Section 1

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Wannsee Conference

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Cards (654)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Wannsee Conference

Front

A meeting in which the "Final solution" and use of concentration camps were decided in 1942, Heydrich was the chief executor of the "Final Solution".

Back

Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway

Front

April 9th 1940

Back

What was Hitlers biggest mistake?

Front

Operation Barbarossa

Back

Blitzkrieg

Front

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939

Back

RAF

Front

(British) Royal Air Force

Back

Dunkirk

Front

Back

Operation Torch

Front

Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from Novermber 1942 to September 1943

Back

the Blitz

Front

Nighttime air raids against major cities in Britain during WWII between September 1940 and May 1941

Back

El Alamein

Front

Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria

Back

Rhineland

Front

Back

General Charles de Gaulle

Front

French statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)

Back

Invasion of Russia - "Operation Barbarossa"

Front

Hitler disregarded the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, but the Germans were not prepared to fight a winter war

Back

Baltics

Front

Back

Phony War- Sitzkrieg

Front

Happened on the western front and hitler was trying to get bombs launched in London and Paris and everywhere was eerily quiet and newspaper men called it "the phony war". And it was called sitzkrieg because the soldiers spent most of their time sitting in shell proof shelters to protect themselves from the bombs.

Back

Battle of Britain - "Operation Sea Lion"

Front

An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force

Back

Luftwaffe

Front

German Air Force

Back

Battle of the Bulge

Front

A 1944-1945 battle in which Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II.

Back

Allied Powers

Front

Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.

Back

"Operation Fortitude"

Front

code name for the deception leading up to the D-Day invasion in which the Allies tried to convince the Axis Powers of a false attack on another location (Palais)

Back

Winston Churchill

Front

British Prime Minister who opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through World War II

Back

"Free French"

Front

A group of fighter pilots were led by General Charles De Gaulle and thought it was important to fight on all fronts of the war.

Back

Stalingrad

Front

City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.

Back

Tripartite Pact

Front

Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US

Back

Axis Powers

Front

Back

Herman Goring

Front

Commander of German Air Force - the Luftwaffe,

Back

Siege of Leningrad

Front

Beginning in June 1941 and lasting almost 900 days, it was a military blockade by the Germans to get this Russian city to surrender. When food ran out, the citizens heroically held out and ate cats, dogs, horses, and bread made out of wallpaper. In early 1944, the siege was broken.

Back

Vichy France

Front

This was France under the control of Hitler during WWII. It was eventually liberated during the D-Day invasion.

Back

Axis Powers

Front

Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.

Back

ghettos

Front

City neighborhoods in which European Jews were forced to live

Back

Fall of France

Front

Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.

Back

Atlantic Charter

Front

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill, not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war

Back

"Final Solution" to Jewish Problem

Front

was the cover name for Hitler's plan to destroy all the Jews in Europe, It began in December 1941

Back

Anschluss

Front

Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.

Back

Adolf Hitler

Front

Back

Hitler invaded Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg

Front

May 10th 1940

Back

D-Day, "Operation Overlord"

Front

Allied forces land in Normandy, France to begin massive offensive against Germans in occupied territories of Europe (June 6, 1944)

Back

Allied Powers

Front

Back

Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)

Front

This was a providence of the country that spoke German, so Hitler demanded that Germany regain that territory.

Back

Normandy

Front

A region in northern France and the site of the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944

Back

V.J. Day

Front

On August 15, 1945, news of surrender in Japan was announced to the world.

Back

Scorched Earth Policy

Front

Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land

Back

Lend-Lease

Front

1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security

Back

Benito Mussolini

Front

or ll Dulce was an (1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.

Back

V.E. Day

Front

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

Back

radar

Front

British fighter pilots were aided in the Battle of Britain by this new invention

Back

Puppet gov't

Front

mother country controlling another country behind the scenes

Back

Invasion of Poland

Front

September 1, 1939

Back

Dunkirk

Front

A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.

Back

Pearl Harbor

Front

1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. It was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Back

Vichy France

Front

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Fascism

Front

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and no tolerance of opposition

Back

Chancellor

Front

Adolf Hitler's title as President of Germany

Back

Neville Chamberlain

Front

British Prime Minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement

Back

SS

Front

A special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925, from the German word "Schutzstaffel, meaning protection squad.

Back

Kristallnacht

Front

"Night of the Broken Glass" November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.

Back

Indoctrination

Front

Teaching someone to accept an idea or principle without question

Back

Lebensraum

Front

Land or territory a country needs to grow and flourish. Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

Back

Communism

Front

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Back

Harry S. Truman

Front

Back

Black Shirts

Front

Benito Mussolini's "power military group", young men who would gather and were anti socialist and would harm any left wing believers. And became a formal militia in 1923.

Back

General Charles DeGaulle (France)

Front

Back

Henirich Himmler

Front

Led the S. S.

Back

Holocaust

Front

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Back

Battle of Britain: The "Blitz

Front

Back

"Stab in the back"

Front

The people who betrayed Germany were Civilians, November Criminals, Slavs, Communists, and Jews.

Back

Mein Kampf

Front

"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924 (finished in 1925), where he wrote his beliefs and goals for Germany

Back

Five-Year Plan

Front

Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity.

Back

Worldwide Depression

Front

in 1919, this caused strikes and tension between the classes, globally.

Back

Battle of the Bulge

Front

Back

Gestapo

Front

was the secret police force of Nazi Germany. The name is short for Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police).

Back

National Socialist German Workers Party

Front

or NSDAP, as we know it it the Nazi Party.

Back

Joseph Goebbels

Front

was head of Nazi propaganda and built hatred of the Jews. He attempted to flee Germany at the end of WWII, but committed suicide when captured by Allied forces.

Back

Nazism

Front

Extreme Nationalism + Racism. Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.

Back

Third Reich

Front

or Nazi Germany was the period in the history of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.

Back

Great Purge

Front

a campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened his power.

Back

Herman Goring (German)

Front

Back

November Criminals

Front

the German politicians who signed the Armistice on November 11th.

Back

S.A. (Brown Shirts)

Front

or the Stromtroopers the Nazi power military group (like the Italian black shirts)

Back

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Front

was the 23rd President of the United States. is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war.

Back

Enabling Act

Front

An act passed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.

Back

Anti-Semitism

Front

discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews.

Back

Collective Farms

Front

It combined them into large, government- owned farms

Back

March on Rome

Front

October 1922, 200,000 fascists, wanted to bring order to Italy, as a result the King appointed Benito Mussolini prime minister, with dictatorial power.

Back

Aryan Race

Front

The Nazis believed that the race of Germanic peoples was superior to other races

Back

Winston Churchill

Front

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

Back

Normandy

Front

Back

Command Economy

Front

a system in which the government made all economic decisions.

Back

Stalingrad

Front

Back

Stalin's Totalitarian State (6 main ideas)

Front

Industrial policies, Agricultural policies, Art/religion, Education, Control methods, and Propaganda methods.

Back

Hitler Youth

Front

Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.

Back

T.O.V.

Front

Germans were outraged because of the "Guilt-Clause" within the treaty and paying apperations and their reduced army.

