introduced by humans

Back

Ecological succession

Front

when a disturbed area may be colonized by a verity of species, which are gradually replaced by other species; (related to: primary and secondary succession)

Back

Ecological niche

Front

the sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment; if an organism's habitat is its address, then the niche is the profession— its ecological role, how it fits into an ecosystem

Back

Trophic structure

Front

feeding relationships between organisms; feeding level of each organism

Back

Ecological footprint

Front

summarizes the land and water area required by each person, city or nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates; average is 1.7 ha per person

Back

Competitive exclusion

Front

when one species will use the resource more efficiently and thus reproduce more rapidly than the other reproduces; eventually will lead to the local elimination of the inferior competitor

Back

Food webs

Front

food chains that are linked together; diagrammed with arrows inking species according to who eats whom

Back

Species diversity

Front

the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the community—has two components, species richness and relative abundance

Back

Bottom up model

Front

the VH linkage (V=vegetation; H= herbivores) proposes a uni-directional influence from lower to higher trophic levels; ex: nutrients control plants number and therefore controls H numbers so if you add nutrients, higher trophic levels should also increase in biomass; but if you add predators or remove, then the effect should not extend down to the lower trophic levels

Back

Disturbance

Front

an event that changes a community, which may remove organisms from an area and alter resource availability; ex: fire, flood, storm, human activity

Back

Interspecific interactions

Front

an organism's interactions with other individuals of other species in the community; include predation, competition, herbivory, symbiosis, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism; (refers to: +/- to determine how affects others)

Back

Commensalism

Front

an interaction between species that neither benefits one of the species but neither harm nor helps the other; +/0; ex: hitchhiking species like algae on turtles' shells or cattle egrets and cows

Back

Species -area curve

Front

all other factors being equal, the larger the geographic area of a community, the more species it has; larger areas offer a greater diversity of habitats and microhabitats than smaller areas (relates to: island biogeography, equilibrium)

Back

Facilitators

Front

species that have positive effects on the survival and reproduction of other species in the community; ex: special grasses in a marsh make it better for other grasses

Back

Müllerian mimicry

Front

two or more unpalatable species resemble each other

Back

Symbiosis

Front

when two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another; sometimes harmful or helpful or neutral

Back

Community

Front

a group of populations of different species living close enough to interact; ex: pond community

Back

Secondary succession

Front

occurs when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact, in a forested area that is cleared, or agricultural fields; ex: Yellowstone after fires; early arrivals facilitate and make favorable for other plants or inhibit of later species, later species might tolerate; pioneering species include mosses, then shrubs, alder small trees and then large trees

Back

Metapopulation

Front

when a number of local population are linked; ex: immigration and emigration link the lizards in a pond to other populations of the species, all which make up a metapopulation; local populations in a metapopulation can be thought of as occupying discrete patches off suitable habitat in a sea of unsuitable habitats

Back

Evapotranspiration

Front

the evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants; a function of solar radiating, temperature and water available, is much higher in hot areas with abundant rainfall than in areas with low temperature or low precipitation; (related to: potential evapotranspiration)

Back

Interspecific competition

Front

is a -/- interaction that occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival; ex: phragmites that competes with other grasses

Back

Section 6

(38 cards)

Production efficiency

Front

the percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is not used for respiration; production efficiency= (net secondary production X 100%)/ (assimilation of primary production); insects and microorganism are most efficient with 40% production efficiencies

Back

Bioremediation

Front

the use of organism (usually prokaryotes, fungi, or plants) to detoxify polluted ecosystems; ex: plants can take out zinc, nickel, lead, and cadmium in their tissues; even lichen with ethanol can take out uranium

Back

Ecosystem services

Front

all the processes through which natural ecosystems help sustain human life on Earth; ex: purifying air and water, detoxify and decompose wastes, reduce the impacts of extreme weather and flooding, pollinate our crops, control pests, crate and preserve our soils; all these services are free

Back

Detritivores or decomposers

Front

consumers that get their energy from detritus, or nonliving organic material; the remains of dead organism, feces, fallen leaves, and rotting trees; two important groups to remember are prokaryotes and fungi, which are detritivores

Back

Gross primary production (GPP)

Front

total primary production in an ecosystem; or the amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit of time

Back

Movement corridor

Front

a narrow strip or series of small clumps of habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches of habitats; can be important for conserving biodiversity; ex: artificial corridors over roads; exchange of many organisms but also diseases

Back

Zoned reserve

Front

an extensive region that includes areas relatively undisturbed by humans surround by areas that have been changed by human activity and are used for economic gain; key is to develop a social and economic climate in the surrounding lands that is compatible with e long term viability of the protected core; ex: Costa Rica's efforts

Back

Zoonotic pathogens

Front

pathogens that are transferred from other animals to humans, either through direct contact with an infected animal or by means of an intermediate species, called a vector

Back

Law of conservation of mass

Front

says that matter, like energy, cannot be created or destroyed

Back

Tertiary consumers

Front

carnivores that eat other carnivores

Back

Secondary consumers

Front

consist of carnivores that eat herbivores

Back

Primary production

Front

the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by autotrophs during a given time period

