Section 1

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Electron Acceptors

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Cards (148)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Electron Acceptors

Front

Cellular respiration: NAD+ and FAD (to NADH and FADH2) Photosynthesis: NADP+ (to NADPH)

Back

Phospholipid Bilayer

Front

tails of phospholipids are loosely packed and are in constant motion; membrane contains integral and peripheral proteins, cholestrol, and glycopreotins and glycolipids; cholesterol makes the membrane less permeable to water and other substances; non-polar and small polar molecules can pass through unadied

Back

Central Vacuole

Front

only in plant cells, stores water and sugar, breaks down waste, and used as a mechanism for plant growth (when it swells)

Back

Chromatin

Front

uncondensed DNA that forms chromosomes during cell division

Back

Centrosomes (2 centrioles)

Front

only in animal cells, microtubules used for cell division

Back

Polysaccharides

Front

Plants: starch (energy) and cellulose (structure) Animals: glycogen (energy) and chitin (structure)

Back

Active transport

Front

movement of molecules that requires energy: 1) sodium-potassium pumps 2) exocytosis 3) endocytosis (phagocytosis, pinocytosis)

Back

Denaturation

Front

the unraveling of an enzyme due to high temperatures or incompatible pH

Back

Induced fit

Front

change in the shape of an enzyme's active site induced by the substrate, helps to break down the substrate

Back

Membrane Potential

Front

voltage across a membrane due to difference in positive and negative ions, electrons move from high to low concentration (ex. sodium-potassium pumps in neurons)

Back

Hypertonic

Front

solution with higher concentration of solutes, animal/plant cell in this solution would become shiveled/plasmolyzed

Back

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

Front

nucleoid / nucleus; only ribosomes / complex membrane-bound organelles; both have same genetic coding, sugars, and amino acids

Back

Rough ER

Front

covered in ribosomes, secretes and transports proteins produced by ribosomes

Back

Noncompetitive Inhibitors

Front

bind to a portion of the enzyme and change the shape of the active site so that it cannot match with substrates, used for regulating metabolic reactions

Back

Fats

Front

consist of glycerol and 3 fatty acids, store long term energy, saturated = no double bond in hydrocarbon tails (no kink), unsaturated = double bond (kink)

Back

Oxidation

Front

loss of electrons (OIL)

Back

The higher the substrate concentration...

Front

...the faster the reaction until the enzyme becomes saturated.

Back

Hypotonic

Front

solution with lower concentration of solutes, animal/plant cell in this solution would lyse/become turgid

Back

Nucleolus

Front

nonmembranous structure involved in production of ribosomes, a nucleus has one or more of these

Back

Electrochemical Gradient

Front

diffusion gradient resulting in combination of membrane potential and concentration gradient

Back

Extracellular Matrix

Front

only in animal cells, made of proteins that provide support for cells and relay information for communication between the environment and the cell

Back

Active Site

Front

region of enzyme that binds to the substrate

Back

Nuclear Envelope

Front

double membrane enclosing the nucleus (where genetic info is stored) perforated with pores, continuous with ER

Back

Cofactors

Front

nonprotein molecules that are required for proper enzyme function, cofactors made of organic molecules are called coenzymes

Back

Smooth ER

Front

metabollic processes (synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detoxification of drugs and poisons)

Back

When ΔG is negative...

Front

...the reaction is exergonic (loss of free energy).

Back

Flagella

Front

only in animal cells, cluster of microtubules for motility

Back

Phospholipids

Front

consist of phosphate head, glycerol, and 2 fatty acid tails, tail is hydrophobic, head is hydrophillic

Back

Competitive Inhibitors

Front

resemble a substrate and block enzymes' active sites, can be overcome with higher concentration of substrate

Back

Dehydration

Front

connecting monomers together by the removal of water

Back

Glycolysis

Front

Input: glucose, 2 ATP Output: 2 pyruvic acid, 4 ATP (net 2), 2 NADH

Back

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Front

ATP synthesis powered by redox reactions that transfer electrons to oxygen

Back

Cytoskeleton

Front

supports cell, maintains its shape, aids in movement of cell products

Back

Lysosomes

Front

only in animal cells, digestive organelles

Back

When ΔG is positive...

