AP Chemistry: Chapter 1

AP Chemistry: Chapter 1

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Section 1

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Distillation

Front

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Cards (40)

Section 1

(40 cards)

Distillation

Front

Process used to separate the components of a mixture; depends on volatility of components (most volatile component vaporizes at lowest temperature and passes through a cooled tube, where it condenses back into a liquid)

Back

Weight

Front

Measure of the force gravity exerts on an object

Back

Density

Front

Mass of substance per unit volume of the substance

Back

Mixture

Front

A material of variable composition that contains two or more substances

Back

Dimensional Analysis

Front

Using proportions, ratios, and fractions to aid in converting one unit of measure into another

Back

Heterogeneous

Front

Having visibly distinguishable parts

Back

Deci (d)

Front

10⁻¹

Back

Deka (da)

Front

10¹

Back

Temperature

Front

Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance

Back

Micro (µ)

Front

10⁻⁶

Back

Theory

Front

Set of tested hypotheses that gives an explanation of some natural phenomenon

Back

Compound

Front

Substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes; ex. electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen

Back

Mega (m)

Front

10⁶

Back

Solution

Front

Homogeneous mixture

Back

Mass

Front

Measure of the amount of matter an object is composed of

Back

Milli (m)

Front

10⁻³

Back

Pure Substance

Front

One with constant composition

Back

Systematic Error

Front

Occurs in the same direction each time, either high or low

Back

Plasma

Front

Composed of charged particles, no definite volume or shape

Back

Filtration

Front

Process used to separate the components of a mixture; mixture is poured onto a mesh

Back

Liquid

Front

Definite volume but no specific shape

Back

Homogeneous

Front

Having visibly indistinguishable parts

Back

Matter

Front

Anything occupying space and taking up mass; material of the universe

Back

Scientific Method

Front

Organized series of steps intended to help solve a problem or answer a question

Back

Law of Conservation of Mass

Front

States that the total mass of materials is not affected by a chemical change in those materials

Back

Precision

Front

Refers to the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; reflects reproductibility of a given measurement

Back

Chromatography

Front

Two phases, mobile and stationary; separate b/c parts of the mixture have different affinities for each phase and separate at different rates; paper used for stationary phase, liquid used for mobile phase; drop of mixture is placed on paper, then dipped in liquid and travels up the paper

Back

Hecto (h)

Front

10²

Back

Scientific Method Steps

Front

Identify the problem/question; form a hypothesis; test the hypothesis; make observations and collect data; form a conclusion

Back

Nano (n)

Front

10⁻⁹

Back

Law

Front

Statement that summarizes what happens

Back

Kilo (k)

Front

10³

Back

Random Error

Front

Measurement has an equal probability of being high or low; occurs in estimating last digit

Back

Centi (c)

Front

10⁻²

Back

Solid

Front

Definite volume and shape

Back

Measurement

Front

Quantitative observation with a number and a unit

Back

Chemical Change

Front

The change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of the atoms; a chemical reaction

Back

Physical Change

Front

A change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; chemical bonds are not broken in a physical change

Back

Accuracy

Front

Agreement of a particular value with the true value; close to the "true" value of a measurement

Back

Gas

Front

No fixed volume or shape

Back