AP Biology Vocabulary Review

AP Biology Vocabulary Review

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Section 1

(50 cards)

-ose

Front

Suffix of a sugar.

Back

digestion

Front

To break apart.

Back

-in

Front

Suffix of a protein.

Back

tertiary structure

Front

Results from interactions between side chains.

Back

biogeography

Front

Geographic distribution of species.

Back

homologous structures

Front

Same structure, different function. Comes from common ancestor.

Back

cohesion

Front

Water molecules sticking to each other.

Back

dehydration synthesis

Front

Condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.

Back

tryiacylglycerol

Front

Glycerol and three fatty acids.

Back

isomers

Front

Same atoms but different arrangement.

Back

beta glucose

Front

Monomer for cellulose and chitin.

Back

artificial selection

Front

Humans modifying species for desired traits through selective breeding.

Back

anabolism

Front

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.

Back

starch

Front

Storage polysaccharide of plants.

Back

structural isomers

Front

Differ in arrangement of atoms.

Back

chitin

Front

Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.

Back

disulphide bridges

Front

Reinforce tertiary structure.

Back

solvent

Front

Dissolving agent of a solution.

Back

enantiomers

Front

Structures that are like a mirror-image.

Back

MRSA

Front

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Back

glycogen

Front

Extremely branched polymer of glucose.

Back

solute

Front

Something dissolved in a solution.

Back

evolutionary adaptation

Front

An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.

Back

microevolution

Front

Change in genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation.

Back

peptide bond

Front

Bonds that connect amino acids.

Back

synthesis

Front

To put together.

Back

catabolism

Front

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

Back

homology

Front

Similarity resulting from common ancestry.

Back

polar

Front

Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.

Back

fitness

Front

Individuals whose inherited traits confer an advantage have a better chance of surviving in a given environment and will leave more offspring.

Back

quaternary structure

Front

Results from two or more polypeptide subunits.

Back

Fredrick Sanger

Front

Determined amino acid sequence of proteins.

Back

primary structure

Front

Chain of amino acids.

Back

purines

Front

Bases with a double-ring structure.

Back

natural selection

Front

A population can change over time if individuals with more fit traits leave more offspring than less fit individuals.

Back

geometric isomer

Front

Differ in arrangement around a double bond.

Back

alpha glucose

Front

Monomer for starch and glycogen.

Back

hydrolysis

Front

Reaction where water split into two hydrogens and one oxygen; this breaks a polymer.

Back

cellulose

Front

Carbohydrate component of plant cell walls.

Back

phosphodiester bonds

Front

Bonds between phosphate group and pentose sugar in nucleic acids.

Back

secondary structure

Front

Either an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.

Back

cholesterol

Front

Steroid common in cell membranes, also in many hormones.

Back

pyrimidines

Front

Bases with a single-ring structure.

Back

nonpolar

Front

No partial charges. Do not mix with water.

Back

vestigial structures

Front

Are little or no importance to organism, but remain from an ancestor.

Back

comparative embryology

Front

Embryos of vertebrates share many anatomical homologies.

Back

adhesion

Front

Water molecules sticking to other surfaces.

Back

steroids

Front

Made of four rings of carbon.

Back

electronegativity

Front

Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.

Back

decent with modification

Front

Darwin's way of referring to evolution.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

founder effect

Front

When a small number of individuals colonize a new area; the new gene pool is not reflective of original population.

Back

sympatric speciation

Front

Speciation without a divided population.

Back

reduced hybrid viability

Front

When the genes of different species interact and impair hybrid development.

Back

Hox genes

Front

Class of homeotic genes. Changes in these genes can have a profound impact on morphology.

Back

relative fitness

Front

Fitness of a particular genotype.

Back

allopatric speciation

Front

When a population is divided; leads to speciation.

Back

stabilizing selection

Front

Shift that favors the mean.

Back

sexual selection

Front

Natural selection for mating success.

Back

heterochrony

Front

Change in the rate or timing of a developmental event ; an organism's shape depends on relative growth rate of body parts.

Back

phylogeny

Front

Evolutionary history of a species or group of species.

Back

disruptive selection

Front

Shift toward the extremes.

Back

heterozygous advantage

Front

Maintains recessive alleles in a population,

Back

sexual dimorphism

Front

Differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics.

Back

quantitative characteristics

Front

Characteristics that vary along a continuum, usually due to influence of two or more genes.

Back

cline

Front

A graded change in a trait along a geographic axis.

Back

gametic isolation

Front

When sperm can't fertilize the eggs.

Back

allometric growth

Front

Proportioning that gives a body a specific form.

Back

mechanical isolation

Front

Morphological differences prevent fertilization.

Back

adaptive radiation

Front

Evolution of many new species from a common ancestor as a result of introduction to new environments.

Back

reduced hybrid fertility

Front

Sterile hybrids due to uneven chromosome number.

Back

genetic variation

Front

Heritable variations in a population.

Back

speciation

Front

Origin of new species and the source of biological diversity.

Back

reproductive isolation

Front

Barriers that impede members of two different species fro producing fertile offspring.

Back

gene flow

Front

When a population gains or loses alleles., movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population.

Back

postzygotic barriers

Front

Barriers that prevent the hybrid zygote from becoming a fertile adult.

Back

gradualism

Front

A model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity.

Back

temporal isolation

Front

When two species breed at different times of day, season, or years.

Back

biological species concept

Front

Species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to produce fertile offspring.

Back

polyploidy

Front

In plants, the result of an extra set of chromosomes during cell division.

Back

gene pool

Front

All the genes in a given population at a given time.

Back

discrete characteristics

Front

Characteristics that are classified on an either-or basis, determined by a single gene locus.

Back

allele frequency

Front

Proportion of an allele in a gene pool.

Back

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

Front

Helps measure changes in allele frequencies over time . Provides an "ideal" population to use as a basis of comparison.

Back

mutation

Front

Changes in the nucleotide sequence in DNA.

Back

prezygotic barriers

Front

Barriers that impede mating or hinder fertilization.

Back

behavioral isolation

Front

Incompatible courtship rituals, pheromones, or bird songs.

Back

habitat isolation

Front

When two species encounter each other only rarely.

Back

hybrid breakdown

Front

Hybrid is fertile, but when they breed the next generation is sterile.

Back

sexual recombination

Front

Crossing over and shuffling of genes during meiosis.

Back

allopolyploid

Front

Sterile hybrid is changed to a fertile polyploid due to mutation ; fertile with each other, but not parent species.

Back

geographic variation

Front

Difference in variation between population subgroups in different areas.

Back

punctuated equilibrium

Front

A model of evolution in which a new species will change the most as it buds from a parent species, and then will change little for the rest of its existence.

Back

genetic drift

Front

Change in allele frequencies due to chance.

Back

autopolyploid

Front

Having more than two sets of chromosomes from a single species.

Back

directional selection

Front

Shift toward a favorable variation.

Back

population

Front

Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.

Back

homeotic genes

Front

Genes that determine basic features of where a body part is.

Back

population genetics

Front

Study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of evolutionary processes.

Back

macroevolution

Front

Evolutionary change above the species level.

Back

bottleneck effect

Front

When a population has been dramatically reduced, and the gene pool is no longer reflective of the original population's.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Gram-negative bacteria

Front

Bacteria that have complex cell walls with less peptidoglycan but with lipopolysaccharides. Very toxic and hard to treat.

Back

conjugation

Front

In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.

Back

serial endosymbiosis

Front

Sequence of endosymbiotic events that led to an ancestral eukaryote.

Back

shared derived character

Front

Evolutionary novelty unique to that clade.

Back

bacilli

Front

Rod-shaped bacteria.

Back

lyse

Front

Cell bursting.

Back

paraphyletic group

Front

A monophyletic group in which some descendants of the common ancestor have been removed.

Back

specific epithet

Front

Second part of scientific name.

Back

plasmolyze

Front

When the membrane shrinks away from the cell wall as a result of water loss.

Back

peptidoglycan

Front

Cell wall of prokaryotes, but NOT ARCHAEA. Made of a sugar polymer and polypeptide.

Back

the three-domain system

Front

Domains Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.

Back

phylograms

Front

Diagram in which the length of a branch reflects number of changes in a DNA sequence.

Back

polyphyletic group

Front

A taxonomic grouping consisting of several species that lack a common ancestor (more work is needed to uncover species that tie them together into a monophyletic clade).

Back

protobionts

Front

Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane.

Back

Gram-positive bacteria

Front

Bacteria that have simple cell walls with much peptidoglycan.

Back

capsule

Front

Covers the cell wall in prokaryotes.

Back

Gram stain

Front

Used to classify prokaryotes based on cell wall composition. Important for antibiotics; some antibiotics work on one but not the other.

Back

ultrametric trees

Front

Diagram in which length of a branch reflects amounts of actual time.

Back

Miller and Urey Experiment

Front

Experiment that found that organic molecules can form in a strongly reducing atmosphere.

