AP English Literary Terms

AP English Literary Terms

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Section 1

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Allusions

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (171)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Allusions

Front

A reference within a work to something outside the work, such as historical people/events, mythological/biblical figures and places etc.

Back

Static Characters

Front

characters who do not change throughout a narrative/play

Back

Internal Conflict

Front

conflicts that take place within the minds of the characters

Back

Defamiliarization

Front

the concept, developed by Russian formalists, that authors change familiar aspects of communication so that they are "unfamiliar"...literature is different from other communications because it contains unfamiliar, strange, qualities.

Back

Flat Characters

Front

characters with one one or two traits who can be described in a short phrase, simple characters

Back

External Conflict

Front

conflicts that take play outside characters, between characters/speakers and realities.

Back

Third Person Limited

Front

in narrative fiction, the telling of a story y an apparently alll-knowing narrator who enters the mind of only 1 character, narator refers to all the characters in the third person as "he or "she"

Back

Dynamic Characters

Front

characters who change during the course of drama/narrative fiction

Back

Moral Center

Front

A character in a work who seems to embody the author's concepts of right belief and conduct

Back

Analysis

Front

examination of the parts of something to discover relationships among them and the meanings suggested by those relationships

Back

Round Characters

Front

characters who have multiple personality traits, who resemble the complexity of real people

Back

Unstable Situation

Front

the introduction of conflict at the beginning of the plot

Back

Interpretation

Front

process of examining details of something in order to make sense of it...involves analyzing individual works to discover meaning...how elements cohere inside works and how they connect to realities outside the works

Back

Theme

Front

an idea about the human condition that the audience extracts from work of literature, what the work seems to say about a subject

Back

Exposition

Front

throughout a narrative, the narrative's explanation of the conflict

Back

Denotation

Front

the object or idea-the referent-that a word represents

Back

Narrative

Front

a story, told by a narrator, featuring characters who act, think and talk

Back

Embedded Story

Front

narratives that appear within a narrative or drama that seemed to digress from main ploy

Back

Flashback

Front

A method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events

Back

Rising Action

Front

intensification of conflict in narrative, leading to a climax

Back

In Medias Res

Front

latin for in the middle of things, plot that begins in the middle of the story and uses flashbacks to reveal events that occur from the beginning.

Back

Allegory

Front

a kind of literature in which concrete things-characters,events, and objects- represent time

Back

Narrative Fiction

Front

a narrative that includes made-up events

Back

Falling Action

Front

events in a narrative that occur after the climax and lead to the end, also denouement

Back

Characters

Front

people in narratives/dramas

Back

Tone

Front

a narrator's or writer's predominant attitude toward a subject. subject can be place, event, character, or idea.

Back

Stable Situation

Front

the end of a narrative, where all/most if the major conflicts have been resolved

Back

Suspense

Front

Excited anticipation of an approaching climax

Back

Flash-forward

Front

An action that jumps ahead of the story to narrate an event that happens at a later time.

Back

Story of Iniation

Front

*******

Back

Summary Narration

Front

narration of events/repeated actions that happen over time, reading takes much less time than it did for action to occur

Back

First Person

Front

in narrative fiction, telling of story by character who refers to him/herself as I

Back

Frame Story

Front

narratives that surround- provide a frame for- other narratives in the work. ex Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

Back

Climax

Front

the point in a narrative where the conflicts reach a peak of intensity and are resolved or soon to be resolved.

Back

Epistolary Narrative

Front

a novel written as a series of documents or letter

Back

Antagonist

Front

the opponent, whether human ir otherwise, of the protagonist

Back

Protagonist

Front

main character

Back

Characterization

Front

presentation/development of traits of characters

Back

Third Person Objective

Front

in narrative fiction, the telling of a story by an apparently all knowing narrator who enters the mind of no characters, learn about characters from outside, like watching a play (dramatic)...narrator refers to characters as "he" and "she."

Back

Scenic Narration

Front

telling an event in real time, so that reading or hearing the event takes as long as the event took, scenic narration usually features dialogue

Back

Crisis

Front

A sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of crisis manager.