Back

Beer Hall Putsch

Front

In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence (sentenced to 5 years, only spent 8 months) during which time he wrote Mein Kampf.

Back

Reichstag Fire

Front

The Reichstag fire was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933. Accused arson Marinus van der Lubbe was arrested onsite and was executed next January.

Back

Weimar Republic

Front

German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.

Back

Leningrad

Front

Back

The Night of the Long Knives

Front

A night in 1934 where Hitler ordered SS men to kill over two hundred SA leaders. This night gave Himmler more power.

Back

Nuremburg Laws of 1935

Front

robbed German Jews of their citizenship; professions and major occupations were closed to Jews; defined who was considered a Jew through confusing and complex requirements

Back

Totalitarianism

Front

a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life.

Back

El Alamein

Front

Back

Joseph Stalin

Front

Dictator of the Soviet Union; led the SU through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Final Solution

Front

This policy called for the murder of every Jew—man, woman, and child—under German rule.

Back

League of Nations

Front

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.

Back

Germany reenters the Rhineland

Front

This is important because Hitler was spitting the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles in the face.

Back

Culture

Front

a shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals)

Back

Conservative

Front

the upper class, or the nobles, who favored the monarchs. (modern day republican party)

Back

Religion

Front

a belief shared by all or most of the people.

Back

Unification

Front

mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands.

Back

Otto von Bismarck

Front

or The "Iron Chancellor" was appointed prime minister by Kaiser and a realpolitik.

Back

Appeasement

Front

Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict

Back

Spanish Civil War

Front

A conflict form 1936 to 1939 that resulted in the installation of fascist dictator Francisco Franco as ruler of Spain; Franco's forces were backed by Germany and Italy, whereas the Soviet Union supported the opposing republican forces

Back

Policy of Appeasement

Front

A political policy of conceding to aggression by a warlike nation. Note: A classic example of appeasement is the Munich Pact of 1938, negotiated between Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler. Chamberlain, the prime minister of Britain, allowed Hitler to annex part of Czechoslovakia to Germany.

Back

Step 2 in unification

Front

Austro-Prussian War [Seven Weeks' War], 1866 Bismarck made a drastic move to unite all Germans. Germans Split 50:50

Back

ROMANTICISM

Front

attitude or intellectual orientation that characterized many works of literature, painting, architecture, criticism, and historiography in Western civilization over a period from the late 18th to the mid-19th century.

Back

King Victor Emmanuel II

Front

Sardinian King

Back

steam engine

Front

a machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion, Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712, James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s, steam power was then applied to machinery.

Back

Munich Conference

Front

1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.

Back

Adam Smith

Front

Scottish political economist and philosopher, his Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand, capitalism.

Back

State-building:

Front

culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture.

Back

Separation

Front

culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away.

Back

Language

Front

different dialects of one language; one dialect becomes "national language"

Back

Step 1 in unification

Front

Because of The Danish War in 1864, Prussia Expands its borders in order to capture German provinces.

Back

textile industry

Front

an industry that produces cloth items and was one of the first industry to use machines for manufacturing, Industrial Revolution.

Back

Unifying Force

Front

stopped colonial rule, or the rich and educated in power. These battles or struggles pushed for technology and exploration in science. Finally this showed the whole world that democracies could work.

Back

Kaiser Wilhelm I

Front

1861 he succeeded Fredrick Williams. In 1862 he appointed Bismarck as prime minister.

Back

Empires that nationalism broke apart

Front

Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire.

Back

Nationalism

Front

people who are nationalist believe that as citizens of that country, there duty is not to some rich and educated man on a throne, but to their neighbors and fellow citizens. They must protect their country's culture, traditions, and people.

Back

Liberal

Front

made up of average vendors and business men. There mission was to add more power to the elected parliament, but the power was in the votes, and only the schooled and landowning could vote. (modern day libertarian party)

Back

Guernica

Front

a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica

Back

T4 project

Front

Aryan doctors euthanized over 200,000 elderly and disabled citizens with carbon monoxide gas to build a stronger race by isolating weak social components

Back

Rome-Berlin Axis

Front

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

Back

German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Front

A ten-year neutrality agreement between Hitler and Stalin prior to the attack on Poland. Privately: Agreed to divide Poland between them

Back

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Front

the sword

Back

Camillo Cavour

Front

the brains and King of Sardinia

Back

Territory

Front

a certain territory that belongs to the ethnic group; its "land"

Back

History

Front

a common past; common experiences.

Back

Sardinia-Piedmont

Front

the magnet

Back

Dividing Force

Front

movement was just a start of the extreme steps some nations will take. The nationalist group in Germany was known as the the nazi's in the 1930's.

Back

Giuseppe Mazzini

Front

the heart

Back

Countries that nationalism unified

Front

Italy and Germany

Back

"peace in our time"

Front

said by Neville Chamberlain meaning we don't need to start another world war.

Back

Nationalism

Front

people who are nationalist believe that as citizens of that country, there duty is not to some rich and educated man on a throne, but to their neighbors and fellow citizens. They must protect their country's culture, traditions, and people.

Back

enclosures

Front

putting fences or hedges around communial fields so that peasants can't use them.

Back

Francisco Franco

Front

Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.

Back

Nationality

Front

belief in common ethnic ancestry that may or may not be true.

Back

Polish Corridor

Front

Hitler demanded parts of Poland that had been German prior to the Treaty of Versailles; this followed the Munich Conference and the annexation of Czechoslovakia; when the demands were not met, he invaded Poland

Back

Ethiopia

Front

In 1935 the league of nations stopped Italy's control over this.

Back

Radical

Front

here ideals were the same as the french revolution "liberty, equality, and brotherhood". They pushed democracy along with their motto in the government. (modern day democratic party)

Back

Rape of Shanghai

Front

In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. There were six weeks of this.

Back

3 Political Philosphies

Front

Conservative, Liberal, and Radical

Back

Luftwaffe

Front

Germany's air-force

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

Ricardo

Front

(1772-1823) English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market.

Back

unions

Front

an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.

Back

Berlin Conference

Front

in 1885, this addressed the scramble for Africa by all European countries.

Back

Triple Alliance

Front

1881, Now Italy, Austria, and Germany.

Back

proletariat

Front

a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages, working class.

Back

Why did the industrial Revolution begin?

Front

a. agricultural practices in the 18th century had changed b. the population grew c. Britain had a ready supply of money, capitol d. natural resources were plentiful e. British manufacturers had a ready outlet for their goods f. new inventions such as the steam engine.

Back

What was daily life like for industrial workers?

Front

Factory workers worked twelve to fourteen hours a day, six days a week. Men, traditionally expected to support their families, typically took the better paying jobs such as weaving and metal work. Women were employed in large numbers in early textile mills, usually at very low wages. Children, whose small size made them useful in narrow mineshaft and cramped factory settings, were paid even less.

Back

universal male suffrage

Front

the right of all males within a given society to vote, including the working class, passed in France in 1848.

Back

laissez-faire

Front

policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference, Adam Smith supported this.