Back

colonies

Front

Collections of autonomously replicating cells.

Back

orthologous genes

Front

Homologous genes passed in a straight line from one generation to the next.

Back

antibiotics

Front

Interfere with production of peptidoglycan; harm bacteria but not eukaryotes.

Back

clade

Front

A taxonomic grouping that includes only a single ancestor and all of its descendants.

Back

paralogous genes

Front

Homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication.

Back

cladistics

Front

A phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa.

Back

bionomial nomenclature

Front

Scientific name.

Back

cladogram

Front

Diagram that shows patterns of shared characteristics.

Back

radiometric dating

Front

Dating using decay of radioactive isotopes.

Back

maximum likelihood

Front

A principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time.

Back

cocci

Front

Spherical bacteria.

Back

maximum parsimony

Front

"Occam's Razor." A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts.

Back

liposomes

Front

Membrane-bound droplets that form when lipids are added to water.

Back

stromatolites

Front

Oldest known fossils formed from many layers of bacteria and sediment.

Back

endosymbiotic theory

Front

Ancestors of mitochondria and plastids was prokaryotes that came to live in a host cell.

Back

genetic annealing

Front

Horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and archae.

Back

pilli

Front

Hollow tubes used to move cells or exchange DNA between bacteria by conjunction.

Back

gene families

Front

Groups of related genes in an organism's genome.

Back

systematics

Front

Analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of present and past organisms.

Back

monophyletic group

Front

A taxonomic grouping that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants.

Back

phylogenetic trees

Front

Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.

Back

plasmids

Front

Small rings of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in addition to the main bacterial chromosome. Can contain genes for antibiotic resistance, or other "contingency" functions.

Back

outgroups

Front

Species or group of species closely related to the ingroup.

Back

genus

Front

First part of scientific name.

Back

homoplasies

Front

Analogous structures that have evolved independently.

Back

radioisotopes

Front

Isotopes that have unstable nuclei and undergo radioactive decay.

Back

taxis

Front

Movement toward or away from a stimulus.

Back

shared primitive character

Front

Trait shared beyond the taxon.

Back

taxonomy

Front

A classification of organisms into groups based on similarities.

Back

analogy

Front

Anatomical similarity due to convergent evolution.

Back

spirilla

Front

Spiral bacteria.

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

emigration

Front

Movement out of population. Decreases population size.

Back

abiotic factors

Front

Nonliving components of environment.

Back

big-bang reproduction

Front

Species that have only a single reproductive opportunity, such as agave and salmon.

Back

life history

Front

Traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival.

Back

turnover

Front

Seasonal changes in warm and cool water layers in lakes.

Back

potential range

Front

An area where an organism could potentially survive and reproduce.

Back

methanogens

Front

Archaea that release methane, a greenhouse gas.

Back

climate

Front

Prevailing weather conditions of an area.

Back

extremophiles

Front

Archaea that live in extreme environments.

Back

dispersal

Front

Movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or their area of origin.

Back

ecology

Front

Study of interactions between organisms and the environment.

Back

macroclimate

Front

Patterns on the global, regional and local level.

Back

reproductive rate

Front

Difference between per capita birth and per capita death rates.

Back

territoriality

Front

Defense of a space against encroachment by other individuals.

Back

biotic factors

Front

All the plant and animal life of a particular region.

Back

population density

Front

The size of the population within a particular unit of space.

Back

Type I

Front

Curve that shows low death rate at early and mid-life and drops at old age, as seen in humans and large animals.

Back

actual range

Front

Area an organism actually occupies.

Back

archaea

Front

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls lacking peptidoglycan. Like eukaryotes, DNA contains histone proteins.

Back

biogeographic realms

Front

Broad patterns of distribution due to continental drift and barriers such as deserts and mountain ranges.

Back

mark-recapture method

Front

A sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations.

Back

chemoautotrophs

Front

Organisms that use hydrogen sulfide or other chemicals as energy source instead of light.

Back

antibiotic resistance

Front

Resistance evolving rapidly in many species of prokaryotes due to overuse of antibiotics, especially in agriculture.

Back

clumped dispersion

Front

The most common pattern of dispersion; individuals aggregated in patches.

Back

biosphere

Front

The sum of all ecosystems.

Back

dispersion

Front

Pattern of spacing among individuals.

Back

random dispersion

Front

Random spacing of individuals of the same species within an area.

Back

iteroparity

Front

Repeated reproduction.

Back

community

Front

All species that inhabit an area.

Back

semelparity

Front

Big-bang reproduction.

Back

survivorship curves

Front

Graph of the proportion of a cohort still alive at each age.

Back

species transplant

Front

Movement of a species to areas where it was previously absent.

Back

immigration

Front

New individuals moving into population. Increases population size.

Back

per capita death rate

Front

Expected number of deaths in a population in a specified period of time.

Back

thermophiles

Front

Archaea that thrive in very hot environments, such as volcanic springs.

Back

biota

Front

Biotic factors.

Back

cohort

Front

A group of individuals of the same age.

Back

uniform dispersion

Front

The pattern in which individuals are equally spaced throughout a habitat.

Back

photoautotrophs

Front

Photosynthetic bacteria.

Back

biome

Front

Major types of ecological association that occupy broad geographic regions.

Back

repeated reproduction

Front

Species that reproduce over and over.

Back

microclimate

Front

Very fine patterns of climate influenced by features of the environment such as shade ares and wind patterns.

Back

life tables

Front

Age-specific summaries of survival patterns of a population.

Back

reproductive table (fertility schedule)

Front

Age-specific summary of reproductive rates in a population.

Back

reproductive rates

Front

Study of females to determine reproductive output and how it varies with age of female.

Back

per capita offspring

Front

Average number of offspring produced per individual during a specified period of time.

Back

Type II

Front

Curve that represents constant death rate over lifespan small animals and invertebrates.

Back

endospore

Front

A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.

Back

Type III

Front

Curve that drops sharply at the start then levels off once individuals reach a critical age, as seen in organisms that produce large numbers of offspring.

Back

demography

Front

Study of vital statistics of a population and how they change over time.

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

density-independent regulation

Front

When birth or death rates do not change with population density.

Back

r-selected species

Front

Life history traits maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments. Many small offspring that mature quickly, little if any parental care.

Back

K - selected species

Front

Life history traits sensitive to population density. Small number of large offspring, extensive parental care, repeated reproduction.

Back

parasitoidism

Front

Insects that lay eggs on or in living host; larvae feed on body of host, eventually killing it. (+/-)

Back

character displacement

Front

Tendency of characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations than allopatric populations.

Back

niche

Front

Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources; an organism's "role".

Back

age structure

Front

Relative number of individuals at each age.

Back

dominant species

Front

Species that are the most abundant or have the most biomass.

Back

trophic structure

Front

Feeding relationships between organisms in a community.

Back

foundation species

Front

Cause physical changes in environment that affect community structure.

Back

ectoparasites

Front

Parasites that feed on external surface of host.

Back

energy hypothesis

Front

Length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer.

Back

Batesian mimicry

Front

Species mimics the appearance of an unpalatable or harmful.

Back

exponential growth

Front

Population increase under ideal conditions, when r > 0. Forms a J-shaped curve.

Back

dynamic stability hypothesis

Front

Long food chains are less stable than short chains.

Back

mutualism

Front

Interspecific interaction that benefits both species. (+/+)

Back

secondary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats herbivores.

Back

quaternary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats tertiary consumers.

Back

food web

Front

Linked food chains.

Back

species richness

Front

Total number of different species.

Back

endoparasites

Front

Parasites that live within the body of their host.

Back

interspecific competition

Front

Species compete for a limiting resource. (-/-)

Back

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Front

Two species competing for same limiting resource cannot coexist in one place; one species will have an advantage that will eventually lead to competitive exclusion

Back

coevolution

Front

Reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species.

Back

realized niche

Front

The niche species actually occupies.

Back

species diversity

Front

Variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community.

Back

fundamental niche

Front

The niche species could potentially occupy.

Back

aposematic coloration

Front

Bright warning colors in animals with a chemical defense.

Back

competitive exclusion

Front

Strong competition can lead to local elimination of one of the species.

Back

infant mortality

Front

Number of infant deaths per thousand live births.

Back

keystone species

Front

Not necessarily abundant, but exert a strong control on community structure due to a pivotal ecological role.

Back

logistic growth

Front

When limiting factors restrict size of population to the carrying capacity of the environment. Forms an S-shaped curve.

Back

carrying capacity (K)

Front

Maximum population size that a particular environment can support.

Back

primary consumer

Front

Herbivore.

Back

ecological footprint

Front

Land and water area appropriated by each nation as a resource to consume or to absorb the waste it generates.

Back

commensalism

Front

Interaction between species that benefits one but neither helps or harms the other. (+/0)

Back

relative abundance

Front

The proportion of each species.

Back

producer

Front

Autotroph.