Back

Third Person Omniscient

Front

in narrative fiction, the telling of a story by an apparently all-knowing narrator who enters the minds of more than one character , and who refers to all the character's in third person , as "he" and "she"

Back

Subject

Front

something a work of literature seems to be about such as love, politics, finances, bravery, leadership etc.

Back

Archetype

Front

A detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response

Back

POV

Front

in narrative fiction, the narrator's relationship to the world of the work...the location from which the narrator sees everything in the narrative and from which the narrators tells the story.

Back

Story v. Plot

Front

story is everything that happens in a narrative, in chronological order. plot is an aspect of narrative

Back

Connotation

Front

the subjective, emotional associations that a word has for a person or group of people

Back

Unreliable Narrator

Front

narrators or centers of consciousness whose judgments and/or rendering facts is often trustworthy.

Back

Genre

Front

type or kind of literature, identifiable by presence of easily recognizable conventions, broad genres include fiction, drama, poetry, and essay ...subgenres of drama include tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy, farce and theater of the absurd...

Back

Inciting Accident

Front

starts the story's action

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Tochaic

Front

poetic foot in which one stressed syllable is followed by one unstressed syllable

Back

Ballad

Front

poem that is meant to be sung and tells a story

Back

Alliteration

Front

repetition of consonant sounds at beginning of words or beginning of accented syllables

Back

Verbal Irony

Front

statement of the opposite of what one means

Back

Personification

Front

an analogy that attributes human qualities to something not human

Back

Symbolism

Front

use of symbols in a work

Back

Analogy

Front

statement that claims similarity of things basically different

Back

Indirect Revelation

Front

the reader must infer things about the character based on what the author says

Back

Extended Metaphor

Front

an analogy extended throughout entire poem or major section of poem

Back

Iambic

Front

iamb-metrical foot...iambic pentameter- line of poetry consisting of five iambic feet

Back

Dactylic

Front

metrical foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables

Back

Understatement

Front

form of verbal irony that minimizes the nature of something while meaning the opposite

Back

Epiphany

Front

term invented by James Joyce to mean sudden feeling of revelation experienced by a character

Back

Speaker

Front

A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective (real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing, narrator

Back

Gratuitous Act

Front

an act which has no motivation or cause

Back

Rhyme

Front

repetition of last accented vowel of words and sounds that follow

Back

Direct Revelation

Front

The narrator can make direct comments about the character's nature.

Back

Rhythm

Front

one of the characteristic features of poetic language

Back

Independent Clause

Front

usually following the order of subject-verb or subject-verb-object

Back

Subordinate Clause

Front

phrases within a sentence that do not stand alone as sentences, that are dependent on the independent clause

Back

Atmosphere

Front

the emotional reaction-such as fear, happiness etc. -that the audience and sometimes characters have to the setting and events of work

Back

Syntax

Front

sentence structure, the way words go together to make sentences

Back

Figurative Language

Front

conscious departure from normal ways of speaking , tropes such as metaphor and simile

Back

Spondiac

Front

stressed stressed foot, metrical foot consisting of two accented syllables

Back

Motivation

Front

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

Back

Metaphor

Front

any analogy, statement that claims a similarity between things that are unlike and that omits words like and as

Back

Foil

Front

A character who is in most ways opposite to the main character (protagonist) or one who is nearly the same as the protagonist. The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only

Back

Accentual-Syllabic

Front

metrical pattern based on number f stresses and number of syllables per line. accentual-syllabic is the most typical metric pattern, marked by units of feet such as iambs, trochees, anapests etc.

Back

Consonance

Front

repetition of final consonant sounds that are preceded by different vowel sounds

Back

Stock Character

Front

flat and simple characters easily recognized conventions in drama, stereotypes

Back

Simile

Front

statement that claims the similarity of things that are essentially unlike and that uses comparative words like or as

Back

Assonance

Front

repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds

Back

Onomatopoeia

Front

use of words that sound like what they mean

Back

Foot

Front

unit of rhythm in a line of poetry

Back

Attitudinal Irony

Front

a person's belief that reality is one way when, in fact, it is very different.