Front

...the reaction is endergonic (gain of free energy).

Back

Disaccharides

Front

glucose + glucose = maltose / glucose + fructose = sucrose / glucose + galactose = lactose

Back

Reduction

Front

gain of electrons (RIG)

Back

Conversion Reaction before Kreb's

Front

Input: 2 pyruvate Output: 2 acetyl (w/ CoA), 2 NADH, 2 CO2

Back

Protein structure and organization

Front

composed of an amino group, a carboxyl group, hydrogen, and an R group, joined by peptide bonds and folded numerous times; 1) Primary (linear sequence) 2) Secondary (helix or pleat) 3) Tertiary 4) Quaternary (globular)

Back

Substrate

Front

the substance that an enzyme acts upon

Back

Enzyme inhibition may be irreversible if...

Front

...the inhibitor attaches by covalent bonds (poisons, toxins)

Back

*Enzymes

Front

proteins that are biological catalysts, lower the activation energy required to start a chemical reaction (reactants at unstable transition state) can be used over and over

Back

Isotonic

Front

equal levels of solute concentration, plant cell in this solution would become flaccid

Back

Protein functions (8)

Front

1) enzymes 2) antibodies 3) storage proteins 4) transport proteins 5) hormones 6) receptor proteins 7) motor proteins 8) structural proteins

Back

Passive trasport

Front

movement of molecules without requirement of energy: 1) diffusion 2) osmosis (across a membrane) 3) facilitated diffusion (helped by transport proteins)

Back

*Lipids

Front

hydrophobic (very non-polar), consist of long hydrocarbon chains

Back

Feedback Inhibition

Front

the product of a metabolic pathway switches off the enzyme that created it earlier in the process

Back

Golgi

Front

stores, transports, and secretes cell products

Back

*Nucleic Acids

Front

DNA (A+T, G+C) carries genetic info, RNA (A+U, G+C) manufactures proteins

Back

Hydrolysis

Front

disassembling polymers by the addition of water

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Genetic Map (Linkage/Cytological Map)

Front

ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome, recombinant frequencies can be used to construct it (smaller the percentage = closer together)

Back

Krebs Cycle

Front

Input: 2 acetyl ➝ citric acid Output: 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2 (after 2 turns of the cycle)

Back

3 types of RNA

Front

1) mRNA messenger 2) tRNA transfer amino acids (20 kinds) 3) rRNA ribosomes

Back

Linked genes phenotypic ratio

Front

two large numbers (wild and mutant) and two much smaller numbers (recombinant phenotypes)

Back

Prokaryotic cell division

Front

binary fission: splits in 2, exact copies, quick and efficient with few mutations, but reduces amount of genetic variation

Back

Calvin Cycle

Front

Input: 6 CO2 (fixed to RuBP by Rubisco), ATP, NADPH Output: 2 G3P = 1 glucose

Back

Lytic Cycle

Front

1) virus attaches to host cell 2) phage DNA enters cell and the cell's DNA degrades (*restriction enzymes in bacteria could destroy them) 3) synthesis of viral genomes and proteins 4) assembly of phages within cell 5) release of viruses, destroys cell

Back

Electron Transport Chain

Front

Input: NADH, FADH2, O2 (to accept e-) Output: 34-38 ATP, H2O

Back

Translation

Front

1) Initiation: 5' cap attaches to ribosome which accepts an initiator tRNA at the P site (*AUG will always be 1st codon) 2) Elongation: codon/anticodon recognition and formation of peptide bond between A site amino acid and P site amino acid chain 3) translocation of the ribosome down the mRNA strand 4) Termination: ribosome will recognize stop codon and release the protein

Back

Watson and Crick

Front

built the first accurate 3D DNA model

Back

Transcription

Front

1) Initiation: promoter site (TATA) is recognized 2) Elongation: RNA polymerase adds ribonucleotides in the 5' ➝ 3' direction 3) Termination: RNA strand separates, RNA polymerase recognizes termination sequence (AAUAAA)

Back

Alcohol Fermentation

Front

Input: glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NADH Output: 2 NAD+, 2 ethanol, 2 CO2, 4 ATP (net 2)