Back

life expectancy at birth

Front

Predicted average length of life at birth.

Back

zero population growth (ZPG)

Front

When per capita birth and death rates are equal. (r = 0)

Back

tertiary consumer

Front

Carnivore that eats carnivores.

Back

biomass

Front

Total dry mass of all individuals in a population.

Back

demographic transition

Front

Movement from a high birth rate, high death rate to a low birth rate, low death rate.

Back

density-dependent regulation

Front

When birth or death rates do change with population density.

Back

Müllerian mimicry

Front

Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other.

Back

resource partitioning

Front

Differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist.

Back

metapopulation

Front

When many populations are linked.

Back

invasive species

Front

Species generally introduced by humans, that take hold outside of their native range.

Back

ecological niche

Front

Sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources.

Back

cryptic coloration

Front

Camouflage; makes an organism difficult to spot.

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

bioremediation

Front

Use of living organisms such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants to detoxify polluted ecosystems.

Back

cytosol

Front

The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes.

Back

human disturbance

Front

Reduces species diversity in all communities.

Back

facilitators

Front

Foundation species have positive effects on other species.

Back

top-down model

Front

Influence moves from top trophic levels to bottom. (V <-- H)

Back

restoration ecology

Front

Applies ecological principles in an effort to return degraded ecosystems to conditions as similar as possible to their natural state.

Back

ecological succession

Front

Gradual recolonization of a disturbed area; species replaced by other species which are replaced by other species.

Back

biological augmentation

Front

Uses organisms to add essential materials to degraded ecosystems.

Back

bottom-up model

Front

Unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels. (V --> H)

Back

nonequilibrium model

Front

Communities are constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances.

Back

detritus

Front

Nonliving organic maters such as remains of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves, dead wood.

Back

secondary succession

Front

Succession when an existing community has been cleared, but soil left intact.

Back

secondary production

Front

Amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to new biomass.

Back

gross primary production (GPP)

Front

Amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis.

Back

intermediate disturbance

Front

Moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity.

Back

endangered species

Front

Species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

Back

critical load

Front

The amount of added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem.

Back

pyramids of biomass

Front

Each on this pyramid tier represents standing crop.

Back

ecosystem

Front

Consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact.

Back

plasma membrane

Front

The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.

Back

net primary production (NPP)

Front

Energy used by primary producers for respiration.

Back

pyramids of numbers

Front

Number of organisms at each trophic level.

Back

production efficiency

Front

The fraction of energy stored in food that was not used for cell respiration.

Back

10% rule

Front

Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.

Back

turnover time

Front

Standing crop biomass compared to production.

Back

light limitation

Front

Depth to which light penetrates limits primary production.

Back

equatorial-polar gradients

Front

Species diversity highest at equator, decreases toward poles.

Back

biomanipulation

Front

Technique for restoring eutrophic lakes that reduces populations of algae by manipulating higher-level consumers.

Back

threatened species

Front

Species that is likely to become endangered.

Back

organelles

Front

Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.

Back

pioneer species

Front

The first species that colonize new area, such as lichen and mosses.

Back

species-area curve

Front

The larger the geographic area, the greater the number of species.

Back

evapotranspiration

Front

Evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration from plants. Correlates with species richness.

Back

eutrophication

Front

Sewage and fertilizer runoff adds nutrients to lakes; phytoplankton decreases and cyanobacteria increases.

Back

disturbance

Front

An event, such as storm, fire, flood, drought, overgrazing or human activity, that changes a community and alters resource availability.

Back

Green World Hypothesis

Front

Terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by predators, parasites and disease.

Back

trophic efficiency

Front

Percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.

Back

actual evapotranspiration

Front

Annual amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from landscape.

Back

detritivores

Front

Obtain energy from detritus.

Back

limiting nutrient

Front

Greater limiting factor than light in oceans and lakes.

Back

cytoplasm

Front

The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Back

pyramid of energy

Front

90% of all energy is lost between trophic levels.

Back

biological magnification

Front

Toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels.

Back

island equilibrium model

Front

Islands great for study due to isolation and limited size; can study species diversity and extinction rates.

Back

primary succession

Front

Succession that begins in a virtually lifeless area.

Back

conservation biology

Front

Integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity.

Back

primary production

Front

Amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs.

Back

ozone layer

Front

Protective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.

Back

Greenhouse Effect

Front

Carbon dioxide and water vapor in atmosphere trap infrared radiation, re-reflecting it back toward earth.

Back

eukaryotic cells

Front

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

dialysis

Front

The diffusion of small solutes through a selectively permeable membrane.

Back

active transport

Front

When a cell gets materials or excretes them by using its own energy, usually through ATP; going against a concentration gradient.

Back

pressure potential

Front

This measurement has a minimum value of 0 (when the solution is open to the environment); it increases as pressure increases.

Back

hypotonic

Front

Describes a solution that has a lesser concentration of total solute.

Back

contractile vacuoles

Front

A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.

Back

glycoprotein

Front

A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.

Back

crenation

Front

This happens when a cell shrinks and shrivels; can result in cell death if severe.

Back

chromosomes

Front

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

Back

transport vesicles

Front

Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.

Back

cytoskeleton

Front

Network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.

Back

cell wall

Front

Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Back

turgor pressure

Front

The pressure inside of a cell as a cell pushes itself against the cell wall.

Back

phagocytosis

Front

Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

Back

osmosis

Front

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Back

cristae

Front

Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

Back

stroma

Front

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

Back

signal transduction

Front

A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's surface to a specific response inside the cell.

Back

transmembrane proteins

Front

Integral proteins that span the membrane.

Back

endomembrane system

Front

A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

Back

chromatin

Front

The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.

Back

cytoplasmic streaming

Front

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.

Back

mitochondria

Front

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.

Back

solute potential

Front

This measurement has a maximum value of 0; it decreases as the concentration of a solute increases.

Back

diffusion

Front

When a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Due to entropy.

Back

cytolysis

Front

This happens when a cell swells until pressure bursts it, resulting in cell death.

Back

peripheral proteins

Front

The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.

Back

flaccid

Front

This happens when water moves, but the amount within the cell is constant; no pressure builds.

Back

plasmolysis

Front

This happens when a cell shrinks inside its cell wall while the cell wall remains intact.

Back

fluid mosaic model

Front

Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.

Back

water potential

Front

The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.

Back

enzymatic activity

Front

A protein built into the membrane with active site exposed.

Back

thylakoids

Front

Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.

Back

cell-cell recognition

Front

The function of membrane proteins in which some glycoproteins serve as ID tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells.

Back

nuclear lamina

Front

A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.

Back

amphipathic

Front

Molecules are said to be this when it has regions that are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.

Back

nuclear envelope

Front

Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.

Back

Golgi apparatus

Front

Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Back

chloroplasts

Front

Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

Back

isotonic

Front

Describes solutions that have an equal concentration of total solutes.

Back

nucleolus

Front

Small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins.

Back

rough ER

Front

A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

Back

vesicle

Front

Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.

Back

hypertonic

Front

Describes a solution that has a greater concentration of total solute.

Back

lysosome

Front

A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.

Back

passive transport

Front

Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion. No cell energy required.

Back

selective permeability

Front

A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

Back

transport

Front

An exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes.

Back

smooth ER

Front

Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells).

Back

peroxisome

Front

A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

Back

integral proteins

Front

Integral proteins that span the membrane.

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

stratified epithelium

Front

Multiples tiers of cells.

Back

physiology

Front

Study of the functions an organism performs.

Back

inositol triphosphate

Front

Produced by cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.

Back

adenylyl cyclase

Front

Converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to an extracellular signal.

Back

exocytosis

Front

Occurs when a cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.

Back

protein phosphatases

Front

Enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins.

Back

phagocytosis

Front

Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

Back

transport protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.

Back

second messengers

Front

Small, non-protein water soluble molecules or ions that send messages throughout the cells by diffusion.

Back

intercellular joining

Front

The function of membrane proteins in which membrane proteins of adjacent cells hook together, as in gap junctions or tight junctions.

Back

fibroblasts

Front

In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.

Back

cotransport

Front

The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

Back

osmoregulation

Front

The control of water balance.

Back

aquaporin

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.

Back

ligand

Front

Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

Back

protein kinase

Front

The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.

Back

carrier protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that holds onto molecules and changes their shapes in a way that shuttles them across the membrane.

Back

facilitated diffusion

Front

Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy.

Back

turgid

Front

A cell with a cell wall that has a reasonable amount of pressure but is healthy.

Back

electrochemical gradient

Front

The combination of forces that acts on membrane potential.

Back

simple epithelium

Front

Single layer of cells.

Back

electrogenic pump

Front

A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane, causing a net separation in charge.

Back

cubiodal epithelium

Front

Dice-shaped cells.

Back

epithelial tissue

Front

Tissue that covers outside of the body and lines organs and cavities.

Back

reticular fibers

Front

Fibers made of collagen fibers that are very thin and branched. Forma tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues.

