AP Biology Chapter 15

AP Biology Chapter 15

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Section 1

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SRY gene

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (50)

Section 1

(50 cards)

SRY gene

Front

sex determining region of Y, pronounced sorry, single gene on the Y chromosome found in 1990 and is thought to be required for normal testes development, considered a trigger gene, TURNS ON THE Y

Back

Where does DNA in extranuclear genes come from?

Front

the mother, the DNA of the mitochondria and chloroplast in the offspring matches the mother

Back

linkage map

Front

genetic map that indicates a general sequence of genes along a chromosome

Back

aneuploidy

Front

an abnormal chromosome number, this includes trisomy and monosomy

Back

crossing over

Front

process of chromosomal segments breaking off and switching places with homologous chromosomes

Back

genomic imprinting

Front

the process of the same alleles having different effects on the individual depending if that individual received the trait from the father (sperm) or from the mother (ovum)

Back

What are changes in chromosome number?

Front

aneuploidy and polyloidy (occurs during meiosis)

Back

inversion

Front

when the fragment reattaches itself to the same chromosome but in the opposite direction, not in the right order, cannot turn the genes on

Back

mosiacism

Front

the selection of which X will form the Barr body occurs randomly and independently in each embryonic cell present at the time of X inactivation, females consists of a mosiac of two type of cells: those with the active X derived from the father and those with the active X derived from the mother

Back

T/F: Extranuclear DNA does not duplicate.

Front

FALSE

Back

wild type

Front

refers to the normal phenotype (or most common), dominant

Back

If a boy has a sex-linked disorder, who is it from?

Front

mom

Back

T/F: Linked genes are usually inherited together.

Front

true, however, the further apart they are (located on that chromosome), the greater chance they have of crossing over

Back

Barr Bodies

Front

1 X in every female is inactive, occurs during embryonic development, development is random

Back

Front

Back

Fathers can pass recessive alleles on to ____ but mothers can pass them on to ____

Front

daughters, either

Back

hemophilia

Front

cause: results from missing blood-clotting protein symptoms: afflicted may bleed excessively (sometimes to death) as a result of a minor injury 8 types, depends on what factor you are missing

Back

duplication

Front

when the deleted fragment is attached to the sister chromatid (resulting in extra genes), will move through the rest of meisosis with extra information, results in a miscarriage

Back

sex-linked

Front

aka "x-linked", means that some genes are located on the sex chromosomes

Back

When is tetraploidy an advantage?

Front

in plants allows genetic variation if self-fertilized

Back

Changes in chromosome number is a ____.

Front

nondisjunction

Back

What does X-inactivation involve?

Front

a methylation - the addition of a methyl group (CH3) to cytosine

Back

X-inactivation

Front

formation of Barr Bodies

Back

genetic recombination

Front

formation of a new combination of traits from 2 parents

Back

monosomy

Front

2n-1, 1 less chromosome, 45 chromosomes in humans, you can live with 1 X

Back

chromosomal alterations image

Front

Back

deletion

Front

when a piece of a chromosome breaks off (missing a lot of genes), depends on which genes are lost if they survive, no idea what causes it

Back

chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Front

results from a translocation of chromosome 22 with chromosome 9 (aka Philadelphia chromosome)

Back

What are changes in chromosome structure?

Front

deletions, duplications, translocations, inversions

Back

polploidy

Front

when an organism receives more than 2 complete chromosome sets, includes triploidy and tetraploidy

Back

translocation

Front

when the fragment reattaches itself to a non-homologous chromosome, came from Agent Orange in Vietnam

Back

What is the frequency of recombination based on?

Front

the number of total of recombinant offspring produced

Back

If there is an increase in frequency, then there is...

Front

a greater distance between the genes loci (they are further apart)

Back

errors and exceptions in chromosomal inheritance image

Front

Back

examples of sex-linked disorders in humans

Front

hemophilia color blindness Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)

Back

sex chromosome disorders

Front

Klinefelter, Turner, triple-X sydromes

Back

tetraploidy

Front

4n or 2 extra sets of chromosomes, 92 chromosomes in humans instead of 46

Back

color blindness

Front

symptoms: cannot see green or red (or both), usually affects males (for females to be colorblind they must be homozygous recessive), can affect only 1 eye, not lethal

Back

mutant phenotype

Front

refers to anything but normal, aka non-wild type, recessive

Back

nondisjunction

Front

the chromosomes don't segregate the way they are supposed to in MI and MII

Back

T/F: If the frequency is over 50%, the gene loci can still be determined.

Front

FALSE...It could be due to independent assortment

Back

linked genes

Front

are genes located on the same chromosome

Back

trisomy

Front

2n+1, one extra chromosome, 47 chromosomes in humans, this comes from the egg not the sperm

Back

He used the frequency as ___.

Front

map units, 1% = 1 map unit "centimorgan" is the term used today

Back

T/F: Not all DNA is located in the nucleus.

Front

True...mitochondrial DNA

Back

cytogenetic map

Front

actual representation of a chromosome (gene location with chromosomal features), shows the actual location of genes

Back

What does crossing over separate and when does it occur?

Front

separates linked genes, occurs during prophase I of MI

Back

genetic map

Front

sequence of genes on 1 chromosomes, based on the frequency of crossing over (recombinants)

Back

recombinants

Front

offspring with mixed or different phenotypes than parents

Back

extranuclear genes

Front

DNA located outside of the nucleus, located within the mitochondria and chloroplast

Back