Back

Dual Alliance

Front

1879, between Germany and Austria

Back

What were the goals of English labor unions? How successful were they in achieving these goals?

Front

The goals of English labor unions were protecting the integrity of trade, achieve higher pay, keep jobs, and for better working conditions. They were more successful in these goals because they were many people and not just one.

Back

What motives did Europeans have to carry out imperial conquest?

Front

Money, trade, and raw materials.

Back

What were the different responses people took to deal with the negative effects of industrialization?

Front

-strikes and demands for better conditions (working), unions formed, rebellions for more say in government for working class.

Back

What conditions in England made it possible for the Industrial Revolution to begin there?

Front

The conditions were that many new inventions were from England, London was a huge trading city, England had a lot of coal, Britain had the materials needed for machines, stable government, and transportation improved.

Back

entrepreneur

Front

a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.

Back

What were the main arguments in favor of capitalism? Who made them?

Front

The main arguments in favor for capitalism are companies, profit move, competition, and private property. John Locke and Adam Smith made them.

Back

Malthus

Front

(1766-1834) said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease

Back

How successful were efforts to achieve universal suffrage in the late 19th century?

Front

Universal male suffrage was passed in France but not in Hungary or Germany.

Back

"Communist Manifesto"

Front

This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes, history of working class, Communism.

Back

Jeremy Bentham

Front

(1748-1832) creator of Utilitarianism, advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."

Back

Bismarck

Front

German who gained alliances with other countries with unlawful tactics, was removed in 1890.

Back

communism

Front

form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole, working class gets more power.

Back

Anglo-German arms race

Front

Starting with Germany's industry surpassing Britain's in the 1890's. Britain's policy was always have the larger navy, which had worked for centuries. Kaiser tried to build Germany's navy. Because of these they produced a super ship a Dreadnoughts.

Back

bourgeoisie

Front

the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

Back

What was the impact of British imperial conquest on India?

Front

Impacted India socially, politically, and economically.

Back

Karl Marx

Front

German, who wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848, co-founder of Communism with Friedrich Engels, economic determinist.

Back

"Splendid Isolation"

Front

This refers to the time of 1891 where Britain had gained no allies.

Back

What new conditions during the nineteenth century made European imperialism possible?

Front

The conditions that made imperialism possible were quinine (medicine that protected against tropical disease), new weaponry, railroads, and steamboats. European nations needed colonies because there was a large market for raw materials.

Back

Dreadnoughts

Front

a super ship invented by the Anglo-German arms race.

Back

Why was Africa taken over so quickly? How did Africans respond to European intrusion?

Front

...

Back

Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887

Front

Between Russia and Germany

Back

Romanticism

Front

cultural movement that was a reaction to the Enlightenment; emotion and institution over rational objectivity, based on feeling, late 1700's to 1800's, based on emotions, passion, exuberance, heroism, and beauty of nature.

Back

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Front

in 1902 Britain commenced an agreement for neutrality with Japan. This ended its isolation.

Back

Moroccan Crises

Front

1st: in 1906, the Algeciras Conference created the triple entente. 2nd: in 1911, German boats were sent away because of the threat of France occupation and Britain's support.

Back

cotton gin

Front

a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney.

Back

capitalism

Front

an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, private property.

Back

Entente Cordial

Front

in 1904, this peace agreement between France and Britain on their colonies in Africa, was made because of the Anglo-German naval arms race.

Back

How was imperialism justified?

Front

- It will benefit the other places, Western way of life. - Social Darwinism... if we're strong enough to take it then we should have it. (survival of the fittest) White Man's Burden.

Back

What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on society?

Front

bourgeois/ capitalist class got richer, railways move goods quickly and cheaply to ports, steamboats move goods around the world, connects remote regions, makes goods cheaper and more available, overall economic growth, new transport methods, laws to protect workers, new inventions (electricity), and eventually factory conditions improve- positives. no job security, industrial accidents, low wages, poor living conditions, disease, pollution, global inequality, and exploitation of resources in Asia and Africa.

Back

factories

Front

place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods.

Back

What are Marx's ideas? How do they differ from socialist and capitalist ones?

Front

Marx's ideas formed Communism, he wanted all means of production socialized and ultimately controlled by the proletariat. Ultimately the government would ''wither away'' and all means of production would be owned by people. Socialist's want production to be owned by the public and to be operated for the welfare of all. Socialist's believe that the government should control basic industries such as coal, iron, and railroads. Capitalist's believe that the government should protect private property.

Back

John Stuart Mill

Front

(1806-1873) Utilitarian who believed in equal rights for men and women.

Back

Triple Entente

Front

1907: Britain, France and Russia

Back

nationalism

Front

the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other.

Back

What was the role of the East India Company in India?

Front

It had trading ports in India and traded for raw materials there.

Back

Factory Acts of 1833 and 1847

Front

laws passed in England that restricted child labor and corrected other abuses, relieving some of the workers stress, this allowed the British to not have a rebellion.

Back

Irish potato blight

Front

(started in 1845) potato became the primary source of sustenance but a blight killed the crop, population starved and many Irish moved to America and British factory cities.

Back

socialism

Front

system that is an alternative to capitalism; equality, fair distribution of society's wealth, community is greater than the individual, public welfare policies, and government should own the means of production.

Back

utilitarianism

Front

system that is an adjustment to capitalism; equal rights for men and women, government should promote and protect the welfare of society, greatest good for the greatest number, more equal distribution of wealth (income taxes, unemployment insurance, subsidies for health care).

Back

What was the Agricultural Revolution and how did it contribute to the Industrial Revolution?

Front

The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding and it helped the Industrial Revolution with supplying resources and gaining wealth.

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

Tannenberg

Front

August 1914, first big battle on the eastern front and Russia surprisingly was defeated

Back

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Front

Back

The Blank Check

Front

This was a step in WW1 where Germany gave too much support to Austria-Hungary, and is proved to be there downfall in the war.

Back

Pan-Slavism

Front

a nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, in to on nation in southern Europe.

Back

The Big Four

Front

Back

Battle of the Marne

Front

In the Schlieffen plan close to Paris the Germans were caught by the French and British

Back

Battle of Verdun

Front

Febuary 1916, over 1 million people die here

Back

Gallipoli Campaign

Front

1915, the British and the Aussies were defeated in Constantinople.

Back

Declarations of War

Front

On July 28th Austrian declared war on Serbia. On August 1st, Germany declared war on France. On August 4th Britain declared war on Germany.

Back

Schlieffen Plan

Front

The Germans decide they must defeat France on the Eastern border and cut through Belgium to surround France at the French-German border

Back

Versailles

Front

Back

Zimmerman Telegram

Front

a telegram Germany sent to Mexico to form an alliance against the US.

Back

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Front

December 1917, Lenin left the war and had to give 1/4 of land to Germany.

Back

unrestricted submarine warfare

Front

or USW was in 1917, when Germans would sink all ships with their u-boats.