Back

scaffolding proteins

Front

A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached to increase the efficiency of signal transduction.

Back

receptor-mediated

Front

A type of endocytosis in which the cell acquires bulk quantities of specific substances, even though they may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid.

Back

ligand

Front

Any molecule that bonds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

Back

collagenous fibers

Front

Fibers made of collagen.

Back

endocytosis

Front

Occurs when a cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.

Back

connective tissue

Front

Tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues.

Back

glandualar epithelia

Front

Tissue that absorbs or secretes chemical solutions.

Back

columnar epithelium

Front

Cells shaped like bricks standing on end.

Back

gated channel

Front

A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.

Back

tissues

Front

Groups of cells with a common structure and function.

Back

channel protein

Front

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.

Back

glycoproteins

Front

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins.

Back

signal transduction pathway

Front

The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.

Back

mucous membrane

Front

Membrane that secretes mucus that lubricates the surface of organs and keeps them moist.

Back

membrane potential

Front

The voltage of a plasma membrane.

Back

concentration gradient

Front

A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.

Back

pinocytosis

Front

A type of endocytosis in which the cell "gulps" droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles.

Back

local regulators

Front

These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.

Back

elastic fibers

Front

Fibers made of elastin.

Back

glycolipids

Front

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.

Back

squamous epithelium

Front

Cells that are like floor tiles.

Back

proton pump

Front

An electrogenic pump that works largely with H+ ions.

Back

hormones

Front

Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travels in body fluids, and act on specific target cells.

Back

anatomy

Front

Study of the structure of an organism.

Back

tonicity

Front

The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water; depends partly on concentration of nonpenetrating solutes relative to inside of cell.

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

vasoconstriction

Front

Reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial blood vessels.

Back

mesenteries

Front

Sheets of connective tissue in moist or fluid-filled body cavities.

Back

basement membrane

Front

Cells at the base of an epithelial layer are attached to this.

Back

standard metabolic rate (SMR)

Front

The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, nonstressed ectotherm.

Back

regulator

Front

An animal that uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuation.

Back

blood

Front

Connective tissue made of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

Back

cartilage

Front

Made of collagenous fibers in matrix of chondroitin sulfate.

Back

bioenergenetics

Front

The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.

Back

hibernation

Front

Long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.

Back

ligaments

Front

Join bones to bones at joints.

Back

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Front

The metabolic rate of a nongrowing, resting, fasting, nonstressed endotherm.

Back

interstitial fluid

Front

Watery, internal environment of vertebrates.

Back

countercurrent heat exchanger

Front

In ectotherms, a circulatory adaptation that is an arrangement of blood vessels that warm or cool the blood.

Back

bone

Front

Mineralized connective tissue.

Back

torpor

Front

Physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases.

Back

homeostasis

Front

"Steady state" or "constant internal milieu".

Back

smooth muscle

Front

Muscle that is not striated, is single nucleated.

Back

tendons

Front

Attach muscles to bones.

Back

brown fat

Front

Tissue in neck and between shoulders of some mammals that is specialized for rapid heat production.

Back

exothermic

Front

Animals that gain heat mostly from external sources.

Back

osteoblasts

Front

Bone-forming cells.

Back

positive feedback

Front

A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will amplify the change. Takes organism away from a steady state.

Back

thoracic cavity

Front

cavity housing lungs and heart

Back

acclimatization

Front

Adjusting to a new range of environmental temperatures.

Back

daily torpor

Front

in small mammals and birds, daily lowering of metabolism that allows them to survive on stored energy

Back

adipose tissue

Front

Tissue that stores fat.

Back

metabolic pathway

Front

Begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product.

Back

vasodialation

Front

Increases in the diameter of superficial blood vessels; cools the body.

Back

catabolic pathways

Front

Metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.

Back

anabolic pathways

Front

Metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.

Back

metabolic rate

Front

Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time; the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions.

Back

macrophages

Front

Amoeboid cells that roam connective tissue and engulf foreign particles and debris of dead cells.

Back

thermoregulation

Front

Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

Back

fibrous connective tissue

Front

Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers organized into parallel bundles. Includes ligaments and tendons.

Back

nervous tissue

Front

Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals.

Back

estivation

Front

Summer torpor. Enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies.

Back

cardiac muscle

Front

Muscle that is branched, striated, singe nucleated.

Back

abdominal cavity

Front

Cavity housing intestines.

Back

bioenergetics

Front

Flow of energy through an animal. Limits its behavior, growth, reproduction.

Back

nonshivering thermogenesis (NST)

Front

When hormones cause mitochondria to produce heat instead of ATP in some mammals.

Back

loose connective tissue

Front

Tissue that binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Contains collagenous, elastic, and recticular fibers.

Back

muscle tissue

Front

Tissue made of cells capable of contracting.

Back

skeletal muscle

Front

Muscle that is striated, multinucleated.

Back

kinetic energy

Front

Energy associated with relative motion of objects.

Back

chondrocytes

Front

Cells that secrete cartilage.

Back

negative feedback

Front

A type of regulation that responds to a change in conditions by initiating responses that will counteract the change. Maintains a steady state.

Back

conformer

Front

An animal that allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes.

Back

heat-shock proteins

Front

Proteins that help maintain integrity of other proteins that would normally be denatured in extreme heat.

Back

endothermic

Front

Animals that are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism.

Back

organs

Front

Tissues are organized into:, group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

Back

Section 10

(50 cards)

induced fit

Front

Brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction.

Back

citric acid cycle

Front

Completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.

Back

complement system

Front

A group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse extracellular pathogens.

Back

lactic acid fermetation

Front

When pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactic as am end product, with no release of carbon dioxide.

Back

first law of thermodynamics

Front

Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

Back

glycolosis

Front

Breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.

Back

chemiosmosis

Front

When energy is stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane which is used to drive cellular work.

Back

lymphocytes

Front

White blood cells.

Back

coenzyme

Front

If the cofactor is an organic molecule.

Back

endergonic reaction

Front

Reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.

Back

enzyme-substrate complex

Front

When an enzyme binds to its substrate, it forms:

Back

phosphorylation

Front

The metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.

Back

free energy

Front

Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.

Back

catalyst

Front

A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

Back

thermal energy

Front

Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of molecules or atoms.

Back

oxidation

Front

Loss of electrons.

Back

cooperativity

Front

It amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates.

Back

substrate-level phosphorylation

Front

When an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule.

Back

enzyme

Front

A catalytic protein.

Back

active site

Front

A pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme.

Back

exergonic reaction

Front

Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.

Back

acquired immunity

Front

Immunity that is present only after exposure and is highly specific.

Back

oxidative phosphorylation

Front

When energy is released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP.

Back

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Front

Composed of a sugar ribose, nitrogenous base adenine, and a chain of three phosphate groups bonded to it.

Back

innate immunity

Front

Immunity that is present before exposure and effective from birth. Responds to a broad range of pathogens.

Back

potential energy

Front

Occurs when an object is not moving, but may still posses energy.

Back

proton-motive force

Front

Emphasizes the capactiy of the gradient to preform work.

Back

reduction

Front

Gain of electrons.

Back

entropy

Front

A measure of disorder or randomness.

Back

cofactor

Front

Non-protein helpers that may be bound tightly to the enzyme as a permanent resident, or may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate.

Back

reducing agent

Front

A reduces B, which accepts the donated electrons.

Back

activation energy

Front

The amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier.

Back

redox reactions

Front

When there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another.

Back

ATP synthase

Front

The enzyme that make ATP from ADPand inorganic phosphate.

Back

competitive inhibitors

Front

Reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.

Back

fermentation

Front

A partial degradation of sugars that occur without the use of oxygen.

Back

antibodies

Front

Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.

Back

electron transport chain

Front

Breaks the fall of electrons to oxygen in several energy-releasing steps.

Back

neutrophils

Front

Most abundant white blood cell., The most abundant type of white blood cell. Phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.

Back

cellular respiration

Front

When oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.

Back

second law of thermodynamics

Front

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

Back

facultative anaerobes

Front

Can make enough ATP to survive using using fermentation or respiration.

Back

alcohol fermentation

Front

When pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps.

Back

oxidizing agent

Front

B oxidizes A by removing A's electrons.

Back

energy coupling

Front

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.

Back

feedback inhibition

Front

A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.

Back

anaerobic

Front

Occurs by fermentation, which generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation.

Back

acetyl-CoA

Front

Is formed when pyruvate first enters into the mitochondria via active transport.

Back

noncompetitive inhibitors

Front

Impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme (other than the active site).

Back

allosteric regulation

Front

When a protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site.

Back

Section 11

(50 cards)

interferon

Front

Protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a virus; helps other cells resist the virus.

Back

immunoglobulins

Front

Secreted antibodies.

Back

helper T cells

Front

Activate macrophages, B cells and T cells.

Back

hormone

Front

The secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.

