Section 1

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Heat of Vaporization

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (46)

Section 1

(46 cards)

Heat of Vaporization

Front

Amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a substance from liquid to gas -water has a high heat of vaporization which is why sweating helps cool organisms

Back

Cohesion

Front

When a molecule is attraction to one another because of polarity (hydrogen bonds) -water -causes surface tension

Back

Increasing Rate of Reaction

Front

More concentration = more collisions Higher temperature = more collisions Catalysts = facilitate chemical reactions

Back

Hydroxide Ion

Front

Ion left behind after the hydrogen atom dissociates from a water molecule; anion

Back

Polar Bond

Front

In covalent bonds, when there is an unequal distribution of charge and so there is partial negative and partial positive charge

Back

Surface Tension

Front

Tautness of the surface of a liquid caused by the cohesion of molecules -water strider walking on water

Back

Solute

Front

Molecule being dissolved in a solution

Back

Hydrophobic

Front

Substances that do not combine or are not soluble in water

Back

Molarity

Front

(M) Moles of solute per liter of solvent (moles/L)

Back

Isotope

Front

Atoms of an element with different number of neutrons; these have same chemical properties but different masses and may be radioactive

Back

pH

Front

"Partial Hydrogen", the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution (pH=-log[H+])

Back

Buffer

Front

Substance that resists changes in pH -Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) [H20 + CO2 → H2CO3 → HCO3 + H+] -for controlling blood pH (around 7.4) -blood acidosis = pH 7.1 or lower -blood alkalosis = pH 7.7 or higher

Back

Ice Water

Front

Solid water is less dense than liquid water -why lake freezes from top and liquid water on bottom for organisms to live

Back

Electron

Front

Negatively charged subatomic particles located in orbitals around the nucleus of an atom

Back

Atom

Front

The smallest unit of an element that contains all the characteristics of that atom; the building blocks of matter

Back

Adhesion

Front

When a polar molecule is attracted to other polar molecules -water -causes capillary action -things that get "wet"

Back

Valence Electrons

Front

Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom; the key to chemical bonds

Back

Element

Front

Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by ordinary chemical means

Back

Compound

Front

When a molecule contains more than one element

Back

Half-life

Front

Amount of time it takes for half of a substance to decay

Back

Solvent

Front

Median in which one or more solutes are dissolved in -water is universal solvent

Back

Matter

Front

Any substance that has mass and occupies space

Back

Molecule

Front

Group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association (chemical bond)

Back

Ionic Bond

Front

Chemical bond forming between oppositely charged ions (cation + anion)

Back

Hydrogen Bond

Front

A weak chemical association with hydrogen in polar covalent bonds

Back

Specific Heat

Front

Amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost by 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree celsius -water has high specific heat which is why cities by water bodies are cool i.e. San Francisco

Back

Octet Rule

Front

Rule that atoms tend to completely fill their outermost energy level

Back

Acid

Front

Any substance that dissociates in water to increase the hydrogen ion concentration and has pH lower than 7

Back

Nucleus

Front

The central core in atoms composed of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons

Back

Aqueous Solution

Front

A solution where the solvent is water

Back

Capillary Action

Front

Tendency of a liquid in a tube to rise above the surrounding liquid -transpiration in plants

Back

Base

Front

Any substance that dissociates in water to absorb and decrease the H+ concentration and has pH higher than 7

Back

Atomic Number

Front

The number of protons in an atom which defines the element

Back

Neutron

Front

Subatomic particle that has no charge and makes up the nucleus of an atom

Back

Ion

Front

Atoms in which the number of electrons is not the same as the number of protons and are either positive or negative

Back

Hydrogen Ion

Front

Proton that dissociates from a water molecule to be a cation

Back

Hydrophilic

Front

Substances that combine or are soluble in water

Back

Electronegativity

Front

The tendency of an ion to take an electron -increases up periodic table and to the right -different electronegativity creates polar covalent bonds

Back

Covalent Bond

Front

Chemical bond forming when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons -single, double or triple bonds (increase in strength)

Back

Hydrophobic Exclusion

Front

Nonpolar molecules (hydrophobic) are forced to cluster together in presence of water -important for structure of proteins, DNA and cell membranes

Back

Cation

Front

A positively charged ion that has more protons than electrons

Back

Anion

Front

A negatively charged ion that has more electrons than protons

Back

Atomic Mass

Front

The sum of the masses of protons and neutrons of an atom; electrons aren't necessarily taken into account because they are relatively weightless

Back

Hydration Shell

Front

Cloud of water molecules that forms around ions or polar molecules to prevent them from bonding; dissolving

Back

Proton

Front

Positively charged subatomic particle that makes up the nucleus of an atom

Back

Mole

Front

Unit of something -weight of substance in grams of atomic masses -6.02x10^23 particles in a mole (Avogadro's Number) -22.4 Liters of gas at STP (0°C or 273K @ 1atm or 101kPa)

Back