Back

Theme

Front

idea about the human condition that audience extracts from literature, what is said about a subject

Back

Imagery

Front

descriptions of physical phenomena that appeal to one or more of senses, figurative language, such as metaphor simile

Back

Setting

Front

the physical, sensuous location of the action, time in which action occurs and social environment of characters.

Back

Diction

Front

author's choice of words

Back

Meter

Front

regular and repeated pattern of rhythm in a line of poetry , can be based on syllable duration or amount or number of stresses,

Back

Caesura

Front

strong pause in sentence, used as rhythmic and thematic device in lines of poetry

Back

Anapestic

Front

metrical foot consisting of two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable

Back

Scanning

Front

marking of accented and unaccented syllables in lines of poetry

Back

Overstatement

Front

type of verbal irony that exaggerates the nature of something while meaning the opposite

Back

Irony

Front

obvious contrast between appearance and reality

Back

Stream of Conciousness

Front

the presentation of characters' preciousness or speechless thoughts as an incoherent "stream"

Back

Situational Irony

Front

a situation that differs from what common sense indicates it is, will be, or sought to be

Back

Monologue

Front

characters' thoughts in their own words but presented by narrator in past tense and third person, A long speech in a play or story, delivered by a single person (see soliloquy).

Back

Sarcasm

Front

A type of verbal irony in which, under the guise of praise, a caustic and bitter expression of strong and personal disapproval is given. Sarcasm is personal, jeering, and intended to hurt.

Back

Dramatic Irony

Front

statements and beliefs of characters that the audience knows to be false but characters do not...audience knows more

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Deus Ex Machine

Front

"the god from the machine", appears at last moment and resolves loose ends of play

Back

Haiku

Front

poem originating in japan, typically has three lines with five syllables in first seven in second and five in third...17 syllables, refers to nature a specific event and the present

Back

Fixed Form (Closed)

Front

stanzas and whole poems that conform to traditional patterns and rules

Back

Hyperbole

Front

An extreme exaggeration

Back

Poetic Structure

Front

The way words are arranged in lines, lines are arranged in stanzas, and units of sound are organized to achieve rhythm and rhyme.

Back

Satire

Front

A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way. It doesn't simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). It targets groups or large concepts rather than individuals, A literary work that criticizes human misconduct and ridicules vices, stupidities, and follies.

Back

Anti-Hero

Front

a protagonist who lacks the characteristics that would make him a hero (or her a heroine)

Back

Oxymoron

Front

A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.

Back

Paradox

Front

A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.

Back

Internal Rhyme

Front

rhymed words that occur within a line of poetry or that appear closer together in prose

Back

Personae

Front

the aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others

Back

Euphony

Front

Denotes pleasing, mellifluous sounds, usually produced by long vowels rather than consonants., A succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony.

Back

Antithesis

Front

a balancing or contrasting of one term against another

Back

Approximate Rhyme

Front

words that are close to rhymed

Back

Epic Poem

Front

A long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero

Back

Parody

Front

A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule., A satirical imitation

Back

Nonce (Open) Form

Front

stanzas and whole poems that conform to no traditional patterns or rules

Back

Dramatic Convention

Front

Any dramatic device which, though it departs from reality, is implicitly accepted by author and audience as a means of representing reality. any of several devices that the audience accepts as a substitution for reality in a dramatic work

Back

Versimilitude

Front

(n.) the quality of appearing to be true, real, likely, or probable, in a fiction setting, the similarity to reality; the appearance of truth; looking like the real thing

Back

Blank Verse

Front

iambic pentameter with no end rhyme

Back

Apostrophe

Front

A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.

Back

End-Stopped Lines

Front

line of poetry that has a definite pause at the end

Back

Italian Sonnet

Front

A sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd, A form of sonnet divided into eight line and six line parts. Also called a Petrarchan sonnet.