Back

Conservation biology

Front

integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity at all levels; include efforts to sustain ecosystem processes and stem the loss of biodiversity also connect the life sciences with the social sciences, economics and humanities

Back

Minimum viable population (MVP)

Front

the minimal population size at which a species is able to sustain its members and survive; estimated using computer models

Back

Extinction vortex

Front

when a small population is prone to positive feedback loops if inbreeding and genetic drift that draw the population toward smaller and smaller population size until no individuals exist; one key factor that drives the vortex is the loss of genetic variation necessary to enable evolutionary response to environmental change and stress; inbreeding reduces fitness because offspring are more likely to be homozygous for harmful recessive traits

Back

Endangered species

Front

species that are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range

Back

Green world hypothesis

Front

postulates that terrestrial herbivores are held in check by a variety of factors like plant defenses (spines or noxious chemicals); thus limiting the success of herbivores; plus other factors including abiotic pressures (temperature and moisture extremes), intraspecific competition (territorial behavior), interspecific competition (predators, pathogens, parasites)

Back

Biodiversity hot spot

Front

relatively small areas with an exceptional concentration of endemic species and a large number of endangered and threatened species (terrestrial and aquatic)

Back

Greenhouse effect

Front

even though most of the solar radiation that strikes the earth goes back into space, CO2, water vapor and other greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere intercept and absorb much of the infrared radiation and reflects it back towards earth, warming the earth's surface; more CO2 will make trees and other plants grow faster but a warming trend would be very devastating as geographic distribution of precipitation would change, etc.

Back

Threatened species

Front

species that are considered likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future

Back

Biological augmentation

Front

uses organism to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem; ex: nitrogen-fixing herbs to bring nitrogen into the soil

Back

Ecosystem

Front

the sum of all the organisms living within in its boundaries and all the abiotic factors with which they interact; can include a vast area or a small place; ex: pond, entire earth, under a log

Back

Eutrophication

Front

when swage and fertilizer runoff from farms and yards add large amounts of nutrients to bodies of water and cyanobacteria and algae grow rapidly in response and ultimately reduce the oxygen concentration and clarity of the water

Back

Restoration ecology

Front

applying ecological principles to return ecosystems that have been disturbed by human activities to a condition as similar as possible to their natural state; ex: Kissimmee River in Florida being let back to its original flowing state

Back

Biogeochemical cycles

Front

nutrient cycles that involve both biotic and abiotic components; can be global or local; at different stages, either organic or inorganic and either available for use or unavailable; (relates to: the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the phosphorous cycle)

Back

Primary consumers

Front

trophic level consisting of herbivores, which eat plants and other primary producers

Back

Secondary production

Front

the amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period

Back

Primary producers

Front

the trophic level that ultimately supports all others consists of autotrophs; most are photosynthetic organisms that use light energy to synthesize sugars and other organic compounds, which they use for cellular respiration, and as a building material for growth; there are chemosynthetic prokaryotes in deep-sea vent ecosystems

Back

Pathogens

Front

disease causing microorganism, viruses, viroids, or prions (viroids and prions are infections RNA molecules and proteins); use ecology to help track and control pathogens

Back

Effective population size

Front

based on the breeding potential of a population; incorporates the sex ratio of breeding individuals into the estimate of effective population size; Ne= (4NfNm)/(Nf+Nm); life history traits influence Ne and alternate ways of calculating take into account family size, age at maturation, genetic relatedness among population members, the effects of gene flow between geographically separated populations, and population fluctuations; conservation goal is to keep Ne above MVP

Back

Trophic efficiency

Front

the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next; must always be less than production efficiency because they take into account not only the energy lost through respiration and contained in feces but also the energy in organic material in a lower trophic level that is not consumed by the next trophic level; (relates to: pyramid of net production, biomass pyramid)

Back

Introduced species

Front

non-native species or exotic species are those that humans move either by accident or intentionally from the species native locations to new geography locations; ex: travel by ship (zebra mussels), airplane, etc; free from predators, parasites and pathogens that limited their populations in their native habitats, such species may spread rapidly through a new region, hurting native species; (relate to: invasive species)

Back

Biological magnification

Front

when toxins accumulate in specific tissues, especially fat, and become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web; magnification occurs because the biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a much larger biomass ingested from the level below; ex: DDT and PCBs accumulating, Silent spring; (relates to: bioaccumulation)

Back

Limiting nutrient

Front

is an element that must be added for production to increase; usually nitrogen or phosphorous and even iron in the case of phytoplankton

Back

Turnover time

Front

when an organism have a small standing crop compared to their production; turnover time= (standing crop (g/m2)/ (production g/m2 x day)

Back

Critical load

Front

the amount of an added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging the ecosystem integrity; ex: nitrogen or phosphorous; bad if goes over amount

Back

Sustainable development

Front

development that meets the needs of people today without limiting the ability of future generations to meet their needs; (related to: connecting life science with social sciences, economics, humanities, personal values)

Back

Net primary production (NPP)

Front

is the gross primary production minus thee energy used by the primary producers for respiration (R); NPP=GPP-R; represents the storage of chemical energy that will be available to consumers in the ecosystem; amount of new biomass added in a given period of time

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