Back

The land Germany got from Russia in the "Treaty of Brest-Litovsk"

Front

Back

Balkans

Front

Back

Technical Advancements

Front

tanks, machine guns, poison gas

Back

The sick man of Europe

Front

a nickname given to a country in Europe that is in decline financially, economical, or in another part of their nation. This term started in the 19th century as The Ottoman Empire, present day it could be Greece's financial collapse over the past couple years.

Back

British and Allied Naval Blockade

Front

1914, tried to cut the central powers trade.

Back

u-boats

Front

or Unterseeboot, German submarines, known for sinking allies ships.

Back

Rhineland (DMZ)

Front

Back

Powder Keg

Front

a dangerous or volatile situation or the Balkan peninsula area was nicknamed this because so many conflicts broke out there.

Back

Battle of the Somme

Front

July 1916, over a million people die

Back

Eastern Front

Front

Back

unredeemed Italy

Front

this was some land near Italy that were expected to change post-war

Back

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Front

next in line to the Austrian throne and killed by Serbian, Gavrillo Princip , on June 28th, 1914.

Back

Alsace and Lorraine

Front

Back

Conscription

Front

A military draft "the draft," which required all young men to be ready for military or other service

Back

Mobilization

Front

On July 29th, Austria moved into Belgrade, making Russia move into Austria and Germany. Then making France push on Germany's western border. Then Germany attacked Belgium and France On August 3rd.

Back

Luistania

Front

1915, a u-boat sank this British civilian vessel kill 1,200 people.

Back

Trench warfare

Front

You would go "over the top" and run through "no man's land" at the people who are shooting at you.

Back

Woodrow Wilson

Front

the president of the US during WW1

Back

Total war

Front

this was when the notion of not harming women or child (civilians) was thrown out the window and bombs were dropped on towns and cities.

Back

Triple Entente

Front

Back

Zimmerman Telegram

Front

Back

"Self-Determination"

Front

when a country decides for itself what kind of state and government it will be

Back

Balkan Wars

Front

Caused by the Bosnia Crisis in 1908. The first in 1912 drove the Turks out. In 1913 the nations were traded. The last war was WWI in 1914

Back

Triple Alliance

Front

Back

Gavrillo Princip

Front

Back

WWI Propaganda

Front

pictures or saying were used to gain support for the war.

Back

Western Front

Front

Back

Gavrillo Princip

Front

or "Black Hand" was a Serbian nationalist who on June 28th, 1914 killed the heir to the Austrian, Archduke Franz Ferdinad.

Back

The Schlieffen Plan

Front

Back

Bonds

Front

are certificates that represent money the government has borrowed from citizens in times of war.

Back

armistice

Front

Back

The Hall of Mirrors (where the treaty of Versailles was signed)

Front

Back

Wilson's 14 Points

Front

January 1918, these were the topic Wilson told congress on how to end this war.

Back

Sarajevo

Front

Back

Polish / Danzig Corridor

Front

Back

Rationing

Front

A limited portion or allowance of food or goods.

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

unredeemed Italy

Front

this was some land near Italy that were expected to change post-war

Back

Zimmerman Telegram

Front

a telegram Germany sent to Mexico to form an alliance against the US.

Back

The Hall of Mirrors (where the treaty of Versailles was signed)

Front

Back

Triple Alliance

Front

Pre-war alliance 1881, Now Italy, Austria, and Germany.

Back

"Self-Determination"

Front

when a country decides for itself what kind of state and government it will be

Back

Big Four

Front

Back

WWI Propaganda

Front

pictures or saying were used to gain support for the war.

Back

Versailles

Front

Back

Triple Entente

Front

Pre-war alliance 1907: Britain, France and Russia

Back

The Schlieffen Plan

Front

The Germans decide they must defeat France on the Eastern border and cut through Belgium to surround France at the French-German border

Back

Tannenberg

Front

August 1914, first big battle on the eastern front and Russia surprisingly was defeated

Back

Argonne

Front

Back

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Front

December 1917, Lenin left the war and had to give 1/4 of land to Germany.

Back

Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887

Front

Between Russia and Germany

Back

Trench warfare

Front

You would go "over the top" and run through "no man's land" at the people who are shooting at you.

Back

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Front

in 1902 Britain commenced an agreement for neutrality with Japan. This ended its isolation.

Back

Bonds

Front

are certificates that represent money the government has borrowed from citizens in times of war.

Back

Polish / Danzig Corridor

Front

Back

Dreadnoughts

Front

a super ship invented by the Anglo-German arms race.

Back

Gavrillo Princip

Front

or "Black Hand" was a Serbian nationalist who on June 28th, 1914 killed the heir to the Austrian, Archduke Franz Ferdinad.

Back

British and Allied Naval Blockade

Front

1914, tried to cut the central powers trade.

Back

The land Germany got from Russia in the "Treaty of Brest-Litovsk"

Front

Back

Gallipoli Campaign

Front

1915, the British and the Aussies were defeated in Constantinople.

Back

u-boats

Front

or Unterseeboot, German submarines, known for sinking allies ships.

Back

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Front

next in line to the Austrian throne and killed by Serbian, Gavrillo Princip , on June 28th, 1914.

Back

Rationing

Front

A limited portion or allowance of food or goods.

Back

Sarajevo

Front

Back

Western Front

Front

Back

"Splendid Isolation"

Front

This refers to the time of 1891 where Britain had gained no allies.

Back

Eastern Front

Front

Back

Battle of the Somme

Front

July 1916, over a million people die

Back

Battle of the Marne

Front

In the Schlieffen plan close to Paris the Germans were caught by the French and British

Back

Rhineland (DMZ)

Front

Back

Wilson's 14 Points

Front

January 1918, these were the topic Wilson told congress on how to end this war.

Back

Alsace and Lorraine

Front

Back

Woodrow Wilson

Front

the president of the US during WW1

Back

Total war

Front

this was when the notion of not harming women or child (civilians) was thrown out the window and bombs were dropped on towns and cities.

Back

Dual Alliance

Front

1879, between Germany and Austria

Back

Moroccan Crises

Front

1st: in 1906, the Algeciras Conference created the triple entente. 2nd: in 1911, German boats were sent away because of the threat of France occupation and Britain's support.

Back

Luistania

Front

1915, a u-boat sank this British civilian vessel (going from New York to Liverpool) killed 1,200 people (128 Americans).

Back

The Big Four

Front

France- Clemenceau (wants revenge) , England- David Lloyd George (wants revenge) , U.S. - Woodrow Wilson ( wants peace w/ no wars) , Italy- Vittorio Orlando ( wants land)

Back

Berlin Conference

Front

in 1885, this addressed the scramble for Africa by all European countries.

Back

Entente Cordial

Front

in 1904, this peace agreement between France and Britain on their colonies in Africa, was made because of the Anglo-German naval arms race.

Back

unrestricted submarine warfare

Front

or USW was in 1917, when Germans would sink all ships with their u-boats.

Back

Conscription

Front

A military draft "the draft," which required all young men to be ready for military or other service

Back

Anglo-German arms race

Front

Starting with Germany's industry surpassing Britain's in the 1890's. Britain's policy was always have the larger navy, which had worked for centuries. Kaiser tried to build Germany's navy. Because of these they produced a super ship a Dreadnoughts.