Back

Photosynthetic Equation

Front

Back

Polyploidy

Front

when there is a whole extra set of chromosomes (ex. oversized fruits); Triploidy = 3 sets, Tetraploidy = 4 sets

Back

Somatic cell vs. Gamete

Front

any body cell except gametes / reproductive cells (sperm, egg)

Back

Viral Transduction

Front

contributes to bacterial genetic variation

Back

Dyhybrid heterozygous cross ratio

Front

9:3:3:1

Back

Steps of DNA Replication

Front

1) helicase separates the DNA strands 2) SSB proteins prevent DNA from reanneling 3) primase creates RNA primer 4) DNA polymerase extends DNA strand from the primer 5) DNA polymerase I (RNase H) removes the primers 6) ligase joins the okazaki fragments of the lagging strand

Back

Incomplete Dominance

Front

heterozygous offspring have an intermediate phenotype of the parents, 1:2:1 ratio (ex. pink flower from red and white flowers)

Back

X Inactivation

Front

in females during embryonic development, one of the two X chromosomes in a cell becomes inactive (Barr body) (ex. calico cats)

Back

3 stages in cell cummunication

Front

1) Reception: cell detects a signal via connection of a ligand to a receptor protein 2) Transduction: the receptor protein converts the signal to a form that can cause a chemical response 3) Response: transduced signal triggers a specific cellular response

Back

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Front

Input: glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NADH Output: 2 NAD+, 2 lactate, 4 ATP (net 2)

Back

Multiple alleles

Front

a trait controlled by two or more alleles (ex. blood type, eye color)

Back

Meiosis I

Front

1) Prophase I: homologous chromosomes pair up and synapsis occurs, crossing over segments of the chromosomes (chiasma) to create more genetic variation 2) Metaphase I: homologous chromosomes line up at the equator 3) Anaphase: homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell. 4) Telophase I...

Back

Codominance

Front

both alleles manifest themselves separately in an organism's phenotype (ex. roan cattle)

Back

Virus structure

Front

nonliving, can't rproduce on their own; Capsid: protein coat that encloses the viral genome; Envelope: membrane that surrounds some viral capsids; Phage: protein encapsulated virus that attacks bacteria

Back

RNA processing/splicing

Front

splicesomes remove introns and put together exons, 5' cap and PolyA tail are added

Back

Repressible Operon

Front

trp operon - usually on, can be repressed. Repressor protein produced in inactive shape

Back

Lysogenic Cycle

Front

the virus inserts its DNA into a host cell, and its DNA integrates with the DNA of the host, allows it to be replicated without being attacked for long periods of time before entering the lytic cycle

Back

Second Messengers and Phosphorylation cascade

Front

second messengers and kinases spread throughout a cell that help amplify a cellular signal by a series of phosphorylation reactions (addition of phosphate)

Back

4 alterations to gene structure

Front

1) Deletion: removal of chromosomal segment 2) Duplication: repetition of a segment 3) Inversion: reversal of a segment within a chromosome 4) Translocation: movement of a segment from one chromosome to another, non-homologous one

Back

Testcross

Front

breed a homozygous recessive individual with an individual with a dominant phenotype but an unknown genotype to determine whether or not the individual is homozygous or heterozygous

Back

Meiosis II

Front

Prophase II - Telophase II act exactly like mitosis except that the resultant number of daughter cells is 4 instead of 2, each with their own unique combination of genetic information

Back

Leading Strand vs. Lagging Strand

Front

works toward replication fork / works away from replication fork; both always move in the 5' ➝ 3' direction

Back

Interphase

Front

(90% of cell's life) G1: 1st growth, normal metabolic activity (goes into G0 phase if it is not ready for next phase); S: synthesis, DNA replication; G2: 2nd growth, prepares for mitosis

Back

Codon vs. Anticodon

Front

codon = nucleotide sequence on mRNA anticodon = nucleotide sequence on tRNA

Back

Light Reactions

Front

Input: H2O (2 e-), light energy, NADP+ Output: O2, ATP, NADPH

Back

Nondisjucntion

Front

homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis I or II

Back

Retrovirus

Front

RNA virus that transcribes its RNA into DNA to insert into host cells (ex. HIV)