Back

antigen

Front

Any foreign molecule that is specifically recognized by lymphocytes and elicits an immune response.

Back

passive immunity

Front

Immunity conferred by transferring antibodies from an individual who is immune to a pathogen to another individual.

Back

histamine

Front

Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and increased permeability of capillaries.

Back

autoimmune diseases

Front

Diseases caused when the immune system loses tolerance for self and turns against certain molecules in the body.

Back

inflammtory response

Front

Innate response with the purpose of containing a site of damage, localizing the response, eliminating the invader and restore tissue function.

Back

morphogenesis

Front

The process by which an organism takes shape and the differentiated cells occupy their appropriate locations.

Back

graft versus host reaction

Front

When lymphocytes in donated bone marrow react against the recipient.

Back

cell differentiation

Front

Cell specialization in structure and function.

Back

primary immune response

Front

Immune response the first time the body is exposed to a particular antigen. Does not peak until 10-17 days after exposure.

Back

T cell receptor

Front

Antigen receptors on a T cell. Unlike antibodies, T cell receptors are never produced in a secreted form.

Back

motor neurons

Front

Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.

Back

secondary immune response

Front

Immune response after the body has already been exposed to a specific antigen. Response is faster, of greater magnitude, and more prolonged.

Back

glucagon

Front

The antagonist of insulin that helps increase blood sugar. It stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose.

Back

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Front

The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.

Back

insulin

Front

Hormone produced by the pancreas that helps to decrease blood sugar.

Back

thymus

Front

Gland in the thoracic cavity above the heart where T lymphocytes mature.

Back

cytotoxic T cells or "killer T cells"

Front

T cells that directly attack infecting organisms; these cells attack antigen labeled foreign or host tissue.

Back

anaphylactic shock

Front

A severe reaction that occurs when an allergen is introduced to the bloodstream of an allergic individual. Characterized by bronchoconstriction, labored breathing, widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death.

Back

pattern formation

Front

The development of a spatial organization of tissues and organs.

Back

fate maps

Front

A labor-intensive study to produce useful territorial diargams of embryonic development.

Back

B lymphocytes (B cells)

Front

Lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and secretes antibodies.

Back

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Front

Includes the brain and spinal cord.

Back

cell-mediated immune response

Front

The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.

Back

memory cells

Front

General term for lymphocytes that are responsible for immunological memory and protective immunity.

Back

active immunity

Front

A form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens.

Back

growth factors

Front

Factors that stimulate the cell to divide.

Back

endocrine signaling

Front

Specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system, by which they travel to target cells in other parts of the body.

Back

antigen presentation

Front

The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.

Back

major histocompatibility compex (MHC)

Front

Binds to a fragment of an antigen within a cell and presents it on the surface of the membrane.

Back

sensory neurons

Front

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.

Back

endocrine system

Front

The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity.

Back

epitope

Front

Small, accessible portion of an antigen that can be recognized.

Back

Rh factor

Front

Refers to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen on red blood cells.

Back

T lymphocytes (T cells)

Front

Lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and acts directly against antigens in cell-mediated immune responses.

Back

edocrine glands

Front

Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Back

humoral immune response

Front

The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.

Back

neurosecretory cells

Front

Neurons that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter.

Back

nitric oxide (NO)

Front

Local regulator that regulates blood oxygen levels, A gas produced by many types of cells that functions as a local regulator and as a neurotransmitter.

Back

paracrine signaling

Front

Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells.

Back

B cell receptor

Front

The antigen receptor on B cells: a Y-Shaped, membrane-bound molecule consisting of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains linked by disulfide bridges and containing two antigen-binding sites.

Back

cytokines

Front

Chemicals released by the immune system communicate with the brain.

Back

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Front

The most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection.

Back

immunization

Front

The deliberate exposure of a pathogen to produce memory cells.

Back

positional information

Front

The molecular cues that control pattern formation.

Back

natural killer (NK) cells

Front

These cells kill cancer cells and cells infected with viruses. They bind to their targets and deliver a lethal burst of chemicals to produce holes in the target cell's membrane leading to its destruction.

Back

prostaglandins

Front

Modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells.

Back

Section 12

(50 cards)

epinephrine

Front

Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline.

Back

autonomic nervous system

Front

The part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands.

Back

presynaptic cell

Front

The transmitting neuron in a synapse.

Back

hindbrain

Front

The posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem.

Back

cerebrum

Front

Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.

Back

synapse

Front

The junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle.

Back

voltage-gated ion channels

Front

Channels that open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential.

Back

recticular formation

Front

Registers and controls activity level, increases excitement, and helps generate sleep.

Back

postsynaptic cell

Front

The neuron, muscle, or gland cell that receives the signal from a neuron.

Back

neuron

Front

Structural and functional unit of nervous system.

Back

cerebral cortex

Front

Interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

Back

thalamus

Front

Major input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum and the main output center for motor information leaving the cerebrum.

Back

serotonin

Front

A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.

Back

midbrain

Front

Region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight.

Back

astrocytes

Front

Provide structural and metabolic support for neurons.

Back

synaptic cleft

Front

The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.

Back

threshold potential

Front

The minimum membrane potential that must be reached in order for an action potential to be generated.

Back

cell body

Front

Contains most of a neuron's organelles and its nucleus.

Back

acetylcholine

Front

Common vertebrate neurotransmitter, especially in neuromuscular junctions.

Back

medulla oblongata

Front

Contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.

Back

axon

Front

Long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron.

Back

sympathetic division

Front

The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats.

Back

myelin sheath

Front

A layer of electrical insulation that surrounds the axon.

Back

enteric division

Front

One of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system; consists of networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder.

Back

synaptic terminal

Front

A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.

Back

dendrites

Front

Highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons.

Back

synaptic vesicles

Front

Membrane-bounded compartments in which synthesized neurotransmitters are kept.

Back

membrane potential

Front

The voltage across a cell's plasma membrane.

Back

cerebellum

Front

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.

Back

axon hillock

Front

Cone shaped region of an axon where it joins the cell body.

Back

oligodendrocytes

Front

Type of glial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.

Back

neurotransmitters

Front

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.

Back

norepinephrine

Front

A precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses.

Back

depolarization

Front

The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.

Back

forebrain

Front

The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.

Back

ganglion

Front

A cluster of nerve cell bodies, often of similar function, located in the PNS.

Back

nodes of Ranvier

Front

Gaps in the myelin sheath to which voltage-gated sodium channels are confined.

Back

parasympathetic division

Front

A branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body ever conserves energy.

Back

effector cells

Front

Muscle cells or gland cells that carry out the body's response to stimuli.

Back

Schwann cells

Front

Type of glia in the PNS, Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.

Back

brainstem

Front

The oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.

Back

glutamate

Front

The most common neurotransmitter in the brain. Excitatory.

Back

resting potential

Front

The membrane potential of a neuron that is at rest.

Back

endorphins

Front

Natural analgesics that decrease pain perception.

Back

grey matter

Front

The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons. Unmyelinated.

Back

white matter

Front

Whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths.

Back

dopamine

Front

Important neurotransmitter in the CNS that acts on the sympathetic nervous system.

Back

action potential

Front

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

Back

GABA

Front

An inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Back

glial cells

Front

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.

Back

Section 13

(50 cards)

cell division

Front

The process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells.

Back

agonistic behavior

Front

Competition that determines who wins a prize, such as food or mates.

Back

somatic cell

Front

Any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells.

Back

sister chromatids

Front

Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.

Back

circadian rhythms

Front

The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.

Back

associative learning

Front

The ability of animals to associate one feature with another.

Back

taxis

Front

Automatic, oriented movement toward or away from some stimuli.

Back

genome

Front

The ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism.

Back

kin selection

Front

Natural selection that favors altruistic behaviors by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.

Back

kinesis

Front

A simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimuli.

Back

mate choice copying

Front

Individuals in a population copy mate choice of others.

Back

cognitive maps

Front

An internal representation of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings.

Back

coefficient of relatedness

Front

Probability that if two individuals share common parent or ancestor, a particular gene present in one will be present in other.

Back

sign stimulus

Front

External sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern.

Back

sensitive period

Front

A limited phase in an animal's development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned.

Back

Hamilton's rule

Front

when C < r x B C = cost to the altruistic party r = genetic relatedness B = fitness benefit to recipient of altuism

Back

fixed action patterns (FAP)

Front

A sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is unchangeable and usually carried to completion.

Back

cerebral hemispheres

Front

The right and left halves of the cerebrum.

Back

optimal foraging theory

Front

Views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutrition and costs of obtaining food.

Back

classical conditioning

Front

An arbitrary stimulus is associated with an award or punishment.

Back

game theory

Front

Evaluates alternate strategies when outcome depends not only on each individual's strategy but also that of others.

Back

habituation

Front

A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information.

Back

chromatin

Front

The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins.