Back

Battle of Verdun

Front

Febuary 1916, over 1 million people die here

Back

Balkans

Front

Back

Technical Advancements

Front

tanks, machine guns, poison gas

Back

Bismarck

Front

German who gained alliances with other countries with unlawful tactics, was removed in 1890.

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

Command Economy

Front

a system in which the government made all economic decisions.

Back

provisional government

Front

A temporary government

Back

March on Rome

Front

October 1922, 200,000 fascists, wanted to bring order to Italy, as a result the King appointed Benito Mussolini prime minister, with dictatorial power.

Back

Weimar Republic

Front

German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.

Back

Bolsheviks

Front

A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917

Back

Joseph Stalin

Front

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Back

Rasputin

Front

Russian "holy man" who was able to influence Russian politics by gaining the confidence of the Czarina

Back

Autocracy

Front

A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual

Back

communism

Front

A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country.

Back

Collective Farms

Front

It combined them into large, government- owned farms

Back

The sick man of Europe

Front

a nickname given to a country in Europe that is in decline financially, economical, or in another part of their nation. This term started in the 19th century as The Ottoman Empire, present day it could be Greece's financial collapse over the past couple years.

Back

Nazism

Front

Extreme Nationalism + Racism. Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.

Back

The March Revolution

Front

In capital city of Petrograd, by the working-class women after the introduction of bread rationing. On March 8, 1917, 200,000 women marched through city, and called for a general strike. This caused the Czar to abdicate.

Back

Pan-Slavism

Front

a nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, in to on nation in southern Europe.

Back

Black Shirts

Front

Benito Mussolini's "power military group", young men who would gather and were anti socialist and would harm any left wing believers. And became a formal militia in 1923.

Back

Communist Party

Front

A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I Lenin originally the russian Bolshevik

Back

Argonne Offensive

Front

1918, started when Russia dropped out of the war making the Germans take their soldiers on the Eastern Front and send them to the Western Front, overwhelming French troops

Back

Five-Year Plan

Front

Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity.

Back

Communism

Front

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Back

Karl Marx

Front

Father of Communism

Back

Stalin

Front

Dictator of the Soviet Union; led the SU through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war

Back

Aryan Race

Front

The Nazis believed that the race of Germanic peoples was superior to other races

Back

National Socialist German Workers Party

Front

or NSDAP, as we know it it the Nazi Party.

Back

Totalitarianism

Front

a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life.

Back

"peace built on quicksand"

Front

this quotes refers to the temporary peace that the Treaty of Versailles gave, because e decades later the Germans resentment from the T.O.V. starts WW2

Back

1914 - 1918

Front

WW1 start and end dates

Back

The Blank Check

Front

This was a step in WW1 where Germany gave too much support to Austria-Hungary, and is proved to be there downfall in the war.

Back

Why the Czars are bad

Front

Czars resist change, Russia's Industrial Revolution, Russo Japanese War, Bloody Sunday, and WW1

Back

Balkan Wars

Front

Caused by the Bosnia Crisis in 1908. The first in 1912 drove the Turks out. In 1913 the nations were traded. The last war was WWI in 1914

Back

November Criminals

Front

the German politicians who signed the Armistice on November 11th.

Back

Declarations of War

Front

On July 28th Austrian declared war on Serbia. On August 1st, Germany declared war on France. On August 4th Britain declared war on Germany.

Back

Stalin's Totalitarian State (6 main ideas)

Front

Industrial policies, Agricultural policies, Art/religion, Education, Control methods, and Propaganda methods.

Back

Great Purge

Front

Purge, a campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened his power.

Back

Powder Keg

Front

a dangerous or volatile situation or the Balkan peninsula area was nicknamed this because so many conflicts broke out there.

Back

Lenin

Front

He was the major leader of the Bolsheviks. Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Back

Abolished Dynasties

Front

Austria's Hapsburgs (500), Russia's Romanovs (300), Germany's Hohenzollerns (300), and the Ottomans (500)

Back

Fascism

Front

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

Back

Mobilization

Front

On July 29th, Austria moved into Belgrade, making Russia move into Austria and Germany. Then making France push on Germany's western border. Then Germany attacked Belgium and France On August 3rd.

Back

proletariat

Front

Working class

Back

Soviets

Front

A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.

Back

Alexander III

Front

(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship.

Back

The Russo-Japanese War

Front

Russia's loss in this war helped to spark the Revolution of 1905

Back

Bloody Sunday

Front

1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died

Back

Benito Mussolini

Front

or ll Dulce was an (1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.

Back

"Stab in the back"

Front

The people who betrayed Germany were Civilians, November Criminals, Slavs, Communists, and Jews.

Back

Armistice Day

Front

11am, November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918). When Germany dropped out of WW1. Later becoming veterans day.

Back

11 countries created post WW1

Front

Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia

Back

Nicholas II

Front

Last Czar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.

Back

S.A. (Brown Shirts)

Front

or the Stromtroopers the Nazi power military group (like the Italian black shirts)

Back

Worldwide Depression

Front

in 1919, this caused strikes and tension between the classes, globally.

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

Spanish Civil War

Front

A conflict form 1936 to 1939 that resulted in the installation of fascist dictator Francisco Franco as ruler of Spain; Franco's forces were backed by Germany and Italy, whereas the Soviet Union supported the opposing republican forces

Back

Enabling Act

Front

An act passed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.

Back

Germany reenters the Rhineland

Front

This is important because Hitler was spitting the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles in the face.

Back

Francisco Franco

Front

Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.

Back

Adolf Hitler (Nazi)

Front

Back

Henirich Himmler

Front

Led the S. S.

Back

Holocaust

Front

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Back

"peace in our time"

Front

said by Neville Chamberlain meaning we don't need to start another world war.

Back

Nuremburg Laws of 1935

Front

robbed German Jews of their citizenship; professions and major occupations were closed to Jews; defined who was considered a Jew through confusing and complex requirements

Back

Indoctrination

Front

Teaching someone to accept an idea or principle without question

Back

Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)

Front

Back

Dunkirk

Front

Back

SS

Front

A special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925, from the German word "Schutzstaffel, meaning protection squad.

Back

Appeasement

Front

Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict

Back

Ethiopia

Front

In 1935 the league of nations stopped Italy's control over this.

Back

Chancellor

Front

Adolf Hitler's title as President of Germany

Back

Lebensraum

Front

Land or territory a country needs to grow and flourish. Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

Back

Polish Corridor

Front

Hitler demanded parts of Poland that had been German prior to the Treaty of Versailles; this followed the Munich Conference and the annexation of Czechoslovakia; when the demands were not met, he invaded Poland

Back

Guernica

Front

a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica

Back

Axis Powers

Front

Back

Gestapo

Front

was the secret police force of Nazi Germany. The name is short for Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police).

Back

Allied Powers

Front

Back

Kristallnacht

Front

(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.

Back

Joseph Goebbels

Front

was head of Nazi propaganda and built hatred of the Jews. He attempted to flee Germany at the end of WWII, but committed suicide when captured by Allied forces.

