Section 1

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iteration

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Cards (184)

Section 1

(50 cards)

iteration

Front

To repeat a section of code.

Back

runtime error

Front

An error that does not occur until the program has started to execute but that prevents the program from continuing.

Back

boolean function

Front

A function that returns a Boolean value. The only possible values of the bool type are False and True.

Back

syntax

Front

The structure of a program

Back

semantic error

Front

An error in a program that makes it do something other than what the programmer intended.

Back

evaluate

Front

To simplify an expression by performing the operations in order to yield a single value.

Back

compound data type

Front

A data type that is itself made up of elements that are themselves values.

Back

statement

Front

instruction that the Python interpreter can execute

Back

type conversion

Front

An explicit function call that takes a value of one type and computes a corresponding value of another type.

Back

clone

Front

To create a new object that has the same value as an existing object. Copying a reference to an object creates an alias but doesn't clone the object.

Back

variable

Front

name that refers to a value

Back

operators

Front

special tokens that represent computations like addition, multiplication and division

Back

iteration

Front

Repeated execution of a set of programming statements.

Back

token

Front

basic elements of a language(letters, numbers, symbols)

Back

conditional statement

Front

One program structure within another, such as a conditional statement inside a branch of another conditional statement

Back

increment

Front

Both as a noun and as a verb, increment means to increase by 1.

Back

low-level langauge

Front

A programming language that is designed to be easy for a computer to execute; also called machine language or assembly language

Back

int

Front

A Python data type that holds positive and negative whole numbers

Back

decrement

Front

To subtract one from a variable.

Back

trace

Front

To follow the flow of execution of a program by hand, recording the change of state of the variables and any output produced.

Back

file

Front

A named entity, usually stored on a hard drive, floppy disk, or CD-ROM, that contains a stream of characters.

Back

semantic

Front

the meaning of a program

Back

conditional statement

Front

A statement that controls the flow of execution depending on some condition. In Python the keywords if, elif, and else are used for conditional statements.

Back

print

Front

A function used in a program or script that causes the Python interpreter to display a value on its output device.

Back

bug

Front

an error in a program

Back

flow of execution

Front

The order in which statements are executed during a program run.

Back

assignment statement

Front

gives value to a variable

Back

local variable

Front

A variable defined inside a function. A local variable can only be used inside its function. Parameters of a function are also a special kind of local variable.

Back

nested loop

Front

A loop inside the body of another loop.

Back

parameter

Front

A name used inside a function to refer to the value which was passed to it as an argument.

Back

comment

Front

in a program that is meant for other programmers (or anyone reading the source code) and has no effect on the execution of the program

Back

boolean expression

Front

An expression that is either true or false.

Back

string

Front

contains a string of letters

Back

format operator

Front

The % operator takes a format string and a tuple of values and generates a string by inserting the data values into the format string at the appropriate locations.

Back

block

Front

A group of consecutive statements with the same indentation.

Back

immutable type

Front

A compound data type whose elements can NOT be assigned new values.

Back

exception

Front

Raised by the runtime system if something goes wrong while the program is running.

Back

algorithm

Front

A set of specific steps for solving a category of problems

Back

aliases

Front

Multiple variables that contain references to the same object.

Back

syntax error

Front

An error in a program that makes it impossible to parse — and therefore impossible to interpret.

Back

function

Front

A named sequence of statements that performs some useful operation. Functions may or may not take parameters and may or may not produce a result

Back

fruitful function

Front

A function that returns a value when it is called.

Back

definite iteration

Front

A loop where we have an upper bound on the number of times the body will be executed. Definite iteration is usually best coded as a for loop

Back

modulus operator

Front

%, works on integers (and integer expressions) and gives the remainder when the first number is divided by the second

Back

float

Front

A Python data type which stores floating-point numbers. Floating-point numbers are stored internally in two parts: a base and an exponent. When printed in the standard format, they look like decimal numbers

Back

keyword

Front

define the language's syntax rules and structure, and they cannot be used as variable names

Back

high-level language

Front

A programming language like Python that is designed to be easy for humans to read and write.

Back

global variable

Front

Can be seen through a program module, even inside of functions.

Back

dictionary

Front

A collection of key/value pairs that maps from keys to values.

Back

None

Front

A special Python value. One use in Python is that it is returned by functions that do not execute a return statement with a return argument.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

recursion

Front

The process of calling the currently executing function.

