AP Human Geography Flashcards

AP Human Geography Flashcards

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Section 1

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Conformal Projection

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Cards (350)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Conformal Projection

Front

Shapes of small areas are preserved. Example would be Mercator Projection, compass direction is preserved making them useful for navigation purposes.

Back

Earth's Graticule

Front

Back

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Front

An integrated network of satellites that orbit the earth, broadcasting location information, in terms of latitude and longitude, to handheld receivers on the earth's surface.

Back

Diffusion

Front

The ways in which phenomena such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or outbreaks of a disease, travel over space. Two main processes: relocation diffusion and expansion diffusion.

Back

Gravity Model

Front

First described in the 1850s, it is based on Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation. An important implication is large cities may still have extensive interactions despite being separated by greater distances; for example, New York and Los Angeles.

Back

Environmental Geography

Front

Study human environment relationships (HER). Concerned with anything from the history of a given landscape and the effects of pollution on impoverished neighborhoods, to the creation of natures reserves for endangered species.

Back

Aggregation

Front

Refers to the size of the unit under investigation such as cities, counties, states, or countries. Life simplification, completely depends on the purpose of the map.

Back

Fuller Projection

Front

Maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction. Cardinal directions--north,south,east,and west--no longer have any meaning.

Back

Formal Regions

Front

Sometimes called thematic regions because they are defined by one or more variable or theme. Group strength varies throughout the region. Varying membership strength, boundaries are imprecise or vague. Examples: climate regions, language, religion, or any other theme.

Back

Distance Decay Curve

Front

Back

Cartograms

Front

Transform space so that the political unit, such as a state or country, with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area and all other polygons are represented proportionally to that largest polygon.

Back

Dot Density Maps

Front

Use points to represent particular values; for example, cropland harvested where each dot represents 1,000 bushels of corn.

Back

Administrative Regions

Front

Politically determined, boundaries are exact. Examples would be: states in a country, counties within states, census tracked within countries.

Back

Concentration

Front

When spatial distributions of objects or features appear in close proximity to one another, they are said to be concentrated. This is also called a cluster.

Back

Hierarchical Expansion Diffusion

Front

Describes spread first to major nodes and then down a hierarchy. Within the major nodes, a phenomenon spreads, typically, by contagious diffusion. (e.g., a fashion trend spreading within Milan).

Back

Geographical Information System (GIS)

Front

A software program that allows geographers to map, analyze, and model spatial data. Use thematic layers, consisting of individual maps that contain specific features such as roads, stream networks, or elevation contours.

Back

Pattison's Four Traditions of Geography

Front

The earth-science tradition as defined by Pattison is essentially physical geography. The culture-environment tradition is essentially the same thing as HER or environmental geography. The locational tradition relates to the analysis of spatial date through cartography. The area-analysis tradition refers to regional geography, which involves an investigation and description of a unique piece of earth's surface.

Back

Pattern

Front

A distribution concept that conveys how objects, features, or phenomena are spatially situated in relation to one another. For example, some features can have a linear pattern, some centralize, some triangular, etc.

Back

Distance Decay

Front

Describes the pattern of diminishing likelihood of interaction with a place with increasing distance from that place.

Back

Absolute Location

Front

Precise location of any object or place on earth's surface. Determined by a standard grid of coordinate system (latitude/longitude)

Back

Perceptual Regions of the United States

Front

Back

Isoline Maps

Front

Maps that use lines to represent quantities of equal value. Most common example is topographic map where each line represents a constant elevation. Lines spaced together indicate a rapidly changing value where spaced lines show little change over space.

Back

Density

Front

Density is the amount of a particular feature within a given area. It is not the same thing as dense, which implies a cluster. For example, population density is the number of people within a given area. Consider area as a whole instead of individual nearness.

Back

Human Geography

Front

Te field of geography that looks at variations in human behavior over space. Looks at the relationship between humans and their environments. Human characteristics include population, economy, agriculture, urbanization, culture, political systems, and how those characteristics vary depending on where you are.

Back

Choropleth Maps

Front

Use colors or tonal shadings to represent categories of data for given geographic ares; countries, states, or countries most commonly use polygons.

Back

Cartography

Front

The art and science of making maps. Goal is to develop maps that accurately and elegantly convey spatial information.

