AP Human Geography - Key Geographic Models

AP Human Geography - Key Geographic Models

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Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction

Front

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (14)

Section 1

(14 cards)

Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction

Front

1. Larger places attract more migrants than smaller places 2. More distant places have a weaker pull than closer places of the same size

Back

Sector Model

Front

Predicts and explains North American urban growth patterns based on socio-economic class. Each class would occupy an sector radiating outward from the CBD.

Back

Ravenstein's Laws of Migration

Front

1. Most migration is over short distances 2. Longer distance migrants usually go to big cities 3. Economic opportunity is the primary cause of migration 4. Most migration is from rural to urban areas

Back

Von Thunen's Model

Front

Predicts agricultural land use based on transportation costs to a town/city. - More intensive land use is closer to the city - More extensive land use is farther away

Back

Rostow's Stages of Economic Development

Front

Claims all countries industrialize in a five stage process. Early growth of one industry leads to advancements in other types of industry which spreads throughout the entire economy. (EX: Ford's assembly line that revolutionized auto manufacturing has led to advancements in other types of manufacturing and even food production.)

Back

Migration Transition Model (Zelinsky Model)

Front

Migration follows DTM stages. Stage 1: Migration for food (hunter/gatherers) Stage 2: Migration for economic opportunity (people try to move into industrialized stage 3 & 4 countries) Stage 3 and 4: Less emigration and more internal migration (EX: moving from New York to LA for work)

Back

Latin American City Model (Used for much of the developing world)

Front

Model to explain urban growth for cities in the developing world (think of primate cities). Show that residential quality decreases with distance from the CBD. Nicer areas are the "zone of maturity" where services and utilities are common. The outer areas are the periphery, where squatter settlements are prevalent and utilities, services and governance are lacking.

Back

Multiple-Nuclei Model

Front

Explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces. Says that growth occurs independently around several major foci (or nodes).

Back

Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

Front

- Four stages of transition from an agricultural-subsistence economy to an industrialized country - Moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, with increasing levels of population

Back

Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution

Front

Four stages of city growth based on transportation (not connected to DTM). 1. "Sail wagon" era - covered wagons moving West. 2. "Iron horse" era - steam engines 3. "steel rail" - Modern freight trains 4. Current era - car and air travel

Back

Central Place Theory

Front

Predicts patterns of urban places across space. Organized hierarchical pattern of cities, villages, towns and hamlets.

Back

Least Cost Theory (Weber's Model of Industrial Location)

Front

Industry will chose its location based on a desire to minimize production and transportation costs. (Think of bulk-gaining vs. bulk-reducing industries and shipping costs to and from a factory)

Back

Epidemiological Transition Model

Front

Patterns of common disease that follows stages of the DTM. Stage 1: plague and pestilence Stage 2: receding pandemics Stage 3: Lifestyle/degenerative disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, etc) Stage 4: Delayed degenerative diseases (same as stage 3, but even later in life)

Back

Concentric Zone Model

Front

Predicts the growth of North American urban spaces. Cities can be viewed as a series of concentric rings. The CBD is in the middle and each ring going out has a unique characteristic of its land use.

Back