Back

Mitosis

Front

1) Prophase: chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nucleus disappears 2) Metaphase: chromosomes line up at equator, kinetechore microtubules attach 3) Anaphase: sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell 4) Telophase and Cytokinesis: daughter cells separate, nucleus reforms, chromosomes decondense

Back

Provirus

Front

a viral genome that is permanently inserted into a host genome

Back

DNA mutations

Front

base-pair substitution; insertion/deletion; frameshift: 1) missense = different protein 2) nonsense = codes for a stop signal prematurely 3) silent = no harmful change

Back

Cyclin-dependent Kinases (Cdks)

Front

a regulatory protein that depends upon the presence of cyclin to complete its function, MPF is a Cdk that triggers a cell's passage into the M phase

Back

Chloroplast structure

Front

Exciting chlorophyll: chlorophyll in thylakoids absorb light, which excites electrons to produce potential energy

Back

Aneuploidy

Front

one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number; Trisomic = 3 copies instead of 2, Monosomic = 1 copy instead of 2

Back

Polygenic Inheritance

Front

the additive effect of 2 or more independently assorted genes on phenotype (ex. human skin pigment)

Back

Blood Types

Front

A: A antigen, B antibody B: B antigen, A antibody AB: A and B antigen, no antibodies (universal recipient) O: no antigens, A and B antibodies (universal donor)

Back

Examples of cell signaling

Front

G-protein coupled receptor, ligand-gated ion channels, steroid hormones (dissolved across plasma membrane, intracellular receptor)

Back

4 mechanisms that contribute to genetic variation

Front

1) Mutation 2) Independent Assortment: homologous chromosomes align randomly on one side of the equator or another 3) Crossing Over 4) Random Fertilization: a zygote can be any combination of a sperm and egg (64 trillion different combinations in humans)

Back

Types of cell signaling (4)

Front

synaptic, paracrine, hormonal

Back

Section 3

(48 cards)

Active vs. Passive Immunity

Front

depends on the response of a person's own immune system (artificial = vaccines) / immunity passed from one organism to another

Back

Plasmids

Front

a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome

Back

Histone Acetylation

Front

the loosening of chromatin structure (euchromatin), promotes transcription

Back

Carbon Cycle

Front

Connect photosynthesis (fixation) to cellular respiration (CO2 release)

Back

Epigenetic Inheritance

Front

inheritance of traits not directly related to nucleotide sequence (ex. fat, sickly, yellow rats were fed a methylated diet, resulted in offspring that were normal-sized, healthy, and brown)

Back

Gel Electrophoresis

Front

analyzing fragments of DNA (RFLPs) by their length and charge to determine genetic fingerprints and other genetic information

Back

Resource Partitioning

Front

division of environmental resources by coexisting species

Back

Non-steroid hormone vs. Steroid hormone

Front

travels in bloodstream, binds to receptor on cell surface / travels in bloodstream, binds to receptor inside the cell

Back

Inducible Operon

Front

lac operon - usually off, can be turned on. Repressor protein produced in active shape.

Back

Allopatric Speciation

Front

when populations become geographically isolated from the rest of the species and has the potential to develop a new species (ex. Adaptive Radiation: many diversely adapted species from common ancestor, Darwin's finches)

Back

Types of Symbiotic Relationships

Front

Mutualism (+, +), Commensalism (+, 0), Parasitism, (+, -)

Back

Lines of Immune Defense

Front

1st Line) skin oil and sweat, mucous; 2nd Line) nonspecific phagocytes and cytotoxic immune cells; 3rd Line) specific immune system

Back

Restriction Enzyme

Front

an enzyme that recognizes and cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences (restriction sites), can then be used to create recombinant DNA

Back

Factors that influence Transpiration Rate

Front

Temperature: higher temperature, faster rate; Humidity: higher humidity, slower rate; Sunlight: more sun, faster rate; Wind: more wind, faster rate

Back

Histone Methylation

Front

the condensing of chromatin structure (heterochromatin), prevents transcription

Back

Transcription Factors and Enhancers

Front

RNA polymerase requires the assistance of transcription factor proteins and enhancers or activators to successfully transcribe RNA

Back

Biological Species Concept

Front

population whose members can create viable, fertile offspring (Problems: doesn't apply to extinct animals or asexually reproducing organisms)

Back

Density-dependent Regulation

Front

Density-independent: natural disasters, human impact, etc.

