Section 1

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Every protein has a unique shape and function because:

Front

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Mar 1, 2020

Cards (47)

Section 1

(47 cards)

Every protein has a unique shape and function because:

Front

each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids.

Back

Which of the following represents the correct organization of ecological systems from the lowest to the highest level of organization?

Front

individual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

Back

What was the purpose in breaking off the dust trap or tilting the flask in Pasteur's experiment?

Front

Answer: To provide a control to show that microbes need to enter the flask from the outside for there to be growth.

Back

Why are proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids considered polymers, but lipids are not?

Front

Answer: A polymer is made up of many similar or identical subunits. Proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids are made up of individual monomers linked together to form larger molecules. Lipids are not polymers because they are not composed of many similar structural units linked together to form a large molecule.

Back

Unique chemical groups that confer special properties to an organic molecule are called:

Front

functional groups.

Back

A group of individuals of the same species that occupies a given area is referred to as a(n)

Front

Population

Back

Which choice below correctly matches organelle with function?

Front

smooth endoplasmic reticulum-lipid production

Back

Both cilia and flagella are involved in which of the following functions?

Front

movement of cells or movement of material around a cell

Back

In a field experiment, an ecologist measures the effects of nitrogen on productivity, plotting data for nitrogen on the x-axis and productivity on the y-axis. In this experiment, the dependent variable is

Front

productivity

Back

Prokaryotic cells include:

Front

bacteria and archaea.

Back

What is chemical bonding? Explain the differences between covalent and ionic bonding.

Front

Answer: Interaction (reaction) between atoms in order to complete their outer electron orbitals. Covalent bonding results from sharing of electrons between two atoms, whereas ionic bonding results when one atom transfers electrons to the other atom.

Back

You go the store to buy some lard for cooking. You notice when you get home that the lard is solid at room temperature. What does this tell you about the fat in lard, and how does this explain it being solid at room temperature? What type of fat would not be solid at room temperature, and why?

Front

Answer: Lard is made up of saturated fat that stacks up when cool, thereby forming solids. Unsaturated fat has kinks caused by carbon-carbon double bonds, which prevents it from stacking, so it remains liquid at room temperature.

Back

In what ways are hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds similar?

Front

Both are based on attraction between atoms that carry differences in electrical charge.

Back

_________ is the differential success of individuals in a population in response to environmental conditions.

Front

natural selection

Back

Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by:

Front

animals.

Back

Which of the following best represents the flow of the scientific method?

Front

observation, question, hypothesis, predictions, hypothesis testing

Back

Butane and isobutane are isomers. This means they have the same:

Front

chemical formula but a different arrangement of atoms.

Back

The interaction of a biotic community and its abiotic environment is referred to as a(n)

Front

Ecosystem

Back

The cytoskeleton is composed of:

Front

microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.

Back

Which of the following would you find in a plant cell but not an animal cell?

Front

a central vacuole

Back

List the sequence of organelles a protein would pass through as it moves through the endomembrane system to the exterior of the cell.

Front

Answer: (1) The protein is made on ribosomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum, (2) its transport vesicles bring it to the Golgi complex, (3) it moves through the Golgi complex then is packaged into another transport vesicle, (4) it is then brought to the plasma membrane where the vesicle fuses with the membrane, and (5) it is released to the exterior of the cell.

Back

As the difference in the electronegativity between atoms forming a chemical bond increases, the:

Front

more polar the molecule.

Back

For an atom to be considered an ion:

Front

protons can outnumber electrons.

Back

In many cases, carbohydrates have the following ratio of elements:

Front

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.

Back

The difference between one amino acid and another is the:

Front

type of R group each contains.

Back

You are camping and decide you will sample some wild berries. You soon start to feel ill and realize these berries have a toxic substance in them. On your way to the hospital, explain to your friends which organelles, in which organ of your body, are detoxifying the toxin.

Front

Answer: The smooth ER detoxifies substances, and the liver is a major site of this detoxification.

Back

A(n) _________ is any heritable behavioral, morphological, or physiological trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection.

Front

adaptation

Back

What are the three most important subatomic particles in an atom called? Which one is involved in forming chemical bonds?

Front

Answer: Protons, neutrons, and electrons are the three most important subatomic particles. Only electrons are involved in chemical bonding.

Back

The role of a control in an experiment is to:

Front

provide a basis of comparison to an experimental group

Back

A polar covalent bond results when:

Front

one of the atoms sharing electrons is more electronegative than the other atom.

Back

The two chains of nucleotides in a DNA molecule are held together by:

Front

hydrogen bonds.

Back

All science begins with_______, which is the first step in the process known as the scientific method.

Front

Observation

Back

This disease affected an organelle in his cells called a peroxisome. The peroxisome lacked an enzyme that controls the breakdown of a long chain fatty acid that resulted in a buildup of the fatty acid in his brain and spinal cord. The function of peroxisomes must be similar to the function of what other organelle?

Front

lysosome

Back

Water is a polar molecule because:

Front

oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen.

Back

A secretory protein that exits from the ER within a vesicle will head directly to the:

Front

Golgi complex.

Back

A scientific explanation that is tentative and testable is termed a

Front

hypothesis

Back

All the mass of an atom is considered to be in the:

Front

protons and neutrons

Back

The function of the nucleus is to:

Front

contain the DNA.

Back

Which of the following molecules is most likely to bind to an ion, and why?

Front

Molecule A, because it has electrical charges that will attract an ion

Back

The monomers of polysaccharides are:

Front

simple sugars.

Back

A triglyceride contains________ fatty acid chains, whereas a phospholipid contains ________ fatty acid chains.

Front

three; two

Back

Which of the following expresses an accurate difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Front

Eukaryotes have a nucleus, but prokaryotes do not.

Back

If a neutral atom has an atomic number of 10, then we know that it has:

Front

10 protons and 10 electrons.

Back

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in their:

Front

number of neutrons.

Back

Molecules of water stick to each other because:

Front

hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen atom of another molecule.

Back

The hydrogenation of vegetable oil results in:

Front

a decrease in the number of double bonds between the carbon atoms.

Back

Many antibiotics work by blocking the function of ribosomes. Therefore, these antibiotics will:

Front

block protein synthesis.

Back