AP Chemistry: Acid-Base Equilibrium

AP Chemistry: Acid-Base Equilibrium

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Section 1

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Hydronium ion

Front

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Cards (30)

Section 1

(30 cards)

Hydronium ion

Front

H30+

Back

Ka

Front

The acid-dissociation constant The larger the Ka, the strong the acid If Ka >> 1, then the acid is completely ionized and the acid is a strong acid

Back

Strong bases (in general)

Front

Are strong electrolytes pOH can be calculated directly

Back

pH

Front

-log([H3O+])

Back

7 strong acids

Front

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HCLO3, HCLO4

Back

Effect of a cation from weak bases

Front

Decrease pH

Back

Properties of Salts

Front

weak acid + strong base = basic strong acid + weak base = acidic

Back

Strong acids (in general)

Front

Are strong electrolytes Ionize completely Is usually the only source of H+ (therefore, pH can be calculated directly from the initial molarity of the acid)

Back

K > 1

Front

Product favored

Back

% ionization

Front

[H3O+] / [HA] x 100

Back

Neutral pH

Front

= 7

Back

Hydrolysis reaction

Front

X- + H2O = HX + OH

Back

Basic pH

Front

> 7

Back

Relationship between Ka and Kb

Front

The larger Ka (and the smaller pKa), the smaller Kb (and the larger pKb). Ka x Kb = Kw

Back

Arrhenius Base

Front

A base that increases the [OH-] in water

Back

Kb

Front

The base-dissociation constant The larger Kb, the stronger the base. Two types: Neutral substances with a lone pair of electrons that can accept protons or anions of weak acids

Back

Kw

Front

1.0 x 10^-14

Back

Polyprotic Acids

Front

Have more than one ionizable proton It is always easier to remove the first proton than the second proton (Ka1 > Ka2 >Ka3, etc.) The majority of the H+(aq) at equilibrium usually comes from the first ionization

Back

Arrhenius Acid

Front

An acid that increases the [H+] in water

Back

Amphiprotic/amphoteric

Front

Can be either a base or acid

Back

Strong bases

Front

Group 1 and Ca, Sr, and Ba with OH

Back

pKw

Front

-log(Kw)

Back

K < 1

Front

Reactant favored

Back

Acidic pH

Front

< 7

Back

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

Front

Proton donors that must have a removable proton

Back

Bronsted-Lowry Base

Front

Proton acceptors that must have a pair of non-bonding electrons

Back

Weak acids (in general)

Front

Are only partially ionized in aqueous solution (therefore, they are in equilibrium)

Back

Weak Bases (in general)

Front

Remove protons from substances There is an equilibrium between the base and the resulting ions

Back

Effect of an anion from weak acids

Front

Increase pH

Back

The more oxygens...

Front

The stronger

Back