Back

Reichstag fire

Front

The Reichstag fire was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933. Accused arson Marinus van der Lubbe was arrested onsite and was executed next January.

Back

League of Nations

Front

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.

Back

Beer Hall Putsch

Front

In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence (sentenced to 5 years, only spent 8 months) during which time he wrote Mein Kampf.

Back

Policy of Appeasement

Front

A political policy of conceding to aggression by a warlike nation. Note: A classic example of appeasement is the Munich Pact of 1938, negotiated between Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler. Chamberlain, the prime minister of Britain, allowed Hitler to annex part of Czechoslovakia to Germany.

Back

Mein Kampf

Front

"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924 (finished in 1925), where he wrote his beliefs and goals for Germany

Back

Rape of Shanghai

Front

In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. There were six weeks of this.

Back

Anschluss

Front

Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.

Back

T4 project

Front

Aryan doctors euthanized over 200,000 elderly and disabled citizens with carbon monoxide gas to build a stronger race by isolating weak social components

Back

Final Solution

Front

This policy called for the murder of every Jew—man, woman, and child—under German rule.

Back

Anti-Semitism

Front

discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews.

Back

Luftwaffe

Front

Germany's air-force

Back

German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Front

A ten-year neutrality agreement between Hitler and Stalin prior to the attack on Poland. Privately: Agreed to divide Poland between them

Back

Vichy France

Front

Back

Munich Conference

Front

1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.

Back

Benito Mussolini (Italy)

Front

Back

Rome-Berlin Axis

Front

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

Back

The Night of the Long Knives

Front

A night in 1934 where Hitler ordered SS men to kill over two hundred SA leaders. This night gave Himmler more power because now that the SA was down in power, the SS rose up in power.

Back

Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)

Front

This was a providence of the country that spoke German, so Hitler demanded that Germany regain that territory.

Back

Third Reich

Front

or Nazi Germany was the period in the history of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.

Back

Neville Chamberlain

Front

British Prime Minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement

Back

Weimar Republic

Front

German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.

Back

Anschluss

Front

Back

Hitler Youth

Front

Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.

Back

Rhineland

Front

Back

T.O.V.

Front

Germans were outraged because of the "Guilt-Clause" within the treaty and paying apperations and their reduced army.

Back

Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

Front

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

toulon

Front

drive british forces from port to bombard at high elevation

Back

Josef Stalin (USSR)

Front

Back

Harry S. Truman (US)

Front

Back

coalition

Front

a group of people or countries who have joined together for a common purpose

Back

coronation

Front

crowning of a king or emperor

Back

consulate

Front

form of government by consuls

Back

battle of pyramids

Front

britian vs. france, Britian leaves french stranded in egypt and in August napoleon sneaks past British blockade and returns to paris

Back

coup d'état

Front

military overthrow of government (how napoleon came to power)

Back

egyptain invasion

Front

Failed miserably but used as a propaganda victory for napoleon (1798-1801)

Back

nepotism

Front

favoring family members in the appointment of church officials

Back

Winston Churchill (UK)

Front

Back

concordat

Front

an agreement between pope and government concerning the legal status of the Catholic church in that governments territory

Back

guerilla

Front

agressive or radical warfare

Back

El Alamein

Front

Back

louisiana purchase

Front

US paid 15M. nap needed money for war

Back

italian campaign

Front

captured northern Italy and forced Austrian hapsburg family to make peace (1796-97)

Back

corsica

Front

birth place of napoleon (1796)

Back

Henirich Himmler (Nazi)

Front

Back

Joseph Goebbels (Nazi)

Front

Back

Neville Chamberlain (UK)

Front

Back

legion of honor

Front

new nobility established by meritocracy

Back

trafalgar

Front

french navy is lost when horatio nelson defeats napoleon

Back

horatio nelson

Front

British naval general who defeated napoleon 2X

Back

plebiscite

Front

popular vote done by ballot (used by napoleon)

Back

rosetta stone

Front

key to egyptain language that was discovered by french scientists

Back

censorship

Front

the practice of officially examining books,movies, ect.. and supressing unacceptable parts

Back

Leningrad

Front

Back

Franklin D. Roosevelt (US)

Front

Back

Stalingrad

Front

Back

austerlitz

Front

france defeated russia and austria

Back

russian invasion

Front

napoleon tries to conquer russia 600,000 men

Back

battle of the nile

Front

british navy attacked french ships and left napoleon stranded in egypt for 1 year (1798)

Back

continental system

Front

blockading all trade between inner European countries and Britain

Back

propaganda

Front

biased info used to persuade public view one way or another

Back

borodino

Front

russian army defeated french. 600,000 french soldiers retreat using scorched earth policy

Back

Normandy

Front

Back

directory

Front

group of 5 men who held executive power in france

Back

peninsular war

Front

napoleon tries to conquer portugal/spain and British help rebels

Back

Battle of the Bulge

Front

Back

domestic policies

Front

set of laws made by government, relating directly to those living within a country

Back

notre dame

Front

where napoleons coronation took place

Back

napoleonic code

Front

law reform 1.equality before law 2.religious tolerance 3. end of feudalism 4.women lost many rights

Back

Herman Goring (Nazi)

Front

Back

General Charles DeGaulle (France)

Front

Back

Battle of Britain: The "Blitz"

Front

Back

Reichstag Fire

Front

Back

"little corpral"

Front

napoleons nickname

Back

divide& conquer

Front

attack from multiple angles to take out the enemy

Back

lycee

Front

system of education made by napoleon

Back

whiff of grapeshot

Front

grapeshots into an angry mob; "dont shoot until you see the whites in their eyes"

Back

Section 10

(50 cards)

1848-1870

Front

italian unification

Back

concert of Europe

Front

a series of alliances devised by metternich.

Back

100 days

Front

the last 100 days of napoleons ruling over europe

Back

alsace-lorraine

Front

ceded to Germany through Treaty of Frankfurt(1871)

Back

1803

Front

Louisiana purchase

Back

kaiser

Front

Prussian emperor

Back

abdicate

Front

to give up power

Back

waterloo

Front

napoleon is defeated and abdicates a second time. banished to St. Helenas(1815)

Back

elba

Front

napoleon is banished here first

Back

kaiser wilhelm I

Front

king of prussia

Back

"blood and iron"

Front

Otto van Bismarck, everything should be solved by war

Back

otto von bismarck

Front

realpolitik; blood and iron for his country

Back

Giuseppe Mazzini

Front

"the heart" ; bring back the greatness of italy (resurgence)

Back

victor emmanuel

Front

sardinian king

Back

peidmont-sardinia

Front

started italian nationalist movement

Back

duke of wellington

Front

studied and finalky defeats napoleons war tactics

Back

nationalism

Front

strong belief in someone's loyalty to their country

Back

conservatism

Front

political philosophy that favours tradition

Back

December 2,1804

Front

napoleons crowned emperor

Back

balance of power

Front

France stayed a major but diminished power, no country in europe could overpower one another

Back

1812-1813

Front

russian invasion

Back

liepzig

Front

Britain, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, German states vs France (oct 16/17 1813) NAPOLEON ABDICATES

Back

congress of vienna

Front

alliance between britian, austria, prussia, russia and "france" (tricked France)

Back

louis XVIII

Front

took the thrown back after napoleon was banished

Back

6 factors of nationalism?