Back

The while loop is known as a(n) ?? loop because it tests conditions before performing an iteration.

Front

Pretest

Back

True/False: To get the total number of iterations of a nested loop, multiply the number of iterations of all the loops.

Front

True

Back

A(n) ?? is a special value that marks the end of a sequence of items.

Front

Sentinel

Back

When will the following loop terminate? while keep_on_going != 999 :

Front

When keep_on_going refers to a value not equal to 999

Back

element

Front

One of the values in a list (or other sequence). The bracket operator selects elements of a list.

Back

What type of loop structure repeats the code a specific number of times

Front

Count-controlled loop

Back

A(n) ??-controlled loop causes a statement or set of statements to repeat as long as a condition is true.

Front

Condition

Back

short circuit evaluation

Front

When a boolean expression is evaluated the evaluation starts at the left hand expression and proceeds to the right, stopping when it is no longer necessary to evaluate any further to determine the final outcome.

Back

A(n) ?? structure causes a statement or set of statements to execute repeatedly.

Front

Repetition

Back

module

Front

A file containing definitions and statements intended to be imported by other programs.

Back

str

Front

converts to a string

Back

What is the structure that causes a statement or a set of statements to execute repeatedly?

Front

Repetition

Back

proprioception

Front

on a robot, internal sensing mechanisms. On a human, a sense of the relative positions of different parts of ones own body.

Back

sequence

Front

A data type that is made up of elements organized linearly, with each element accessed by an integer index.

Back

True/False: The integrity of a program's output is only as good as the integrity of its input. For this reason the program should discard input that is invalid and prompt the user to enter correct data.

Front

True

Back

operator

Front

A special symbol that represents a simple computation like addition, multiplication, or string concatenation.

Back

What is not an example of an augmented assignment operator

Front

<=

Back

What are the values that the variable num contains through the iterations of the following for loop? for num in range(2, 9, 2)

Front

2, 4, 6, 8

Back

argument

Front

a value provided to a function when the function is called. This value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the function.

Back

A(n) ?? validation loop is sometimes called an error trap or an error handler.

Front

Input

Back

In Python, a comma-separated sequence of data items that are enclosed in a set of brackets is called a _____.

Front

list

Back

pixel

Front

Smallest addressable element of a picture.

Back

The variable used to keep the running total

Front

Accumulator

Back

What type of loop structure repeats the code based on the value of the Boolean expression

Front

Condition-controlled loop

Back

The acronym ?? refers to the fact that the computer cannot tell the difference between good data and bad data.

Front

GIGO

Back

The first input operation is called the _____, and its purpose is to get the first input value that will be tested by the validation loop.

Front

Priming read

Back

lambda

Front

A piece of code which can be executed as if it were a function but without a name. (It is also a keyword used to create such an anonymous function.)

Back

_____ is the process of inspecting data that has been input to a program to make sure it is valid before it is used in a computation.

Front

Input validation

Back

The ?? function is a built-in function that generates a list of integer values.

Front

Range

Back

True/False: In Python, an infinite loop usually occurs when the computer accesses the wrong memory address.

Front

False

Back

slice

Front

A copy of part of a sequence specified by a series of indices.

Back

In Python, you would use the ?? statement to write a count-controlled loop.

Front

For

Back

What are the values that the variable num contains through the iterations of the following for loop? for num in range(4)

Front

0, 1, 2, 3

Back

In Python, the variable in the for clause is referred to as the _____ because it is the target of an assignment at the beginning of each loop iteration.

Front

Target Variable

Back

What is the format for the while clause in Python

Front

while condition : statement

Back

What is the disadvantage of coding in one long sequence structure?

Front

If parts of the duplicated code have to be corrected, the correction has to be made many times.

Back

True/False: Both of the following for clauses would generate the same number of loop iterations: for num in range(4): for num in range(1,5):

Front

False

Back

Programs are commonly referred to as

Front

software

Back

Which of the following represents an example to calculate the sum of the numbers (accumulator)?

Front

total += number

Back

traverse

Front

To repeat an operation on all members of a set from the start to the end.

Back

integer division

Front

An operation that divides one integer by another and yields an integer. Integer division yields only the whole number of times that the numerator is divisible by the denominator and discards any remainder.

