Child Development CHAPTER 1

Child Development CHAPTER 1

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Section 1

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What 2 BASIC TYPES of GROWTH go hand in hand? Why do they go hand in hand?

Front

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Last updated

2 years ago

Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (50)

Section 1

(50 cards)

What 2 BASIC TYPES of GROWTH go hand in hand? Why do they go hand in hand?

Front

Social and Emotional Social is interacting with others and emotional is how you feel when you interact with others and learning how to interact with others.

Back

Physical

Front

Using your body (Throwing a ball, running, walking)

Back

What are the benefits of observing children?

Front

1. Better understood their development 2. Identify ways of meeting their needs 3. Identify a child with special needs 4. get feedback on caregiving

Back

Erickson

Front

~Learn by a crisis (crisis met in positive way then developed normally) ~Stages of development: --Trust vs Mistrust: Birth-18 months: Learn to trust the caregiver. --Autonomy vs Doubt: 18 months- 3 years: They are independent of others. --Initiative vs Guilt: 4-6 years: Think independently --Industry vs Inferiority: 7-12 years: Learns to think about others --Identify vs Role Confusion: 12-18: Combines previous learning into self.

Back

Bronfenbrenner

Front

~Layers of environment affects a child's behavior. ~A child's primary relationship needs to be stable living and long lasting.

Back

Maslow estimated that only 2% of people reach which level of the hierarchy?

Front

Self actualization

Back

Developmental Checklist

Front

A list of skills that should be mastered by a certain age. Examples: reading words, how fast you can run, remembering your address.

Back

Cooperative play

Front

Organized, working/playing together.

Back

How should you position yourself and interact with children when observing?

Front

Formal- near the children where you can communicate well Informal-Be discrete, don't make it obvious that you are observing the child

Back

Skinner

Front

~A child's positive actions will be repeated. ~A child's negative actions results in stopping the behavior. ~He created operant conditions. ~ + reinforcement ~ - reinforcement ~Extinction~Intermediate enforcement ~Mix it up

Back

Freud

Front

~Childhood has a profound effect on adult life. ~Stages of personality development: --ID: Wants pleasure not pain. (What i want) --EGO: Cause and effect (what will happen) --SUPER EGO: looks at both.

Back

What are the BASIC TYPES of GROWTH?

Front

~Physical ~Emotional ~Intellectual ~Social ~Moral

Back

Emotional

Front

Learning how to interact with others (How you feel when you interact with others)

Back

What are examples of ways parents and other caregivers can help children develop self-esteem?

Front

-Give Praise -Don't be overly critical -Set realistic goals

Back

The Thirties

Front

Establish roots and re-evaluate life choices

Back

How are the objective observations different from subjective observations?

Front

Objective observations are factual, but subjective observations are personal opinions and feelings

Back

Parallel play

Front

Playing side by side but not interacting, 2 different activities.

Back

Subjective observations

Front

A personal opinion

Back

When doing a frequency count, why is it important to establish a baseline count?

Front

When doing a frequency count, it is important to establish a baseline count before any changes are made to stop the behavior

Back

Bandura

Front

~Children learn by imitating others ~Behavior effects environment ~Environment affects behavior. ~Disagreed with Skinner because he felt caregivers should also provide good examples.

Back

Frequency count

Front

tallying how many times a certain behavior occurs. It is useful if you want to change behaviors.

Back

Anecdotal Record

Front

Focus on specific behavior without a time limit.

Back

Moral

Front

Learning right from wrong.

Back

Intellectual

Front

Learning with your mind (counting blocks)

Back

Specific guidelines for observing young children. (I used Mrs. Voss' paper for this answer)

Front

~Formally (make an appointment) or informally (sitting at a meal) Have and know the purpose ~Understand what you are observing ~Be prepared bc things happen quickly. ~Be respectful, be on time, follow procedures ~children ask questions so be brief, honest, and avoid carrying on conversation. ~Transfer notes to type interpretations. (what is observed) ~Identify who, what, where, and when. ~Be descriptive (Give pictures of what you see) ~Make comparisons of similar and different, and compare groups of children ~uncover the data and look at the facts ~Review and clarify by reading through the comments made, clarify connections, and add additional notes.

Back

Late adulthood

Front

Retire, become more involved in the community

Back

Explain why observation is important in the study of a child's development.

Front

You can tell: ~if a child is having trouble hearing. ~if a teacher is having trouble or problems. ~to see if the child is social or interactive. ~See if the child is communicating/talking.

Back

Piaget

Front

~He was the first to study children ~4 stages of learning: --Sensorimotor: Birth-age 2: Understanding their senses (taste, touch, smell) --Preoperational: 2-7: Language and image understanding --Concrete Operational: 7-12: Understanding others point of view. --Formal operations: 13 and up: Understanding using abstract thinking.

Back

What are the 4 types of operant conditioning and who created them?

Front

Skinner: ~Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement ~Extinction ~Intermittent reinforcement

Back

Be able to label the 5 stages of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs diagram

Front

Back

Which type of observation is more useful? Subjective or Objective?

Front

Objective because it tells you proven facts

Back

What are the 5 basic classifications of SOCIAL PATTERNS used by children?

Front

~Unoccupied ~Onlooker ~Parallel play ~Associative play ~Cooperative play

Back

Onlooker

Front

Watching others play

Back

Objective observations

Front

facts/ data that is in front of you

Back

Very late adulthood

Front

Decline in health, share experiences to society.

Back

Middle age

Front

Adjust to more independent children, re-evaluate life choices and make changes.

Back

What is a good way to remember the BASIC TYPES of GROWTH?

Front

P Physical I Intellectual E Emotional S Social M Moral (idk why I am laughing so hard at that random M)

Back

Associative play

Front

Playing side by side but not interacting, the same activity.

Back

Social

Front

How you interact with others.

Back

What is the difference between observation and interpretation?

Front

An observation is what you SAW when observing and interpretation is how you ANALYZE what you observed

Back

Maslow

Front

~Hierarchy of Needs: (Top to bottom) --Self actualization -- Esteem --Love and belonging --Safety --Psychological

Back

Explain the importance of confidentiality in connection with observation records

Front

Not everyone needs to know. Keep what needs to be private, private

Back

Gesell

Front

~Nature over nurture ~The child isn't ready to learn if it doesn't want to.

Back

how does self-esteem affect development?

Front

Children who feel good about themselves are more likely to show enthusiasm for learning, forming friendships, and make healthy choices. Helps them deal with success and failure

Back

Young adulthood

Front

Begin a career

Back

What are the BASIC TYPES of PLAY?

Front

~ Dramatic or make believe play (Princesses, tea party with stuffed animals, playing pretend) ~ Active play: playing with something (Blocks, legos, toys) ~Passive play: watching TV or movie/ observing ~ Skill mastery play: ~ Sensory motor play: Using your senses when you play (Pool or sandbox) ~Rough and tumble: Wrestling

Back

Running Record

Front

Write down everything you see for a certain period of time.

Back

Unoccupied

Front

Not doing anything

Back

Vygotsky

Front

~Nurture over nature ~Adults provide encouragement ~Child does task with adult supervision ~SOCIAL CONTACT is essential for intellectual development ~Environment (nurture) is more influential than hereditary (nature).

Back

Adolescence:

Front

Create identity, become independent, pursue an education and career opportunities.

Back