Back

Sympatric Speciation

Front

members of a population develop gametic differences that prevent them from reproducing with the parental type (polyploidy, not as common)

Back

Per capita Growth Rate

Front

birth - death / total population

Back

3 mechanisms in which bacteria transfer genetic materials

Front

1) Transformation: prokaryote takes up DNA from its environment 2) Transduction: viruses transfer genes between prokaryotes 3) Conjugation: genes are directly transferred from one prokaryote to another over a temporary "mating bridge"

Back

Gross Primary Production vs. Net Primary Production

Front

total amount of energy from light converted to chemical energy to organic molecules / GPP - energy used by primary producers for "autotrophic respiration"

Back

Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers

Front

1) Habitat Isolation 2) Behavioral Isolation (differing behaviors for attracting mates) 3) Temporal Isolation (mate at different times) 4) Mechanical Isolation 5) Gametic Isolation (unable to fertilize egg)

Back

Niche

Front

a position/role taken by a kind of organism within its community

Back

Gene Flow

Front

loss/addition of alleles from a population due to imigration/emigration

Back

Taxonomic groups from broad to narrow (8)

Front

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Back

Endosymbiosis

Front

Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Evidence: They have their own DNA and ribosomes, double membrane structure, grow and reproduce on their own within the cell

Back

Keystone Species

Front

species that exerts strong control on community structure not by numerical might but by their pivotal ecological roles or niches

Back

Heterozygote Advantage

Front

heterozygotes for a trait are more likely to survive (ex. carriers of sickle cell anemia are immune to malaria)

Back

Endotherms vs. Ectotherms

Front

warmed by heat generated by metabolism (mammals, birds) / generate little metabolic heat, warmed by environment

Back

Humoral vs. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

Front

Back

Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Gradualism

Front

evolution occurs in short spurts of rapid change / each new species will evolve gradually over long spans of time

Back

Primary and Secondary Immune Response

Front

Back

Phylogeny

Front

evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

Back

Nonrandom Mating

Front

selection of mates for specific phenotypes: 1) Assortative Mating = when individuals select partners with simple phenotypic characters, 2) Inbreeding = more recessive traits likely to come together

Back

Genetic Drift

Front

random change in gene frequency of a small breeding population: 1) Founder Effect = small population of organisms colonizes a new area, 2) Bottleneck Effect = sudden decrease in population size due to disaster

Back

4 causes of Microevolution

Front

1) genetic drift 2) gene flow 4) natural selection

Back

Energy Pyramid

Front

each energy level receives only 10% of the pervious level's energy

Back

Microevolution vs. Macroevolution

Front

change in the gene pool of a population over several generations / large scale changes in a population that leads to the evolution of a new species

Back

cAMP and CAP regulated Operon

Front

when CAP is inactive, transcription continues at a much less efficient rate even in the presence of lactose

Back

B cells vs. T cells (maturation)

Front

mature in bone marrow / mature in thymus

Back

5 Evidences for Evolution

Front

1) Biogeography 2) Fossil Record 3) Comparative Anatomy 4) Comparative Embryology 5) Molecular Biology

Back

3 Modes of Natural Selection

Front

1) Stabilizing: favors intermediate, 2) Directional: favors one extreme phenotype, 3) Diversifying: favors both extremes

Back

4 conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (not evolving)

Front

1) very large population 2) isolation from other populations 3) no mutations 4) no natural selection

Back

Recombinant DNA

Front

a DNA vector made in vitro with segments from different sources

Back

Convergent Evolution

Front

different organisms that occupy similar environments come to resemble one another (ex. dolphins and sharks)

Back

Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers

Front

1) Reduced Hybrid Viability (disruption in embryonic stage) 2) Reduced Hybrid Fertility 3) Hybrid Breakdown (F1 is fertile, F2 is sterile or weak)

Back

Exponential vs. Logistic Growth

Front

in logistic growth, carrying capacity will limit the population's size

Back