Back

A(n) ?? total is a sum of numbers that accumulates with each iteration of a loop.

Front

Running

Back

robot

Front

mechanism or an artificial entity that can be guided by automatic controls.

Back

True/False: In flowcharting, the decision structure and the repetition structure both use the diamond symbol to represent the condition that is tested.

Front

True

Back

True/False: In a nested loop, the inner loop goes through all of its iterations for every single iteration of an outer loop.

Front

True

Back

mutable type

Front

A compound data type whose elements can be assigned new values.

Back

True/False: A better way to repeatedly perform an operation is to write the statements for the task once, and then place the statements in a loop that will repeat the statements as many times as necessary.

Front

True

Back

nested list

Front

A list that is itself contained within a list.

Back

True/False: The first line in the while loop is referred to as the condition clause.

Front

True

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

True/False: The main reason for using secondary storage is to hold data for long periods of time, even when the power supply to the computer is turned off.

Front

True

Back

True/False: A computer is a single device that performs different types of tasks for its users.

Front

False

Back

True/False: According to the behavior of integer division, when an integer is divided by an integer, the result will be a float.

Front

False

Back

A disk drive stores data by _______________ encoding it onto a circular disk.

Front

magnetically

Back

True/False: Python allows programmers to break a statement into multiple lines.

Front

True

Back

What is the encoding technique called that is used to store negative numbers in the computer's memory?

Front

two's complement

Back

What is the output of the following print statement? print('The path is D:\\sample\\test.')

Front

The path is D:\sample\test

Back

What is the informal language that programmers use to create models of programs that have no syntax rules and are not meant to be compiled or executed?

Front

pseudocode

Back

_______________ are small central processing unit chips.

Front

micro processors

Back

True/False: Computer programs typically perform three steps: Input is received, some process is performed on the input, and output is produced.

Front

True

Back

True/False: Python formats all floating-point numbers to two decimal places when outputting using the print statement.

Front

False

Back

The smallest storage location in a computer's memory

Front

bit

Back

Which of the following is not a microprocessor manufacturing company?

Front

Dell

Back

What type of error produces incorrect results but does not prevent the program from running?

Front

logic

Back

True/False: RAM is a volatile memory used for temporary storage while a program is running.

Front

True

Back

The _____ function reads a piece of data that has been entered at the keyboard and returns that piece of data, as a string, back to the program.

Front

input

Back

A(n) _______________ is a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task.

Front

program

Back

The Python _______________ is a program that can read Python programming statements and execute them.

Front

interpreter

Back

The process known as the _____ cycle is used by the CPU to execute instructions in a program.

Front

fetch-decode-execute

Back

After the execution of the following statement, the variable price will reference the value _____. price = int(68.549)

Front

68

Back

True/False: In Python, print statements written on separate lines do not necessarily output on separate lines.

Front

True

Back

The _______________ is the part of a computer that actually runs programs and is the most important component in a computer.

Front

cpu

Back

The _____ built-in function is used to read a number that has been typed on the keyboard.

Front

input()

Back

Which mathematical operator is used to raise five to the second power in Python?

Front

**

Back

In _______________ mode, the interpreter reads the contents of a file that contains Python statements and executes each statement.

Front

script

Back

What is the largest value that can be stored in one byte?

Front

255

Back

Main memory is commonly known as _______________.

Front

RAM

Back

The program development cycle is made up of _____ steps that are repeated until no errors can be found in the program.

Front

3

Back

The _____ coding scheme contains a set of 128 numeric codes that are used to represent characters in the computer memory.

Front

ASCII

Back

After the execution of the following statement, the variable sold will reference the numeric literal value as a(n) _____ data type: sold = 256.752

Front

float

Back

Which computer language uses short words known as mnemonics for writing programs?

Front

Assembly

Back

The following is an example of an instruction written in which computer language? 10110000

Front

Machine language

Back

A _____ has no moving parts, and operates faster than a traditional disk drive.

Front

solid state drive

Back

Where does a computer store a program and the data that the program is working with while the program is running?

Front

Main memory

Back

Which of the following is considered to be the world's first programmable electronic computer

Front

ENIAC

Back

True/False: The instruction set for a microprocessor is unique and is typically understood only by the microprocessors of the same brand.

Front

True

Back

True/False: All programs are normally stored in ROM and loaded into RAM as needed for processing.

