AP Psychology

AP Psychology

Units 2-14

Anna (lvl 7)
Unit 2: Research Methods: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

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What are illusory correlations?

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Cards (95)

Unit 2: Research Methods: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

(35 cards)

What are illusory correlations?

Front

Correlations we make without data that are confirmed with our intuitun but in reality are not realistic because of confirmation and hindsight bias, as well as our tendency to see order in chaos.

Back

What are the three main components of the scientific attitude? Why are they important?

Front

Curiosity, skepticism, and humility. Curiosity allows us to ask questions in the first place, skepicism forces us to create a bias-free method of research, and humility lets us accept the answer pointed to by data, not our own preconcieved opinions.

Back

How does one calculate standard deviation?

Front

the square root of ((Sum of (deviations squared))/number of scores)

 

For example, with 2,4,6:

 

Mean: 4

Deviations: 2, 2; sum after being squared: 8

 

8/3=2.6, sqr root, 1.6

Back

What is statistical significance?

Front

Statistical significance is the odds of a study occurring by chance, rather than demonstrating a true causation or correlation.

Back

What are three description methods of research? 

Front

Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations.

Back

What four ethical principles safeguard human participants?

Front

The APA outlines: 

  1. obtaining informed consent from all participants.
  2. protect them from physical or mental discomfort or harm.
  3. confidentiality must be adhered to.
  4. participants must be fully debreifed after the experiment.
Back

What is overconfidence as it relates to flawed intuition?

Front

Overconfidence is the tendency to put more faith in our hunches than we should, and giving excuses when our predictions are wrong, "The red team almost won!" or "I was so close!".

Back

What is Correlational Research?

Front

The basic purpose is to detect naturally occuring relationships, by collecting two or more data sets without manipulation. Strengths: Large groups of data are easy to manage, and there are no ethical issues because there is no intervention.

Back

What are naturalistic observations, and what are some pros and cons of them?

Front

Naturalistic observations are research studies without messing this variables or controls; basically just observing a subject or subjects without intervention and noting anything interesting. These can be useful in identifying behavior, but can't be used to deduce causation.

Back

Does behavior depend on one's gender and culture?

Front

Although behavior can vary across gender and culture, at the end of the day we are all human, so the underlying processes and principles of our minds are universal.

Back

What are surveys, and what are some pros and cons of them?

Front

Surveys are questions posed to a large and random sampling of a population. They are useful in determining general experiences of a group, but are bad at explaining them. There are also many pitfalls to avoid, including phrasing and researchers bias.

Back

What are the three types of variables in experiments?

Front

Independent: the variable being changed. (eg Pill A for leg pain.)

Dependant: the measurable result. (eg pain after Pill A vs a placebo Pill B).

Confounding: other variables, which are as randomly distributed among test groups as possible. (eg how the leg was injured.)

Back

What are three reasons psychologists study animals?

Front
  1. To learn about the psychology of animals.
  2. To gather research that will help humans and animals.
  3. To remove the complexities of testing humans by using simpler animals.
Back

Can labratory experiments illuminate everyday life?

Front

Experiments intentionally are in a controlled environment in order to test general principles, which can then be applied to the more complex real world. 

Back

What graph helps illustrate correlations?

Front

Scatterplots.

 

Back

Why can't correlations prove causation? What are the three options when a correlation is shown?

Front

Correlation does not prove causation because A could result in B, B could result in A, or some third variable C could cause both A and B.

Back

What is Experimental Research?

Front

The basic purpose is to explore cause and effect, by manipulating one or more independent variables. Strengths: Can prove cause and effect. Weaknesses: Sometimes experiments are not feasable, ethical, or repeatable. 

Back

Explain the tendency to percieve order in random events and how that effects our intuitive judgments.

Front

An example of that tendency would be feeling lucky when you wear certain socks, or feeling as if you must have done something wrong when you have four 'c' answers in a randomly assigned test. This makes looking for causation, when something might just be random, easier than it should be.

Back

How do theories advance psychological science?

Front

Theories are proven hypotheses, and they allow us to be confident in the truthfulness of our findings and beliefs. They must be clearly defined using "operational definitions" and be replicated in different environments and settings.

Back

Is psychology free of value judgments?

Front

No; however, all psychologists should strive to keep their reseach bias-free at all times.

Back

What are the three factors in determining whether or not a study is reliable?

Front
  1. Representative samples, not biased ones.
  2. Observations have a low standard deviation.
  3. Many data points, not just a few.
Back

What are the three statistical measures of central tendency?

Front

Mode, median, and mean. Mode is the value most repeated, mean is the arithmetic average(operates poorly with extreme values), and median is the middle value in a distribution(operates well with extreme values.)

Back

What is the maximum statistical significance allowed before a study is too likely to have occurred by chance?

Front

5%

Back

What are the three biggest flaws with our intuitive thinking?

Front

Hindsight Bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to perceive order in random events. 

