programming languages

programming languages

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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Machine language (1st gen)

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Cards (31)

Section 1

(31 cards)

Machine language (1st gen)

Front

• The basic language of the computer, just 0s and 1s • Each CPU model has its own machine language, thus machine language is machine dependent • Not convenient for people to read and use • Evolution of languages started in 1945

Back

Markup languages

Front

A markup language is a kind of coding ("tags") inserted into text that embeds details about the structure and appearance of the text HTML: for Internet use • Has codes for indicating layout and styling (such as boldface, italics, paragraphs, insertion of graphics, etc.) • Used to create 2-D web pages • Also lets you insert hypertext links in web pages SGML: improved markup language • Specifies a syntax for including the markup in documents • Allows users to create and use any markup they wish VRML • Virtual Reality Modeling (Markup) Language is used to create 3-D web pages, including interactive animation • Requires special VRML browser to view VRML pages • Used by web designers, along with HTML XML • eXtensible Markup Language is a metalanguage written in SGML that allows one to facilitate easy document interchange on the Internet • XML lets you create your own tags ("extensible") • XML statements define data content

Back

Examples: Object-oriented (OOP) languages

Front

-C++ • Object-oriented language that was developed after C • Often used to write computer games and CPU/graphics-intensive applications - Java • Developed at Sun Microsystems in early 1990s • Derivative of C++ with simpler memory management and syntax • Used to develop Java applets to be downloaded into web browsers to make websites interactive and more attractive (e.g., with animations)

Back

Very-high level (problem-oriented) languages (4th gen)

Front

• Easier to program in than third-generation languages Three types: • Report generators (RPGIII) • Query languages (SQL) • Application generators (NOMAD, FOCUS) are used to create parts for other programs

Back

C (lang. used today)

Front

• General-purpose machine-independent compiled language developed for mid-range computers • Used for portability, operating systems, and scientific use • Used to write the Unix operating system • Widely used for writing common software applications and is necessary for programmers to know

Back

COBOL (lang. used today)

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• The most-frequently used language for business legacy applications on large computers • A machine-independent procedural language

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Perl (scripting lang.)

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• A general-purpose programming language developed for text manipulation. • Used for web development, network programming, system administration, GUI development, other tasks • Widely used for web server programs to perform automatic tasks such as updating user accounts and newsgroup postings

Back

FORTRAN (lang. used today)

Front

• The language of mathematics • The first high-level language written • A machine-independent procedural language

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CGI (Common Gateway Interface) -more scripting lang.

Front

• Standard protocol for interfacing external application software with a web server • Manages the exchange of information and makes web pages more interactive

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Compiler

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Compiler translates and saves the code as an entire unit to be executed later

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Assembly language (2nd gen)

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• Low-level mnemonic version of machine language; uses abbreviations and simple words • Faster to program in than machine language • Is also machine dependent • Assembler program needed to translate assembly language into machine language

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Visual languages

Front

Visual programming is a method of creating programs in which the programmer makes connections by clicking on objects, diagrams, and icons and by interacting with flowcharts • Using a mouse, the programmer drags and drops objects on screen • This makes it fast and easy to build prototype user interfaces and get end-user approval before doing a lot of programming • Visual BASIC is an example of visual programming

Back

XML

Front

• eXtensible Markup Language is a metalanguage written in SGML that allows one to facilitate easy document interchange on the Internet • XML lets you create your own tags ("extensible") • XML statements define data content

Back

PHP (Personal Home Page, or PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) (scripting lang.)

Front

• Allows creation of dynamic content that interacts with databases • Normally found on Linux servers with MySQL databases • General-purpose scripting language

Back

HTML: for Internet use

Front

• Has codes for indicating layout and styling (such as boldface, italics, paragraphs, insertion of graphics, etc.)

Back

SGML: improved markup language

Front

• Specifies a syntax for including the markup in documents • Allows users to create and use any markup they wish

Back

LISP: for AI applications (lang. used today)

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• Third-generation language • Used to write expert systems and natural language programs

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• Interpreter

Front

translates and executes immediately

Back

Object-oriented (OOP) languages

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data and processing instructions are combined into a self-sufficient object that can be reused.

Back

Natural languages (5th gen)

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Used mainly for artificial intelligence (AI) and neural networks • Use regular human languages

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JavaScript (scripting lang.)

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• Not the same language as Java • An object-oriented scripting language that adds interactive functions to HTML web pages

Back

ActiveX (scripting lang.)

Front

• Developed by Microsoft as an alternative to Java for creating interactive web pages • Set of controls or components that enable programs or content of almost any type to be embedded in a web page; comprises reusable components that can be plugged into other applications • ActiveX controls are written in C, C++, Visual BASIC, and Java • Often used by crackers to propagate viruses and/or Trojans; before you allow an ActiveX component to download from your browser to your computer, make sure you trust that website

Back

BASIC (lang. used today)

Front

• Designed to be an easy language to use and learn programming with • Usually run from an interpreter, but can be compiled • Procedural language • Supplanted by Microsoft's Visual Basic for commercial/business use

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Scripting languages

Front

Scripts: short list of self-executing commands embedded in a web page that perform a specified function or routine JavaScript • Not the same language as Java • An object-oriented scripting language that adds interactive functions to HTML web pages Flash • Browser add-on that uses Adobe Flash to support animation, streaming audio and video, and games on the Internet ActiveX • Developed by Microsoft as an alternative to Java for creating interactive web pages • Set of controls or components that enable programs or content of almost any type to be embedded in a web page; comprises reusable components that can be plugged into other applications • ActiveX controls are written in C, C++, Visual BASIC, and Java • Often used by crackers to propagate viruses and/or Trojans; before you allow an ActiveX component to download from your browser to your computer, make sure you trust that website

Back

Flash (scripting lang.)

Front

• Browser add-on that uses Adobe Flash to support animation, streaming audio and video, and games on the Internet

Back

C++ (lang. used today)

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• Enhanced object-oriented version of C; used for Microsoft system software and many web applications

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Pascal (lang. used today)

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• Designed to be a language to teach programming • Structured, compiled language • Not used in business or commercial companies

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High-level (procedural) languages (3rd gen lang)

Front

• These languages resemble human language (e.g., English) and are portable (not machine dependent) • Examples are FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C • The programmer writes the source code, then uses a translator program to interpret or compile the code into machine language (object code) • Interpreter translates and executes immediately • Compiler translates and saves the code as an entire unit to be executed later

Back

five generations of programming languages

Front

start at the lowest level with (1) machine language. They then range up through (2) assembly language, (3) high-level languages (procedural languages and object-oriented languages), and (4) very-high-level languages (problem-oriented languages). At the highest level are (5) natural languages.

Back

VRML • Virtual Reality Modeling (Markup) Language

Front

• Virtual Reality Modeling (Markup) Language is used to create 3-D web pages, including interactive animation • Requires special VRML browser to view VRML pages • Used by web designers, along with HTML

Back

Scripts (scripting lang.)

Front

short list of self-executing commands embedded in a web page that perform a specified function or routine

Back