Front

religion culture langauge territory history nationality

Back

austro-prussian war

Front

prussia gained control of the german confed and austria split into the austro-hungarian empire (1866)

Back

1850-1871

Front

german unification

Back

Schleswig & Holstein

Front

captured by Prussia and Austria in the Danish war(1864) and Schleswig is under prussian rule and Holstein is under Austrian rule after the Seven Week's War

Back

march 20-june 22 1815

Front

the 100 days

Back

june 18,1815

Front

waterloo

Back

October 16/17,1813

Front

liepzig

Back

junker

Front

strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowners

Back

1807

Front

height of napoleons power

Back

treaty of frankfurt

Front

ended franco-prussian war (1871)

Back

reich

Front

empire

Back

ems telegram

Front

France didnt want Prussian-Spanish Alliance. Southern Catholic German states remained independent. Bismarck lies about the French Ambassador insulting the king, and they declared war

Back

giuseppe garibaldi

Front

"the sword" ;will die for cause

Back

klemons von metternich

Front

austrian minister who was a big believer in conservatism and took control of the congress of vienna

Back

camillo cavour

Front

"the brains", sardinias prime minister ; realpolitik

Back

1799-1815

Front

napoleonic europe

Back

red shirts

Front

garibaldi's followers who always wore red shirts

Back

realpolitik

Front

by any means necessary

Back

hall of mirrors

Front

in the versaille palace where germany became germany and wilhelm I is crowned emperor

Back

1812 overture

Front

song created for russians

Back

legitimacy

Front

putting legit leaders of royal families back on throwns of European countries

Back

holy alliance

Front

Austria and Prussia's agreement to base relations w other nations on christian principles

Back

st. helena

Front

where napoleon spent the last 6 years of his life banished

Back

young italy

Front

Italian Nationalist group; devote themselves to Italy

Back

militarism

Front

government run by military

Back

Risorgimento

Front

"resurgence" rising again to become the greatest

Back

Section 11

(50 cards)

Schlieffen Plan

Front

Alfred von Schlieffen plan to attack around through belgium for a 6week plan attack

Back

war of attrition

Front

Battle of Verdun & Battle of the Somme: bleed France white

Back

black hand

Front

serbian nationalist group that plotted assassination

Back

gallipoli campaigns

Front

Brit and Austria(Brit colony) forces failed to take Dardanelles as a step toward taking Constantinople and defeating the Turks (1915)

Back

November 11,1918

Front

end of ww1 ARMISTICE DAY

Back

russo-Japenese war

Front

news of repeated losses; loses japanese territories and humiliating for russians.

Back

Gavrillo Princip

Front

"black hand" assassinated arch duke ferdinand

Back

Battle of the Somme

Front

1916- bloodiest battle// british and the french offensive to break through german lines

Back

proletariat

Front

working class

Back

uboats

Front

german submarines

Back

trench warefare

Front

dug trenches and fought in them. very dangerous. TERRIBLE

Back

battle of marne

Front

1914- (Sept 1914): After germans came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed german forces back

Back

armistice

Front

both sides stop fighting

Back

1914-1918

Front

ww2

Back

paris peace conference

Front

jan- june 1919 created treaty of versailles

Back

alexander II

Front

good czar, got blown up w bombs. constructed Church of the savior on spilled blood(1918)

Back

bloody sunday

Front

civilians marched in protest/ provoked waves of strikes and violence, many workers died

Back

romanov family

Front

royal family of Russia

Back

triple alliance

Front

germany, turkey, Bulgaria, austria-hungary

Back

rasputin

Front

self-described "holy man", claimed he had magical healing powers

Back

archduke franz Ferdinand

Front

austrian heir assassinated on june 28, 1914

Back

triple entente

Front

France, Britian, Russian

Back

treaty of versailles

Front

peace treaty created strict in punishing germans

Back

chemical warfare

Front

use of chemicals in war

Back

zimmerman note

Front

telegram where germany tried to allie w/ mexico

Back

trench foot

Front

foot disease contracted by keeping shoes on for long periods of time and in wet conditions

Back

October manifesto

Front

Back

alexander III

Front

learned from dad. created strict policies, changed russian to official lang of empire, jews target of prosecution, strict censorship, industrial reform

Back

lusitania

Front

a boat carrying 1200 people and 128 of them americans sunk by the germans because it had materials for the british (1915)

Back

treaty of brest-litovsk

Front

Vladimir Lenin after the Bolshevik Rev, took Russia out if the war but was forced to give Germans ¼ of Russian territory (1917)

Back

western front

Front

between belg, ger, france. TRENCH WARFARE

Back

mobilization

Front

to prepare for war & fight

Back

Battle of Tannenberg

Front

turned the tides of war on the eastern front. russia lost millions of men to germany. leads to overthrow of the czar

Back

ultimatum

Front

agreement

Back

"red baron"

Front

popular ace (military pilot)

Back

soviets

Front

local councils of workers, peasants, and soldiers

Back

alliances

Front

politcal and military association for benefit of battle

Back

ww1

Front

many russians died when nicholas II decided to bring russia into this war

Back

2nd battle of marne

Front

Back

bourgeoisie

Front

middle class

Back

june 28,1914

Front

assassination of arch fuke ferdinand

Back

shellshock

Front

soldiers going crazy from pure shock of war

Back

DUMA

Front

provisional government that takes over when czar abdicated during feb/mar revolution

Back

propaganda

Front

biased info trying to persuade the people to join or choose a side in the war

Back

feb/March revolution

Front

Czar abdicates provisional gov(DUMA) takes over

Back

Taxi Cab Rescue

Front

taxi cabs saved thousands of soldiers from eastern front

Back

czar nicholas II

Front

last russian czar; whole family murdered

Back

marxism

Front

communism theorist(karl marx)

Back

Battle of Verdun

Front

1916- Second bloodiest(began in February, 1916)

Back

wilsons 14 points

Front

woodrow wilson proposed 14 ideas of how to maintain peace

Back

Section 12

(50 cards)

joseph goebbels

Front

minister of nazi propaganda

Back

accomplishments of mussolini

Front

justice system, efficient buildings, efficient gov

Back

Ethiopia

Front

African territory invaded by italy (league of nations does nothing)

Back

aryan race

Front

german master race

Back

stab in the back

Front

german army did not lose the war, the people on the homefront let them down and allowed the enemy to infiltrate germany

Back

white army

Front

everyone else

Back

1917(o&n)

Front

oct/nov revolution

Back

nuremburg laws

Front

set in place to set laws and restrictions on jews and what they can do

Back

gestapo

Front

hitler's police

Back

ussr

Front

(russia) union of soviet socialist republics

Back

Weimar Republic

Front

government before war starts

Back

black shirts

Front

mussolini's followers

Back

reichstag fire

Front

Reichstag building set on fire, communists blamed & 2 killed. vote for nazi party

Back

mensheviks

Front

moderate Bolsheviks who wanted a broad base of popular support for revolution

Back

1917(f&m)