Back

What are the two types of statistics?

Front

Inferential and descriptive. Descriptive statistics organize and summarize data collected during research, and inferential statistics help determine the statistical significance.

Back

What is a normal curve?

Front

Also called a bell curve, most values will distribute themselves evenly along this curve, with 68% falling in one standard deviation on either side of the middle.

Back

Why can an experiment prove cause and effect?

Front

Because an experiment is designed to isolate the independant variable, any changes in the dependent variable must be because of the change in the independent variable, not some other confounding variable.

Back

What are the three types of research methods?

Front

Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental.

Back

What is Descriptive Research?

Front

The basic purpose is to observe and record behavior, by doing case studies, naturalistic observations, or surveys, manipulating nothing. Strengths: case studies require one person, naturalistic observations allow research without ethical woes, and surveys are fast and cheap. Weaknesses: single cases may be misleading, and no cause and effect can be proven.

Back

What are positive and negative correlations?

Front

A positive correlation shows as A increases, so does B, or vice versa. A negative correlation shows as A increases, B decreases, or vice versa.

Back

What is hindsight bias?

Front

Saying, "I knew it!" if a hunch is confirmed, but thinking nothing about being disproved later.

Back

Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Front

As long as it follows the state guidelines, yes. Government agencies and professionally associations all establish standards for animal care, housing, and required well-being.

Back

What are the two measures of variation?

Front

Range and standard deviation. Range is the difference between the largest and smallest values(handles extremes poorly), and standard deviation is the result of a formula that gives the average distance from the mean.

Back

What is a case study, and what are some pros and cons of them?

Front

A case study is an indepth study of one situation, and they are useful as a example of a more general phenomenon, but they cannot be used to prove anything more general than the one individual's situation.

Back

Why is random and large sampling important?

Front

If a study is being done on a population, the sample of that population must be representative; a random sampling of 100 is better than a selected sampling of 500. Large sampling allows some 'wiggle room' for random sampling, so that it is even more representative of the population being studied.

Back

Unit 3: Biological Bases for Behavior

(53 cards)

What is a neuron?

Front

A nerve cell.

Back

What is the function and location of the limbic system?

Front

It is a neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives.

Back

What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?

Front

The frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.

Back

What is Acetylcholine(ACh), and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

ACh enables muscle action, learning, and memory. During Alzhiemer's disease, ACh neurons deteriorate. 

Back

What are endorphins?

Front

Endorphines are neurotransmitters that act as internal opiates, that control pain and produce pleasure.

Back

What is Norepinephrine, and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

Controls alertness and arousal, undersupply depresses mood.

Back

What is an action potential?

Front

The brief electrical charge of a neuron from its dendrites to and along the axon.

Back

What is the 'environment'?

Front

All external influences a person has experienced since conception, including diet, people's speech and actions, and events.

Back

What is the function and location of the brainstem?

Front

The end of the spinal cord, responsible for automatic survival functions.

Back

What is the epigenetics?

Front

The study of the enviormental effects of gene expression without a genetic change.

Back

What is the study of behavior genetics?

Front

The study of the connection between genetics and cognition.

Back

What are the locations and functions of the frontal lobes?

Front

Just behind the forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movements, making plans and judgments.

Back

What is the function and location of the reticular formation?

Front

It is a nerve network that travels through the thalamus and brainstem which enables arousal.

Back

What is the pituitary gland?

Front

The most important gland, which regulates growth and the other endocrine glands.

Back

What are dendrites?

Front

A neuron's bushy extensions that receive messages from other neurons. 

Back

What is the study of molecular genetics?

Front

The subfield of biology the studies the molecular and functions of genes.

Back

What are motor neurons?

Front

Motor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to muscles and glands.

Back

What is Glutamate, and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory, over supply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures.

Back

What is heritability?

Front

The amount a trait can be attributed to genetic differences.

Back

What is the function and location of the thalamus?

Front

A pair of eggshaped structures sitting above the brainstem, the brain's sensory control center, that transmits messages incoming from the body to the brain and vice versa.

Back

Other than receiving input or directing muscles, what does the cortex to?

Front

The other 3/4th of the cortex is devoted to 'free association' which help us make decisions and remember information.

Back

What is plasticity?

Front

The brain's ablility to change; reuse areas when an area is damaged or compromised, particularly strong during childhood.

Back

What is the function and location of the cerebellum?

Front

The 'little brain' at the rear of the brainstem, which processes sensory input, gives a sense of balence, and enables nonverbal learning and memory.

Back

What are the locations and functions of the occipital lobe?

Front

Lie on the back and bottom of the head, receives visual input.

Back

What is the function and location of the hypothalamus?

Front

 A neural structure below the thalamus, which directs several maintenance activities(eating, drinking, body temp), governs the pituitary gland, and is linked to reward and emotion.

Back

What is the corpus callosum?

Front

The band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres; severed in some seizure patients in a 'split brain' surgery.

