AP Chemistry Big idea #1

AP Chemistry Big idea #1

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Section 1

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Plum Pudding Model

Front

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (57)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Plum Pudding Model

Front

negative charges on atoms were called electrons that were sprinkld throughout the poistively charged atom like chocolate chips in cookie dough

Back

Aufbau Principle

Front

when building up the electron configuration of an atom, electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy.

Back

Incoming energy (photon)=

Front

ioniyation energy + kinetic energy (of an electron)

Back

What are electrons repelled by?

Front

electrons are repelled by other electrons in an atom

Back

The faster an ejected electron is going...

Front

...the more kinetic energy it has and the further it was from the nucleus originally

Back

Empirical formula

Front

represents the simplest ratio of one element to another in a compound (ie, CH₂O)

Back

Atomic Radius

Front

the approximate distance from the nucleus of an atom to its valence electrons

Back

Robert Millikan

Front

able to calculate the charge on an electron by examining the behavior of charged oil drops in an electric field

Back

Energy change

Front

ΔE=hν=hc/λ

Back

shorthand notation for electron configuration

Front

Back

electron configuration

Front

the complete description of the energy level and subshell that each electron on an element inhabits

Back

Molecular formula

Front

represents actual formula for the substance (ie. C₆H₁₂O₆)

Back

f-subshell

Front

holds maximum of 14 electrons

Back

Coulomb's law definition

Front

the amount of energy that an electron has depends on its distance from the nucleus of the atom Greater charge leads to greater bond energy

Back

Completed shells are...

Front

...very stable

Back

Frequency and wavelength

Front

c=λν

Back

p-subshell

Front

second subshell, holds maximum of 6 electrons

Back

Speed of light c

Front

3,00 x 10⁸ m/sec

Back

Dalton's theory on elements

Front

there are many different kinds of atoms called elements which combine to form compounds and the compounds always contain the same ratios of elements

Back

Coulomb's law equation

Front

E=k(+q)(-q)/r

Back

How to calculate percent composition

Front

Dividing the mass of each element or component in a compound by the total molar mass for the substance

Back

Speed of light in a vacuum

Front

2,998 x 10⁸ m/sec

Back

Rutherford's expirement

Front

all positive charge in an atom was concentrated in the center and that an atom is mostly empty space

Back

PV=

Front

nRT

Back

Subshells

Front

describe the shape f the space the electron can be found in

Back

What are electrons attracted to?

Front

electrons are attracted to the protons in the nucleus of an atom

Back

Ionization Energy

Front

the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom

Back

Photoelectron spectra (PES)

Front

the amount of ionization energy for all electrons ejected from a nucleus charted

Back

What is shielding?

Front

other electrons are between a valence electron and the nucleus causing the valence electron to be less atrracted to the nucleus

Back

Bohr Model

Front

electrons orbit the nucleus at specific, fixed radii, like planets orbiting the Sun

Back

Puali Exclusion Principle

Front

Within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers.

Back

Hund's Rule

Front

when an elecron is added to a subshell, it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available

Back

Why do electrons on outer levels have less energy

Front

thez hae a greater distance between themselves and the nucleus and are shielded from the nucleus by electrons on lower energy levels

Back

Percent composition

Front

Percent by mass of each element that makes up a compound.

Back

Quantum Theory equation

Front

E= hv

Back

Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths lead to...

Front

more energy

Back

Quantized electrons

Front

electrons can only exist at specific energy leves, separated by specific intervals

Back

Kinetic energy

Front

energy of motion

Back

Quantum Theory

Front

for a given frequency of radiation (light), all possible energies are multiples of a certain unit of energy called quantum

Back

Molecules in a mole

Front

6.022 x 10²³

Back

s-subshell

Front

first subshell, holds maximum of 2 electrons

Back

Planck's constant h

Front

6,93 x 10⁻³⁴joule-sec

Back

Heisenberg Uncertainty principle

Front

It is impossible to know both the position and momentum of an electron at a particular instant

Back

The closer an electron is to the nucleus... (in respect to ionization energy)

Front

...the higher the ionization energy will be

Back

Molality

Front

Moles/kg of solvent

Back

Molarity

Front

Moles/Liters of solution

Back

The closer an energy level is to an atom...

Front

...the more energy electrons on that lavel have

Back

Gas constant R

Front

.0821 L-atm/mol-K

Back

What does each peak in the PES represent?

Front

different energy levels

Back

d-subshell

Front

holds maximum of 10 electrons

Back

Section 2

(7 cards)

Cations

Front

formed when electrons are removed from an atom, the outer shell is lost and the cation is smaller, electron-electron repulsions are reduced

Back

Periodic trends

Front

Back

Why is the second ionization energy greater than the first ionization energy

Front

electron-electron repulsion decreases, remaining valence electrons move closer to the nucleus

Back

Atomic radius

Front

Back

Anions

Front

An electron is added, electron-electron repulsions increase, valence electrons move farther apart

Back

Electronegativity

Front

hwo strongly the nucleus of an atom attracts electrons of other atoms in a bond

Back

State and Boiling/Melting point of ionic bonds

Front

Solid at room temp.

Back