Back

operant conditioning

Front

Learning based on the consequences of responding.

Back

polygamous

Front

An individual of one sex mating with several of the other.

Back

ultimate questions

Front

Address evolutionary significance of a behavior.

Back

monogamous

Front

One male mating with one female.

Back

communication

Front

Signals among animals that include sounds, odors, visual displays, and touches that produce responses.

Back

cognition

Front

The ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors.

Back

altruism

Front

Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself.

Back

polyandry

Front

One female, several males.

Back

spatial learning

Front

The modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment.

Back

foraging

Front

Behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food.

Back

imprinting

Front

Includes both learning and innate components, generally irreversible.

Back

ethology

Front

The scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environments.

Back

behavior

Front

The way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment.

Back

proximate questions

Front

Address environmental stimuli, genetic, physiological, and anatomical causes of a behavior.

Back

culture

Front

A system of information transfer through influential social learning or teaching.

Back

innate behavior

Front

A behavior that is developmentally fixed.

Back

learning

Front

The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.

Back

inclusive fitness

Front

The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.

Back

binary fission

Front

A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.

Back

polygyny

Front

One male, several females.

Back

signal

Front

A behavior that causes change in another's behavior.

Back

migration

Front

Relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.

Back

chromosomes

Front

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

Back

promiscuous

Front

No strong pair bonds or lasting relationships.

Back

corpus callosum

Front

Nerves that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

Back

biological clock

Front

An innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions.

Back

social learning

Front

Learning through observing others.

Back

Section 14

(50 cards)

G2 phase

Front

The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.

Back

genetics

Front

Scientific study of heredity and variation.

Back

recombinant chromosomes

Front

Chromosomes that carry genes from each parent.

Back

autosomes

Front

Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual.

Back

gametes

Front

A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm that unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.

Back

G1 phase

Front

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

Back

life cycle

Front

All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity.

Back

heredity

Front

Transmission of traits from one generation to the next.

Back

gametophyte

Front

The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells.

Back

haploid

Front

One set of chromosomes.

Back

centromere

Front

The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.

Back

interphase

Front

Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases.

Back

nonsister chromatids

Front

Different chromatids (maternal and paternal) of the same chromosome.

Back

karyotype

Front

Photograph of chromosomes grouped in order and in pairs.

Back

cell cycle

Front

Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.

Back

centriole

Front

In animal cells, a cytoplasmic organelle that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions.

Back

locus

Front

The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.

Back

mitosis

Front

Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.

Back

crossing over

Front

Nonsister chromatids exchanging DNA segments.

Back

alteration of generations

Front

The alteration of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal.

Back

cleavage furrow

Front

The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.

Back

MPF

Front

A cyclin-Cdk complex that causes the cell to move from interphase into mitosis.

Back

M phase

Front

Mitosis and cytokinesis.

Back

Cdk

Front

Complex of cyclin and kinase.

Back

cell plate

Front

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.

Back

asters

Front

Microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles.

Back

sexual reproduction

Front

When two parents give unique combination of genes to offspring.

Back

kinetochore microtubules

Front

Connects the centrosome with the kinetochore in the centromere region of the chromosome.

Back

cytokinesis

Front

Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Back

chiasmata

Front

X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred.

Back

homologous chromosomes

Front

Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.

Back

density dependent inhibition

Front

The arrest of cell division that occurs when cells grown in a laboratory dish touch one another.

Back

cleavage

Front

The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically.

Back

restriction point

Front

A point of no return in the cell cycle; once this point passes, a cell is committed to a full round of the cell cycle.

Back

asexual reproduction

Front

One parent produces a genetically identical offspring by mitosis.

Back

growth factors

Front

Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.

Back

centrosome

Front

A structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop.

Back

cancer

Front

Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division.

Back

clone

Front

An identical genetically individual of the parent

Back

diploid cell

Front

Has two sets of chromosomes.

Back

kinetochore

Front

A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.

Back

sex chromosomes

Front

X and Y chromosomes.

Back

spores

Front

Produced by meiosis. Grow into haploid organisms by mitosis.

Back

independent assortment

Front

The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.

Back

metaphase plate

Front

Plane midway between the two poles of the cell where chromosomes line up during metaphase.

Back

S phase

Front

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

Back

mitotic spindle

Front

An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.

Back

fertilization

Front

Union of gametes.

Back

allele

Front

One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.

Back

genes

Front

Units of heredity made up of DNA.

Back

Section 15

(50 cards)

The Law of Segregation

Front

Two alleles separate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes because they are on on homologous chromosomes.

Back

F2 Generation

Front

After the self-pollenization of the F1 generation, this is produced.

Back

ZW system

Front

A sex determination system in fish, butterflies, birds where males are ZZ and Females are ZW. The egg determines the sex of the offspring.

Back

zygote

Front

Fertilized egg. Carries one set of chromosomes from each parent.

Back

testcross

Front

The result of breeding a recessive homozygote with an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype.

Back

monohybrids

Front

Parents that are heterozygous for one character.

Back

P generation

Front

The name for the true-breeding parents.

Back

variation

Front

Is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings.

Back

multiplication rule

Front

To determine the probability, we multiply the probability of one event by the probability of another.

Back

chromosome theory of inheritance

Front

According to this theory, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.

Back

true-breeding

Front

Organisms that, when reproducing, create offspring of all the same variety.

Back

phenotype

Front

An organism's traits.

Back

polygenic inheritance

Front

An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.

Back

incomplete dominance

Front

Creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other.

Back

cystic fibrosis

Front

A genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems.

Back

aminocentesis

Front

Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves inserting a needle to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus.

Back

synapsis

Front

Homologous chromosomes pair up, aligned gene by gene.

Back

recessive allele

Front

An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present

Back

genotype

Front

An organism's genetic makeup.

Back

pedigree

Front

A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

Back

XY system

Front

A sex determination system in which females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome and males have two different ones.

Back

barr body

Front

A dense body formed from a deactivated X chromosome.

Back

dihybrids

Front

Parents that are heterozygous for two characters.

Back

parental types

Front

Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.

Back

codominance

Front

When which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote.

Back

X linked genes

Front

Genes found on the X chromosome.

Back

hemophilia

Front

An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.

Back

Tay-Sachs disease

Front

A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that leads to the accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth.

Back

sex linked genes

Front

Genes located on the sex chromosomes.

Back

tetrad

Front

A pair of chromosomes form tetrads made up of four chromatids.

Back

addition rule

Front

Considering mutually exclusive events, the probability of both occurring is the sum of the probabilities of each event.

Back

Huntington's disease

Front

Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.

Back

sporophyte

Front

Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism. Makes haploid spores by meiosis.

Back

sickle-cell disease

Front

Genetic disorder in which red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on an abnormal shape.

Back

F1 Generation

Front

The hybrid offspring of true-breeding parents.

Back

Punnett square

Front

A diagram for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup.

Back

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Front

Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion.

Back

hybridization

Front

The crossing of two true-breeding parents.

Back

recombinant types

Front

Offspring who have inherited new combinations of genes and have phenotypes that don't match either parental phenotypes.

Back

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Front

A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.

Back

trait

Front

Each variant of a character.

Back

complete dominance

Front

When the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.

Back

dominant allele

Front

An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

Back

haplo diploid system

Front

A sex determination system in most species of bees and ants in which there are no sex chromosomes. Females develop from fertilized eggs (diploid) and males develop from unfertilized eggs (haploid).

Back

linked genes

Front

Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.

Back

quantitative characters

Front

Characters that vary in the population along a continuum (in gradations).

Back

homozygous

Front

An organism having a pair of identical alleles for a character, either dominant or recessive.

Back

XO system

Front

A sex determination system in some insects in which O stands for the absence of a sex chromosome. Females are XX, Males are XO. Males produce two classes of sperm: X sperm and sperm with no chromosome. The sperm determines the sex of the offspring.

Back

character

Front

A heritable feature that varies among individuals.

Back

genetic recombination

Front

The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.

Back

Section 16

(50 cards)

template strand

Front

The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA transcript.

Back

terminator

Front

In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.

Back

linkage map

Front

A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.

Back

nuclease

Front

A DNA cutting enzyme that excises damaged DNA.

Back

5' cap

Front

The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.

Back

translocation

Front

Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.

Back

one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis

Front

The premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide.

Back

lagging strand

Front

A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.

Back

cytogenetic maps

Front

A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.

Back

primase

Front

An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.

Back

telomeres

Front

Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

Back

aneuploidy

Front

Abnormal number of chromosomes.

Back

Hersey-Chase Experiment

Front

Devised an experiment that showed that only the DNA of T2 phages enters a bacterial cell during infection.

Back

genetic map

Front

An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.

Back

poly-A tail

Front

Modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.

Back

telomerase

Front

An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.

Back

bacteriophages

Front

A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.

Back

McCarty, Avery, & MacLeod

Front

Confirmed that the transforming agent in Griffith's experiment was DNA.