Back

What are sensory neurons?

Front

They are neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

Back

What is a neurotransmitter?

Front

A chemical that is released by the axon terminating branches and crosses the synaptic gap once a neuron fires, which can inhibit or excite a receiving neuron. 

Back

What do antagonist molecules do in drugs?

Front

They block receptors, inhibiting or blocking a response.

Back

What is the feedback loop of the endocrine system?

Front

Brain -> pituitary -> other glands -> hormones -> body and brain

Back

What are the adrenal glands?

Front

The adrenal glands are a pair of glands above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Back

What is the function and location of the amygdala?

Front

Two lima bean neural clusters in the limbic system linked with emotion.

Back

What is dual processing?

Front

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on seperate conscious and unconscious tracks.

Back

What are interneurons?

Front

Neurons that make up the spinal cord and brain.

Back

What is Gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA), and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

GABA is a major inhibitory transmitter, and undersupply is linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.

Back

What is the endocrine system?

Front

The gland/hormone system that controls slower chemical reactions than the nervous system.

Back

What's cognitive neuroscience?

Front

The study of the brain linked with cognition(including thinking, memory, perception, and language).

Back

What is consciousness?

Front

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Back

What do agonist molecules do in drugs?

Front

They bind to receptors and mimic the effect of a endorphin.

Back

How to EEG, CT, PET, and MRI scans work respectively?

Front

EEG = noninvasive, electrodes are places all over the scalp and measure brain waves.

CT = x-ray of the brain

PET = harmless radioactive material is given to patient and later a gamma scan shows the brain, and where the material has gone.

MRI = magnets 'reset' the brain's atoms, and when they stop, the brain goes back to normal, releasing magnetic waves that are then measured/'photographed'

Back

What is the difference between the right and left hemispheres?

Front

The right hemisphere helps with inferences(modulating speech to make meaning clear, creates our sense of self, makes inferences), while the left hemisphere makes quick and literal interpretations.

Back

What is a neuron's threshold?

Front

The minimum amount of stimulation a nerve needs to fire; lowered by a excitatory neurotransmitter or lifted by a inhibitory neurotransmitter. 

Back

What are the locations and functions of the parietal lobes?

Front

Lie on top and to the back of the head; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

Back

What is reuptake?

Front

The process of neurons reintaking their neurotransmitters after they have been fired into a receiving neuron's receptor sites.

Back

What are axons?

Front

The extension of a neuron after the dendrite; transports impulses from the dendrite to other neurons. Often wrapped in a myelin sheath, which speeds up transmission along the axon.

Back

What is the flowchart of the nervous system and what are its parts responsible for?

Front
  • Nervous system
    • Central(brain and spinal)
    • Peripheral
      • Somatic(voluntary muscle control)
      • Autonomic(involuntary muscles and glands)
        • Sympathetic(arousing)
        • Parasympathetic(calming)
Back

What is Serotonin, and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

Serotonin affects hunger, mood, arousal, and sleep. Undersupply linked to depression.

Back

What is neurogenesis?

Front

The creation of new neurons in the brain.

Back

What is Dopamine, and what are some examples of malfunctions?

Front

Dopamine influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion, oversupply linked to schizophrenia and undersupply linked to tremors and Parkinson's disease.

Back

What is the synaptic gap?

Front

The tiny gap between the transmitting neuron and the recieving neuron, which neurotransmitters cross.

Back

What are the locations and functions of the temporal lobes?

Front

Between temples; receives auditory input.

Back

What is the study of evolutionary psychology?

Front

It is the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection.

Back

What is the refractory period?

Front

The 'recharge' time of a neuron, during which it pumps out sodium ions and can't fire again.

Back

Unit 4: Sensation and Perception

(0 cards)

Unit 9: Developmental Psychology

(7 cards)

How do complex motor skills develop?

Front

Sitting, standing, and walking develop in a predictable sequence, although the timing is a function of individual maturation and culture.

Back

What are the stages of prenatal development?

Front

Zygote: conception to 2 weeks, embryo 2-9 weeks, and fetus 8 weeks to birth.

Back

What abilities are we born with?

Front

The ability to sense and reflexes that assist us in surviving; eg the ability to distinguish between a mother's smell and a stranger's smell.

Back

When does a brain start processing memories?

Front

Around age 3.5, our memory areas in the brain have developed enough for long-term storage; before that they haven't developed enough for conscious memories.

Back

What are teratogens?

Front

Potentially harmful agents introduced through the placental screen to a fetus, such as alcohol, which causes fetal alcohol syndrome.

Back

What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?

Front

Nature vs Nurture(how do they effect us), Continuity vs Stages(how do we develop), and Stablility vs Change(how are traits affected as we age).

Back

How does the brain progress from birth to puberty?

Front

At birth, interconnections multiply rapidly, but after puberty a pruning process begins shutting down unused connections.

Back