Back

Rhyme Scheme

Front

any pattern of end rhyme, pattern indicated by letters

Back

Anaphora

Front

repetition of the same word or words at the start of two or more lines

Back

Lyric Poem

Front

a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker. A ballad tells a story, A short poem of songlike quality

Back

Hubris

Front

Excessive pride

Back

Slapstick

Front

Physical humor, Comedy stressing farce and horseplay

Back

Catharsis

Front

A purifying or figurative cleansing of the emotions, especially pity and fear, described by Aristotle as an effect of tragic drama on its audience

Back

Elegiac Poem

Front

a type of poem that meditates on death or has a serious theme

Back

Cacaphony

Front

Harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite o

Back

Metonymy

Front

A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").

Back

Enjambment

Front

continuance of a phrase from one line of poetry to the next so that there is no pause at the end of the line

Back

Pathos

Front

Appeal to emotion

Back

Masculine Rhyme

Front

rhymed sounds that consist of one stressed syllable

Back

Sonnet

Front

form of poetry that consists of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter and conforms to one of two patterns of end rhyme...shakespearean sonnet and petrarchan sonnnet

Back

Visual Poetry

Front

poetry that must be seen as well as heard in order to be fully understood. also called pattern poetry, has taken appearance of recognizable objects

Back

English Sonnet

Front

ABAB CDCD EFEF GG, 3 Quatrains and an ending couplet. Rhyme scheme of abab, cdcd, efef, gg (iambic pentameter)

Back

End Rhyme

Front

rhymed words that appear at ends of lines of poetry

Back

Playwright

Front

A person who writes plays

Back

Burlesque

Front

A work of literature meant to ridicule a subject; a grotesque imitation

Back

Wit

Front

the talent or quality of using unexpected associations between contrasting or disparate words or ideas to make a clever humorous effect

Back

Dramatic Poem

Front

A narrative poem in which one or more characters speak, a poem which employs a dramatic form or some element or elements of dramatic techniques as a means of achieving poetic ends. The dramatic monologue is an example, a verse that relies heavily on dramatic elements such as monologue or dialogue

Back

Narrative Poem

Front

A poem that tells a story

Back

Hamartia

Front

tragic flaw which causes a character's downfall

Back

Free Verse

Front

poetry without meter

Back

Double Entendre

Front

A word or phrase open to two interpretations, one of which is usually risqué or indecent

Back

Stanza

Front

unit of lines set apart from other units by spaces, can encompass whole poem, often organized by patterns of end rhyme poems without stanzas are stichic, poems with stanzas are strophic

Back

Feminine Rhyme

Front

rhymed sounds that have two or more syllables

Back

Dramatic Situation

Front

a situation that drives the plot of a drama that involves the dynamic relation between a character and a goal or objective and the obstacles that intervene between the character and the objective, the conflict in which some character is involved

Back

Section 4

(21 cards)

Refrain

Front

repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines in a pattern

Back

Ode

Front

a lyric poem usually marked by serious, respectful, and exalted feelings toward the subject

Back

Villanelle

Front

highly structured poem consisting of six stanzas: five tercets and a quatrain; first and third line are repeated throughout

Back

Style

Front

a way of expressing something (in language or art or music, etc.) that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period

Back

Couplet

Front

two successive lines which rhyme, usually at the end of a work

Back

Pace

Front

tempo or rate implied by the structure and style of the poem

Back

Parallelism

Front

presents coordinating ideas in a coordinating manner

Back

Sestet

Front

a six line stanza

Back

Synecdote

Front

symbolism; the part signifies the whole, or the whole the part (all hands on board)

Back

Octave

Front

an eight line stanza

Back

Triplet or Tercet

Front

a three line stanza

Back

Didactic Poetry

Front

poetry with the primary purpose of teaching or preaching

Back

Quintet

Front

a five line stanza

Back

Conceit

Front

an extended witty, paradoxical, or startling metaphor

Back

Dramatic Monologue

Front

character "speaks" through the poem; a character study

Back

Structure

Front

internal organization of a poem's content

Back

Sibilance

Front

hissing sound represented by s, z, sh

Back

Litotes

Front

an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite

Back

Mood

Front

the atmosphere suggested by the structure and style of the poem

Back

Septet

Front

a seven line stanza

Back

Quatrain

Front

four rhymed lines

Back