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What Changed After USS Cole?

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (50)

Section 1

(50 cards)

What Changed After USS Cole?

Front

The sailors at the time were not allowed to open fire at the small boat w/o any proof of threat, but the Navy reevaluated its rules of engagement and its anti-terrorism efforts There was no military response until 2002 The Cole was repaired and is still in service

Back

Guerrilla Warfare (Spanish --> "little war")

Front

Armed unit who operate as a military, not cellular in structure Wear identifying insignia Have openly stated goals and opposition and attack enemy forces, seize and hold territory Exercise sovereignty over a defined geographical area and it's population

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What are Some Problems with these Definitions? (7)

Front

1 The boundary between terrorism and other forms of political violence. 2 Whether government terrorism and resistance terrorism are part of the same phenomenon. 3 Separating "terrorism" from simple criminal acts, from open war between "consenting" groups, and from acts that clearly arise out of mental illness. 4 Is terrorism a sub-category of coercion? Violence? Power? Influence? 5 Can terrorism be legitimate? What gains justify its use? 6 The relationship between guerilla warfare and terrorism. 7 The relationship between crime and terrorism.

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Terrorist Evolution: Organization Size

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1970-1980s = large groups, hundreds of thousands; easily tracked 1990s-today = small groups, less than a dozen; hard to identify

Back

Dissident Terrorism "Vigilante" "Homegrown"

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Terrorism "from below" committed by non-state movements and groups Action taken against ethno-national groups, religious groups, governments and other perceived enemies. Most dissident terrorism is domestic - actors and victims are from the same country In dissident/vigilante terrorism, there can be the support or acquaintance of public officials

Back

Narcoterrorism

Front

Financing terrorist activities with the drug trade

Back

1996 Olympic Bombing

Front

Eric Rudolph placed a pack with three homemade pipe bombs under a bench at a concert being held at the Atlanta Olympics The bag was discovered and the immediate area was cleared Only one person died as a direct result of the explosion

Back

What Changed After the 1998 Embassy Bombing?

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President Clinton ordered Operation Infinite Reach - used cruise missiles to attack sites in Sudan and Afghanistan. The Sudan attack destroyed the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory which the Americans incorrectly believed was producing chemical weapons (was actually producing medicine) Embassies were rebuilt in new locations and Kenya started receiving anti-terrorism aid.

Back

Terrorist Evolution: Splitting

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large = typically break into smaller groups small = hold on to ideology of small group

Back

External State Sponsored Terrorism

Front

Directed at a target group outside of the country Often includes government support of a terrorist group Allows for government support of a political agenda that would not be acceptable to the world stage

Back

Internal State Sponsored Terrorism

Front

Directed at people or a specific population inside the country Often done covertly by a secret state group or branch of secret police Gives leadership public deniability Allows for the eradication of an "undesirable" population

Back

What Changed After 9/11?

Front

Wars Operation Enduring Freedom (~686B) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (~$845+B) USA PATRIOT Act and all its goodies Department of Homeland Security (TSA) Complete overhaul of the Intelligence System Fear

Back

First Terrorist Act - Sicarrii

Front

In the decades prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE a group of zealots attacked, kidnapped, and killed Romans using small, hidden blades called sicae. Their actions were designed to accomplish multiple goals 1 Scare the Romans into leaving 2 Force the Romans to overreact, cause discontent in the Jewish population 3 Encourage the Jewish population to rise up and attempt to expel the Romans Beginning with the Jewish Revolt of 68 CE the sicarii became leaders of the war and following the destruction of Jerusalem engaged in a guerilla war for three years

Back

Transnational Terrorism (9/11)

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Involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities cross international boarders AND targeted countries are not represented in the make-up of the group Terrorist actions taken by groups of individuals or interests from several source nations Targets are selected because of their value as symbols of international interest

Back

Terrorist Evolution: Purpose

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large = group consensus of targets, shared purpose and mission small = autonomous selection of mission, targets selected individually

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Military Dissident Terrorism

Front

Armed paramilitary groups whose aim is usually to overthrow a government or regime, or otherwise impose changes on the established order. Militarily disadvantaged compared to the ruling power Will usually resort to asymmetric warfare; guerilla warfare, or in some cases, terrorism, to further their cause

Back

2001 WTC Attack

Front

19 hijackers took control of 4 planes, 3 of which reached their intended targets: Pentagon: 125 killed WTC: 2,606 killed Shanksville: 40 killed

Back

How Many Global Definitions of Terrorism are There?

Front

109

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Sub-revolutionary Terrorism

Front

Bringing about or supporting a political or social revolution through extreme measures, marked by or resulting in radical change

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Father of Terrorism Studies

Front

Walter Laqueur

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Open vs. Closed Sponsorship

Front

Open: Acknowledge their governments role in activities Closed: Deny countries role in supporting terrorist activities - this gives the state them plausible deniability

Back

Difference Between a Terrorist and a Common Criminal

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Terrorists are: Purpose driven, Deliberate, Committed to a cause, Oriented to a group, Disciplined, Trained, Target or attack oriented Common Criminals are: Personally motivated, Opportunistic, Uncommitted, Self-centered, Undisciplined, Untrained, Escape oriented

Back

1998 Embassy Bombings

Front

On August 7th truck bombs exploded outside of the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya. 223 people were killed, over 4,000 were wounded. Only 12 of the dead were Americans. The attacks were committed by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad which brought OBL and al-Zawahiri into the spotlight.