Back

semiconservative model

Front

Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.

Back

messenger RNA (mRNA)

Front

Carries genetic message from the DNA to he protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell.

Back

RNA processing

Front

The modification of mRNA before it leaves the nucleus that is unique to eukaryotes.

Back

Frederick Griffith

Front

Discovered transformation during an experiment that involved injecting mice with smooth S cells, rough R cells, heat-killed S cells, and heat-killed S cells with living R cells.

Back

transcription

Front

Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.

Back

genomic imprinting

Front

Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele is inherited from the male or female parent.

Back

triplet code

Front

Three-nucleotide long set that specifies a specific amino acid for a polypeptide chain.

Back

trisomic

Front

A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two.

Back

Downs Syndrome

Front

A congenital disorder caused by having an extra Chromosome 21.

Back

translation

Front

The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.

Back

primary transcript

Front

The initial mRNA transcript that is transcribed from a protein coding gene. Also called pre-mRNA.

Back

map units

Front

A measurement of the distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to a 1 percent recombination frequency.

Back

ribosomes

Front

Complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains.

Back

Watson and Crick

Front

Developed the double helix model of DNA.

Back

promoter

Front

A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing mRNA.

Back

inversion

Front

A type of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed.

Back

single-strand binding protein (SSB)

Front

Binds to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template.

Back

deletion

Front

A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.

Back

Okazaki fragments

Front

Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.

Back

DNA polymerase

Front

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.

Back

nondisjunction

Front

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

Back

Erwin Chargaff

Front

Discovered that DNA composition varies, but the amount of adenine is always the same as thymine and the amount of cytosine is always the same as guanine.

Back

TATA box

Front

A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.

Back

origins of replication

Front

Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.

Back

RNA polymerase

Front

Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.

Back

crossing over

Front

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

Back

replication fork

Front

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

Back

Meselson & Stahl

Front

Determined that DNA replication is semiconservative.

Back

leading strand

Front

The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction.

Back

helicase

Front

An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.

Back

monosomic

Front

A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two.

Back

transformation

Front

A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.

Back

Section 17

(50 cards)

transcription factors

Front

Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.

Back

exons

Front

Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.

Back

operon

Front

A unit of genetic function common in bacteria and phages, consisting of coordinately regulated clusters of genes with related functions.

Back

cyclic AMP (cAMP)

Front

A compound formed from ATP that acts as a second messenger.

Back

point mutations

Front

chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene

Back

missense mutations

Front

Most common type of mutation, a base pair mutation in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.

Back

alternative RNA splicing

Front

Genes giving rise to two or more different polypeptides depending upon which segments are treated as exons.

Back

provirus

Front

Viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.

Back

reading frame

Front

Reading mRNA nucleotides in the correct groupings.

Back

host range

Front

The limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize.

Back

ribozymes

Front

RNA molecules that function as enzymes.

Back

plasmid

Front

A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast.

Back

polyribosomes

Front

Strings of ribosomes that work together to translate a RNA message.

Back

operator

Front

Region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions.

Back

codons

Front

mRNA base triplets.

Back

signal peptide

Front

A stretch of amino acids on a polypeptide that targets the protein to a specific destination in a eukaryotic cell.

Back

RNA splicing

Front

Process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together.

Back

bacteriophage

Front

A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.

Back

capsid

Front

The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complex in shape.

Back

R plasmid

Front

A bacterial plasmid carrying genes that confer resistance to certain antibiotics.

Back

ribosomal A site

Front

Site that holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain.

Back

mutagens

Front

physical and chemical agents that interact with DNA to cause mutations

Back

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

Front

The infectious agent that causes AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus.

Back

ribosomal P site

Front

Site that holds tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.

Back

wobble

Front

Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position of a codon.

Back

transcription initiation complex

Front

The assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase.

Back

episome

Front

A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.

Back

signal-recognition particle

Front

A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome.

Back

inducer

Front

A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.

Back

prophage

Front

A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.

Back

nucleoid

Front

A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.

Back

mutations

Front

Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.

Back

frameshift mutation

Front

Mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in improper grouping of nucleotides into codons.

Back

lysogenic cycle

Front

A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.

Back

splicosome

Front

Different particles that recognize splice sites are compiled in a large assembly. A complex of RNA and protein subunits. Removes introns from a transcribed pre-RNA segments.

Back

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Front

RNA molecules that construct ribosomal subunits.

Back

nonsense mutations

Front

A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.

Back

introns

Front

Noncoding segments of nucleic acid that lie between coding sequences.

Back

Ribosomal E site

Front

Site where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.

Back

domains

Front

Discrete structural and functional regions of proteins.

Back

lytic cycle

Front

A type of viral (phage) replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis (and death) of the host cell.

Back

F factor

Front

A piece of DNA that confers the ability form a sex pili.

Back

anticodon

Front

Specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.

Back

regulatory gene

Front

A gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes.

Back

repressor

Front

A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene.

Back

activator

Front

A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a specific gene.

Back

transfer RNA (tRNA)

Front

Interpreter of a series of codons along a mRNA molecule.

Back

F plasmid

Front

The plasmid form of the F factor.

Back

one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis

Front

there is one gene that codes for one polypeptide

Back

insertion sequence

Front

The simplest kind of transposable element, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition.

Back

Section 18

(50 cards)

biotechnology

Front

The manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful products.

Back

cDNA library

Front

A limited gene library using complementary DNA. The library includes only the genes that were transcribed in the cells examined.

Back

linkage map

Front

A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.

Back

expression vector

Front

A cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted.

Back

RNA interference

Front

Blocking gene expression by means of an miRNA silencing complex.

Back

Human Genome Project

Front

An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.

Back

cloning

Front

Making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism.

Back

viral envelope

Front

A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.

Back

yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)

Front

A cloning vector that has telomeres and a centromere that can accommodate large DNA inserts and uses the eukaryote yeast as a host cell.

Back

genomic library

Front

A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector.

Back

recombinant DNA

Front

A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.

Back

totipotent

Front

Cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body.

Back

genomic equivalence

Front

All cells in an organism contain the same complement of genes. These are the same set of genes that are established in the fertilized egg.

Back

differential gene expression

Front

The expression of different sets of genes by cells with the same genome.

Back

gene expression

Front

Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein.

Back

complementary DNA (cDNA)

Front

DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

Back

gel electrophoresis

Front

The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.

Back

Southern blotting

Front

A hybridization technique that enables researchers to determine the presence of certain nucleotide sequences in a sample of DNA.

Back

DNA sequencing

Front

Determining the exact order of the base pairs in a segment of DNA.

Back

histone acetylation

Front

The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins.

Back

nucleic acid hybridization

Front

Base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule.

Back

reverse transcriptase

Front

An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.

Back

genetic engineering

Front

The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.

Back

restriction site

Front

A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a cut siteby a restriction enzyme.

Back

transposable genetic element

Front

A segment of DNA that can move within the genome of a cell by means of a DNA or RNA intermediate; also called a transposable element.

Back

vaccine

Front

A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen.

Back

restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Front

differences in the restriction sites on homologous chromosomes that result in different restriction fragment patterns.

Back

restriction fragment

Front

The fragment of DNA that is produced by cleaving DNA with a restriction enzyme.

Back

retrovirus

Front

An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses.

Back

micro-RNA (miRNA)

Front

small single stranded RNA molecules that bind to mRNA and can degrade mRNA or block its translation.

Back

DNA ligase

Front

A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.

Back

sticky end

Front

A single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragment.

Back

epigenetic inheritance

Front

Inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence.

Back

proteasomes

Front

A giant protein complex that recognizes and destroys proteins tagged for elimination by the small protein ubiquitin.

Back

transposon

Front

A transposable genetic element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.

Back

cell differentiation

Front

the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function.

Back

restriction enzyme

Front

A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium.

Back

enhancer

Front

A DNA segment containing multiple control elements that can recognize certain transcription factors that stimulate the transcription of nearby genes.

Back

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Front

A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.

Back

gene cloning

Front

The production of multiple copies of a gene.

Back

nucleic acid probe

Front

Radioactively labeled nucleic acid molecule used to tag a particular DNA sequence.

Back

denaturation

Front

In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.

Back

cloning vector

Front

DNA molecules that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there.

Back

control elements

Front

segments of noncoding DNA in eukaryotic genes that help regulate transcription by binding to certain proteins.

Back

bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

Front

An artificial version of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of 100, 000 to 500, 000 base pairs.

Back

electroporation

Front

A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing the cells. The pulse creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membrane, through which DNA can enter.

Back

temperate phage

Front

A phage that is capable of reproducing by either the lytic or lysogenic cycle.

Back

physical map

Front

A genetic map in which the actual physical distances between genes or other genetic markers are expressed, usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA.

Back

DNA methylation

Front

The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.

Back

siRNAs (small interfering RNAs)

Front

RNAs of similar size and functions as miRNAs that inhibit gene expression.