Front

feb/march revolution

Back

"final solution"

Front

hitlers decision for extermination of jews

Back

Kristallnacht

Front

"night of broken glass" night where jewish synagagues and businesses were ruined

Back

third reich

Front

3rd empire of Germany hitler wanted to last 1,000 years

Back

worldwide depression

Front

whole world was in poverty (1919)

Back

SS

Front

secret police

Back

enabling act

Front

gave hitler power to pass laws w no parliament (4 years of full power)

Back

benito mussolini

Front

ruler of fascist italy

Back

TOV

Front

treaty of versailles(20yrs)

Back

josef stalin

Front

bolshevik; becomes dictator of russia

Back

totalitarianism

Front

single ruler has complete control of everything

Back

provisional government

Front

temporary government

Back

fascism

Front

emphasis on loyalty to the state and one supreme leader (italy)

Back

purges

Front

open killings

Back

communism

Front

idea that everyone shares everything

Back

chancellor

Front

dictator of germany

Back

mein kampf

Front

"my struggle" book hitler wrote in his 9 months of a 5 year jail sentence

Back

vatican

Front

becomes an independent city-state where pope lives

Back

jan 1905

Front

bloody sunday

Back

collective farms

Front

government farms where slaves worked

Back

nazism

Front

idea of extreme nationalism and racism

Back

NAZI

Front

National Socialist German Workers Party meaning

Back

SA

Front

(Brownshirts) nazi army

Back

night of long knives

Front

night where gestapo went around killing any and all threats to hitler's power. 85 officials killed

Back

lenin

Front

leader of Bolsheviks

Back

bolsheviks

Front

radical group(small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for change.)

Back

lebensraum

Front

living space for the master race

Back

heinrich himmler

Front

led SS

Back

league of nations

Front

group that was supposed kept rules in place and came up with versaille treaty

Back

oct/nov Revolution

Front

Lenin and the Bolsheviks gained control of the Petrograd soviet and other major russian cities. Duma overthrown and lenin takes over. treaty of brest-litovsk

Back

beer hall putsch

Front

hitler tried to take over german gov't by force and after failing promises to never do it again

Back

march on rome

Front

MUSSOLINI; demand order for italy and stronger gov. appointed prime minister by king

Back

hitler youth

Front

indoctrination of young children to nazism

Back

anti-semetism

Front

hatred of jews

Back

red army

Front

bolsheviks

Back

5 year plan

Front

5 year plans set impossibly high goals for increased output of goods; increase economy

Back

Section 13

(50 cards)

VJ day

Front

end of ww2 "Victory in Japan day"

Back

winston churchill

Front

set up meeting w FDR to keep USA out of ww2

Back

operation fortitude

Front

a fake army to confuse enemy

Back

spanish civil war

Front

dress rehearsal for ww2"(hitler was testing the waters)

Back

radar

Front

invention used to detect incoming bombings

Back

axis powers

Front

Germany, Japan, Italy

Back

fall of france

Front

occurred in less than 6 weeks;Germany invaded france and set up a vichy government (puppet)

Back

battle of bulge

Front

hitler's last attempt to win the war and it failed

Back

munich conference

Front

Conference where hitler was told he could have sudetenland if he promised not to invade any other lands

Back

francisco franco

Front

led by spanish civil war

Back

sitzkrieg

Front

beginning of ww2 8 months of waiting for someone to start battle(phony war)

Back

polish corridor

Front

hitler plans to invade and conquer poland with allied russia(ussr) & split poland

Back

vichy france

Front

hitler took control and this land became puppet gov't

Back

anschluss

Front

germans take over austria easily

Back

scorched earth policy

Front

burning anything of use or value to the enemy and fleeing

Back

RAF

Front

royal air force

Back

pearl harbor

Front

reason USA joined ww2.. japanese bombed harbor

Back

belguim netherlands and luxembourg

Front

may hitler invasion

Back

1939-1945

Front

ww2

Back

may 8, 1945

Front

end of ww2

Back

invasion of russia-"operation barbarossa"

Front

Invasion of the soviet union was a big mistake because Hitler's men were stalled at the borders and pushed back by USSR offensives. This made them look weak and was a failure for their already hurting country.

Back

wannasee conference

Front

conference that decided the final solution to kill off all jews

Back

tripartite act

Front

us canada britian agreement not to invade or start any wars until help is needed

Back

1933

Front

hitler elected chancellor

Back

1939-1945

Front

ww2

Back

dunkirk

Front

thousands of French and British soldiers were trapped on beaches of France france surrenders

Back

allied powers

Front

US, Britain, ussr

Back

luftwaffe

Front

german air force

Back

blitzkrieg

Front

lightning war-- cut communications, bombed cities

Back

operation torch

Front

USA invades morocco and algeria to get down to el alamein to invade this and this marks the beginning of the end of the axis power in africa

Back

normandy

Front

120,000 troops crossed the English Channel from southern England and invaded France in an amphibious assault

Back

September 1,1939

Front

hitler invades poland (start of war)

Back

policy of appeasement

Front

other countries worked around what hitler wanted to avoid war

Back

lend-lease

Front

one country will lend other countries supplies

Back

el alamein

Front

british forces drove the germans out of egypt

Back

rome-berlin axis

Front

alliance between germany and italy

Back

invasion of poland

Front

hitler used lightning war to take over poland in one month

Back

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Front

german-USSR agreement not to fight for 10 years and secretly plan to split poland half and half after invasion

Back

denmark and norway

Front

april hitler invasion

Back

stalingrad

Front

hitler wanted this industrial city to take control of soviet oil fields hitler refused to let the germans surrender and 300,000 of the german men died here

Back

VE day

Front

"Victory in Europe day" end of ww2

Back

"the blitz"

Front

nighttime air raids in major cities

Back

battle of britian-operation sealion

Front

first german loss hitler bombs britain; AIR BATTLE

Back

charles de gaulle

Front

led the free french

Back

ghettos

Front

where Jews were confined to and forced to live

Back

june 6, 1944

Front

d-day

Back

d-day-"operation overlord"

Front

This is an allied invasion of france on june 6, 1944 where sail from england to france to occupy it which germans do, open a western front because the russians deal with the brunt of their forces, stalin asks churchill and they open a western front by getting deceptive and open a launch called operation fortitude meet in middle of chanel and split up into 6 different beaches and the worst fighting was on omaha beach and there they estimated 2,000 americans died on that day the goal is to overwhelm the germans to be able to cross the channel and get to the european mainland and it is considered a success and run an underground pipe to run fuel through and floating docks to drive across the channel

Back

herman goering

Front

leader of German air force

Back

Neville Chamberlain

Front

british prime minister

Back

sudetenland

Front

land taken over when chamberlain tried to make a compromise between himself and hitler. given to him as long as he doesn't try to take over any more land

Back

Section 14

(4 cards)

may 8, 1945

Front

end of ww2

Back

September 1, 1939

Front

hitler invades poland (start of ww2)

Back

june 6, 1944

Front

d-day

Back

1933

Front

hitler becomes chancellor

Back