Back

What Changed after 1995 OKC Bombing?

Front

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 = death penalty conviction for those found to be guilty of terrorism. Chemical taggants had to be added dynamite and other explosives so their manufacturer could be traced. Requirements that all existing federal buildings install barriers to keep cars away, new construction requires truck-proof barriers, building must be set back from the road Review of evacuation procedures for federal buildings

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Terrorist Group

Front

Any group practicing or that has significant subgroups practicing international terrorism

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DoD Definition of Terrorism

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The unlawful use of - or threatened use of - force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives.

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Religious Terrorism

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Terrorism motivated by an absolute belief that an other worldly power has sanctioned and commanded the application of terrorist violence for the greater glory of the faith. Use violence to further what they see as divinely commanded purposes. Particularly dangerous due to the fanaticism of those who practice it and their willingness to sacrifice themselves for the cause; more likely to use "all in" tactics such as suicide bombings

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Revolution

Front

Citizens rally behind one cause More than one single group

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Pseudo-Terrorism

Front

Loaded terms; using the word terrorism gets your agenda funded - action is taken and resources are commanded The media loves "terrorism"

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Assassination

Front

Assassination: To murder (a person, especially a public or political figure), usually by a surprise attack. May or may not have a political motivation. The act of assassination may be part of a larger terrorist plot but the terms should not be lumped together to mean the same thing

Back

1995 OKC Bombing

Front

At 9:02 am on April 19a 4,800 lb truck bomb exploded outside of the Murrah Fedeal Building The blast killed 168 people, including 6 children, and injured hundreds. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were found guilty, receiving the death penalty and a life sentence respectively

Back

Terrorist Evolution: Structure

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large = traditional hierarchy, centralized direction and authority small =cell based structure, limited central authority

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Ideology

Front

Systematic body of concepts, ideas, and manner of thinking that is characteristic of an individual, group or culture. Ideologies do not simply define, they inspire action.

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1993 WTC Bombing

Front

At 12:17 pm on February 26 a 1,300 lb truck bomb was detonated in the North Tower underground garage The goal was to topple the North Tower into the South Tower and if the truck had been parked closer to the foundation it could have happened The explosion killed 6 people and over a thousand people needed to be treated for smoke inhalation

Back

Air Force Definition of Terrorism

Front

Terrorism involves a criminal act that is often symbolic in nature and is intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims.

Back

International Terrorism (Pakistan/Indian)

Front

Terrorist acts directed by foreign groups who transcend national boundaries Terrorism practiced in a foreign country by terrorists who are not native to that country *It is possible the foreign group is sponsored by a state making an event "International State Sponsored Terrorism"

Back

What Changed after 1993 WTC?

Front

Basically nothing on a national scale Security guards were posted at the garage entrances and car barriers were erected to prevent cars from reaching some areas The Center and many businesses revamped their evacuation plans (this saved many lives during 9/11) A new fire alarm system was installed Roof access was closed

Back

What is the Type of Terrorism Based On? (3)

Front

1 The group or actor that perpetuated the attack 2 The goal of the attacker 3 The target

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How many Countries are Considered to have State Sponsored Terrorism?

Front

1 Iran 2 Sudan 3 Syria

Back

Criminal Terrorism

Front

Terrorism motivated by sheer profit Terrorism is always a crime but crime is not always terrorism

Back

State Sponsored Terrorism

Front

Terrorism acts committed by governments against perceived enemies Hostile actions outside of the context of a declared war, which target civilians or shows a disregard for civilian life in attacking targets — either people or facilities Using force to discourage political opposition; "From above"

Back

Most Terrorism Definitions Include (7)

Front

1 The use or threat of extraordinary violence 2 Political or religious in aims and motives 3 Goal-directed or rational behavior 4 The intent to have a psychological impact broader than the immediate victims 5 Conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial cell structure (members wear no uniform/insignia) 6 The choice of victims for their symbolic, rather than their instrumental, value 7 Perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity

Back

U.S. DoS Definition of Terrorism

Front

Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

Back

USS Cole 2001

Front

The Navy's guided-missile destroyer was docked at the port of Aden, Yemen for a routine fuel stop A small boat driven by members of al-Qaeda approached the port side of the ship and detonated ~500 lbs of shaped charges 17 sailors were killed and 39 injured

Back

What Changed after 1996 Olympic Bombing?

Front

Nothing - but on a cultural level this may have been the foundation for bag searches at large events. So long as the venue is private, and there are signs warning you that your bags are subject to search, it's legal.

Back

Fifth Islamic Summit Definition of Terrorism

Front

Intimidation and violation of security of any kind; presence of inhuman intention and motive; unacceptability of the end and purpose and the act itself by humanity. An act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective, and involving threat to security of any kind, and violation of rights acknowledged by religion and mankind.

Back

Terrorist Evolution: Background

Front

large = members come from a wide array of backgrounds small = members come from the same clan or tribe

Back

Terrorist Evolution: Format

Front

1970-1980s = traits and characteristics based on political ideology 1990s-today = traits and characteristics common to terrorist organizations; geo-social issues

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Laqueur's Definition of Terrorism

Front

Carelessness/misuse of the word in government/media Used as a synonym for rebellion, street battles, etc. Inflates statistics

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Terrorist Evolution: Methods

Front

Limited scope = precise targeting, limit civilian casualties, numerous simple attacks (constant success) Expanded scope = indiscriminate target, rationalize civilian targets, large specular attacks (no need for constant success)

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