Back

Section 19

(50 cards)

mesophyll

Front

Spongy tissue in the interior of the leaf where most chloroplasts are found.

Back

veins

Front

Bundles of xylem and phloem.

Back

receptacle

Front

The base of a flower; the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.

Back

cyclic photophosphorolation

Front

Only Photosystem I works. ATP is made, no oxygen is produced, no water is split, no NADPH is made.

Back

light reaction

Front

Part of photosynthesis that involves light. ATP and NADPH are produced. Takes place on the thylakoid membrane.

Back

p680

Front

Reaction center chlorophyll in the photosystem II.

Back

reproductive cloning

Front

Using a somatic cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals.

Back

leaf

Front

The major sites of photosynthesis in most plants.

Back

induction

Front

The process by which neighboring cells can influence the determination of a cell.

Back

photoautotrophs

Front

Organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances.

Back

carbon fixation

Front

The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds.

Back

calvin cycle

Front

Carbon fixation process in photosynthesis. Forms sugar and other organic compounds.

Back

absorption spectrum

Front

A graph plotting a pigment light light absorption.

Back

chlorophyll

Front

Green pigment located within the chloroplasts.

Back

photosystem

Front

A cluster of pigments embedded into a thylakoid membrane.

Back

sepal

Front

A modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens.

Back

carpel

Front

The ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.

Back

style

Front

The stalk of a flower's carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top.

Back

pistil

Front

A single carpel or a group of fused carpels in a flower.

Back

determination

Front

The point during development at which a cell becomes committed to a particular fate due to cytoplasmic effects or to induction by neighboring cells.

Back

anther

Front

In an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains containing sperm-producing male gametophytes form.

Back

noncyclic photophosphorolation

Front

Photosystem II performs photolysis to provide electrons for the electron transport chain that drives a chemiosmotic gradient that produces ATP.

Back

p700

Front

Reaction center cholophyll in the photosystem I.

Back

cytoplasmic determinants

Front

Maternal substances in egg that influence the course of early development.

Back

stamen

Front

The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.

Back

action spectrum

Front

A profile of the relative performance of the different wavelengths in photosynthesis.

Back

chlorophyll a

Front

Only pigment that can participate directly in the light reactions.

Back

pluripotent

Front

Able to give rise to multiple, but not all, cell types.

Back

ovary

Front

In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop.

Back

granum

Front

Stack of thylakoids.

Back

stigma

Front

The sticky part of a flower's carpel, which receives pollen grain.

Back

therapeutic cloning

Front

The cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes, such as the generation of embryonic stem cells to treat disease.

Back

thylakoid

Front

Flattened membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions take place.

Back

reaction center

Front

The location of the first light driven chemical reaction of photosynthesis.

Back

phosphoralation

Front

Process of adding a phosphate group.

Back

reducing agent

Front

Donates electrons and becomes oxidized.

Back

primary electron acceptor

Front

Specialized molecule that shares a reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule in the light reaction. traps high energy electron before it can return to ground state in the chlorophyll.

Back

nuclear transplantation

Front

A technique in which the nucleus of one cell is placed into another cell that already has a nucleus or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed.

Back

stomata

Front

Microscopic pores in the leaf which lets CO2 in and O2 out. Also where water is lost.

Back

pigments

Front

Molecules that absorb, reflect, or transmit light.

Back

chemiosmosis

Front

Process by which a Hydrogen pump pumps protons into the thylakoid membrane. H+ passively flows through the ATP synthase which leads to the creation of ATP.

Back

stem cell

Front

Unspecialized cell that can both reproduce itself indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types.

Back

oxidizing agent

Front

Accepts electrons and becomes reduced.

Back

ovule

Front

A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.

Back

stroma

Front

Fluid inside the chloroplast where the Calvin Cycle happens.

Back

petal

Front

A modified leaf of a flowering plant; petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.

Back

photolysis

Front

In the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-dependant reactions, two molecules of water are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons.

Back

rubisco

Front

The most abundant protein on earth. Performs Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle.

Back

Equation of photosynthesis.

Front

Back

carotenoids

Front

Accessory pigments that broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.

Back

Section 20

(50 cards)

blue-light photoreceptors

Front

A class of light receptors in plants. Blue light initiates a variety of responses, such as phototropism and slowing of hypocotyl elongation.

Back

multiple fruit

Front

A fruit derived from an entire inflorescence.

Back

systemic acquired resistance (SAR)

Front

A defensive response in infected plants that helps protect healthy tissue from pathogenic invasion.

Back

elicitors

Front

A molecule that induces a broad type of host defense response

Back

virulent

Front

A term describing a pathogen against which a plant has little specific defense.

Back

vernalization

Front

The use of cold treatment to induce a plant to flower.

Back

hypocotyl

Front

The part of a plant embryo directly below the cotyledons, forming a connection with the radicle.

Back

dioecious

Front

If staminate and carpellate flowers are on different plants.

Back

short-day plant

Front

A plant that flowers only when the light period is shorter than a critical length. Usually fall or winter.

Back

cytokinins

Front

A class of plant hormones that retard aging and act in concert with auxin to stimulate cell division, influence the pathway of differentiation, and control apical dominance.

Back

fruit ripening

Front

A burst of ethylene production in a fruit triggers the ripening process.

Back

florigen

Front

A flowering signal, not yet chemically identified, that may be a hormone or may be a change in relative concentrations of multiple hormones.

Back

long-day plant

Front

A plant that flowers only when the light period is longer than a critical length. Usually spring or early summer.

Back

auxin

Front

Indoleacetic acid (IAA), a natural plant hormone that has a variety of effects, including cell elongation, root formation, secondary growth, and fruit growth.

Back

fruit

Front

A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and often aids in their dispersal.

Back

coleoptile

Front

Covers and protects the shoot as it grows upward.

Back

circadian rhythm

Front

A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.

Back

phytochromes

Front

A class of light receptors in plants. Mostly absorbing red light, these photoreceptors regulate many plant responses, including seed germination and shade avoidance.

Back

apoptosis

Front

Programmed cell death.

Back

photomorphogenesis

Front

Effects of light on plant morphology.

Back

gibberellins

Front

A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development.

Back

aggregate fruit

Front

A fruit derived from a single flower that has more than one carpel.

Back

double fertilization

Front

A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.

Back

dormancy

Front

A condition typified by extremely low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development.

Back

radicle

Front

An embryonic root of a plant.

Back

endosperm

Front

In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. Provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.

Back

pollen tube

Front

A tube that forms after germination of the pollen grain and that functions in the delivery of sperm to the ovule.

Back

day-neutral plant

Front

A plant whose flowering is not affected by photoperiod.

Back

simple fruit

Front

A fruit derived from a single carpel or several fused carpels.

Back

oligosaccharins

Front

A type of elicitor that is derived from cellulose fragments released by cell wall damage

Back

jasmonic acid

Front

An important molecule in plant defense against herbivores.

Back

tropism

Front

A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation.

Back

seed coat

Front

A tough outer covering of a seed, formed from the outer coat of an ovule.

Back

etiolation

Front

Plant morphological adaptations for growing in darkness.

Back

complete flower

Front

A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

Back

triple response

Front

A plant growth maneuver in response to mechanical stress, involving slowing of stem elongation, a thickening of the stem, and a curvature that causes the stem to start growing horizontally.

Back

inflorescence

Front

A group of flowers tightly clustered together.

Back

PR protein

Front

A protein involved in plant responses to pathogens (PR = pathogenesis-related).

Back

phototropism

Front

Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.

Back

monoecious

Front

If staminate and carpellate flowers are on the same plant.

Back

abscisic acid (ABA)

Front

A plant hormone that slows down growth, promotes seed dormancy and facilitates drought tolerance.

Back

ethylene

Front

The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening.

Back

photoperiodism

Front

A physiological response to photoperiod, the relative lengths of night and day. An example of photoperiodism is flowering.

Back

de-etiolation

Front

The changes a plant shoot undergoes in response to sunlight; also known informally as greening.

Back

self-incompatibility

Front

The ability of a seed plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals.

Back

avirulent

Front

A term describing a pathogen that can only mildly harm, but not kill, the host plant.

Back

hypersensitive response (HR)

Front

A plant's localized defense response to a pathogen

Back

incomplete flower

Front

A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs such as sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels are either absent or nonfunctional.

Back

leaf abscission

Front

Aging and dropping of leaves controlled by auxin and ethylene.

Back

gene-for-gene recognition

Front

A widespread form of plant disease resistance involving recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by the protein products of specific plant disease resistance genes.

Back

Section 21

(13 cards)

topoisomerase

Front

Enzyme that functions in DNA replication, helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.

Back

chromatin

Front

The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.

Back

response

Front

The transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response.

Back

repolarization

Front

Return of the cell to resting state, caused by reentry of potassium into the cell while sodium exits the cell.

Back

transduction

Front