Front

False

Back

True/False: A software developer is the person with the training to design, create, and test computer programs.

Front

True

Back

True/False: The CPU understands instructions written in a binary machine language.

Front

True

Back

If value1 is 2.0 and value2 is 12, what is the output of the following command? print(value1 * value2)

Front

24.0

Back

What symbol is used to mark the beginning and end of a string?

Front

Quotation

Back

True/False: The CPU is able to quickly access data stored at any random location in ROM.

Front

False

Back

The output of the following print statement is: print 'I\'m ready to begin'

Front

I'm ready to begin

Back

The term _______________ refers to all of the physical devices that a computer is made of.

Front

hardware

Back

The line continuation character is a _____.

Front

\

Back

True/False: The Python language uses a compiler, which is a program that both translates and executes the instructions in a high level language.

Front

False

Back

_______________ is a type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time, even when there is no power to the computer.

Front

secondary storage

Back

The disk drive is a secondary storage device that stores data by _____ encoding it onto a spinning circular disk.

Front

magnetically

Back

What type of volatile memory is usually used only for temporary storage while running a program?

Front

RAM

Back

In a print statement, you can set the _____ argument to a space or empty string to stop the output from advancing to a new line.

Front

end

Back

Section 4

(34 cards)

The _______________ specifier is a special set of characters that specify how a value should be formatted.

Front

formatting

Back

The % symbol is the remainder operator and it is also known as the _______________ operator.

Front

modulus

Back

True/False: Nested decision structures are one way to test more than one condition.

Front

True

Back

True/False: An action in a single alternative decision structure is performed only when the condition is true.

Front

True

Back

True/False: The \t escape character causes the output to skip over to the next horizontal tab.

Front

True

Back

True/False: Short-circuit evaluation is performed with the not operator.

Front

False

Back

A(n) _______________ operator determines whether a specific relationship exists between two values.

Front

relational

Back

A(n) _______________ expression is made up of two or more Boolean expressions.

Front

compound

Back

True/False: The Python language is not sensitive to block structuring of code.

Front

False

Back

True/False: Python allows you to compare strings, but it is not case sensitive.

Front

False

Back

Python uses _______________ to categorize values in memory.

Front

data types

Back

Python provides a special version of a decision structure known as the _______________ statement, which makes the logic of the nested decision structure simpler to write

Front

if elif else

Back

A(n) _______________ statement will execute one block of statements if its condition is true, or another block if its condition is false.

Front

if/else

Back

A(n) _____ structure is a logical design that controls the order in which a set of statements execute.

Front

control

Back

Boolean variable can reference one of two values: _____.

Front

true or false

Back

The logical _______________ operator reverses the truth of a Boolean expression.

Front

not

Back

The decision structure that has two possible paths of execution is known as _____.

Front

double alternative

Back

When applying the .3f formatting specifier to the following number, 76.15854, the result is _______________.

Front

76.159

Back

True/False: Decision structures are also known as selection structures.

Front

True

Back

In flowcharting, the _______________ symbol is used to represent a Boolean expression.

Front

diamond

Back

Multiple Boolean expressions can be combined by using a logical operator to create _____ expressions.

Front

compound

Back

True/False: Expressions that are tested by the if statement are called Boolean expressions.

Front

True

Back

A(n) _______________ is a name that represents a value stored in the computer's memory.

Front

variable

Back

Boolean variables are commonly used as _______________ to indicate whether a specific condition exists.

Front

flags

Back

A(n) _______________ character is a special character that is preceded with a backslash, appearing inside a string literal.

Front

escape

Back

Which logical operators perform short-circuit evaluation?

Front

or, and

Back

A(n) _______________ decision structure provides only one alternative path of execution.

Front

single alternative

Back

When using the _____ operator, one or both subexpressions must be true for the compound expression to be true.

Front

Or

Back

True/False: The if statement causes one or more statements to execute only when a Boolean expression is true.

Front

True

Back

True/False: The not operator is a unitary operator and it must be a compound expression.

Front

False

Back

The _______________ statement is used to create a decision structure.

Front

If

Back

When the + operator is used with two strings, it performs string _______________.

Front

Concatenation

Back

In a decision structure, the action is _______________ executed because it is performed only when a certain condition is true.

Front

conditionally

Back

_______________ are notes of explanation that document lines or sections of a program.

Front

comments

Back