Back

Preference Map of the United States

Front

Back

Equal-Area Projection

Front

Cartographers using or making these types of projections are interested in the preservation of an area; in other words, shapes or directions are distorted but sizes of landmasses are correct in relation to each other.

Back

Fives Themes of Geography

Front

1. Location refers to position on Earth's surface. 2. Human/environment interaction refers to cultural ecology or the relationship between cultures and environment. 3. Regions are ways to organize or compartmentalize space. 4. Place differs from location in that it refers to associations among phenomena within a particular area. 5. Movement describes the interconnections between areas.

Back

Barriers to Diffusion

Front

Something that inhibits a phenomenon from spreading across space. Physical barriers (environment), sociocultural factors (beliefs or culture prohibit interaction) , and psychological barriers (fears or ignorance).

Back

Functional Regions

Front

The boundaries are drawn around an interaction region: every functional region has a node that people interact with; the spatial pattern of that interaction defines the region. For example, commuters to a particular city, newspaper circulation, or branch operations with a major bank.

Back

Connectivity

Front

A measure of all the means of connection and communication between places. Synonymous with relative distance as some places are highly connected to one another yet separated by significant distances.

Back

Cartographic Scale

Front

Also called map scale, refers to the ration between distance on a map and the actual distance on the earth's surface. Ratio ex: 1:200 where 1 unit on the map is equivalent to 200 of that same unit in reality.

Back

Contagious Expansion Diffusion

Front

Describes diffusion resulting from direct contact with an individual. All infectious diseases, such as AIDS, are spread by contagious diffusion.

Back

Cognitive Maps

Front

A dynamic internal representation of a place or environment. The sketch map is the external representation (think of treasure map) of the spatial information that exists in a person's head.

Back

Absolute Distance

Front

Exact measurement of the separation between two points. Uses standard measure such as inches, meters, or miles.

Back

Physical Geography

Front

Study spatial characteristics of the earth's physical and biological systems. Through the understanding of the spatial variability of the phenomena under investigation each of these types of scientists gain insight into why certain phenomena behave the way they do in certain places.

Back

Azimuthal Projections

Front

Planar projections, meaning they are formed when a flat piece of paper is placed on top of the globe and a light source projects the surrounding areas onto the map.

Back

First Law of Geography

Front

Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more closely related than far things. Describes "the friction of distance," meaning that the farther away something is, the less likely someone is to interact with it.

Back

Network

Front

The areal pattern of connections between places. Some networks describe literal connections between places such as the connections between subway stops on a metro map. However, some are less literal; for example, many emerging Internet sites such as "Facebook" are social networks, describing all the links between a group of "friends."

Back

Accessibility

Front

Relatives ease with which you, goods, and ideas can reach a destination. Determined by a place's connectivity; the more means for interacting means higher accessibility.

Back

Latitude and Longitude

Front

Lines of longitude, or meridians, originate at the prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England, and ends at the International Date Line; all lines of longitude meet at the poles. Lines of latitude run parallel to one another and are often called parallels. They originate at the equator and terminate at the poles.

Back

Distortion

Front

All flat maps are distorted as a result of projecting a three-dimensional surface. Some projections distort certain features in favor of preserving others. The major features that get distorted or preserved are shape, area, and direction.

Back

Mercator Projection

Front

Preserves accurate compass direction but distorts are of landmasses relative to each other. Landmasses become increasingly distorted, or large in size, at thigh latitude near the North and South Poles. Originally created by projecting the earth's features onto a cylinder.

Back

Maps

Front

Pictorial Models of reality that use symbols to convey meaning. Power comes in their ability to make something nonspatial (e.g., population rates, spatial, thereby facilitating the perception of spatial relationships. The only way to see the entire earth's surface at once.

Back

Human Geography (again)

Front

Refer to flashcard #39

Back

Cognitive/Perceptual/Vernacular Regions

Front

Describe how people informally organize places in their mind. Usually shared between people because of culturally shared beliefs. For example, "Deep South," is considered a vernacular region. Boundaries are imprecise, vague, or variable.

Back

Distribution Concepts

Front

Concepts that are used to understand how certain objects, features, and phenomena are organized in space. Concentration, density, dispersion, and pattern area are all distribution concepts.

Back

Peters Projection

Front

A cylindrical projection that retains accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses. Reveals how large the landmasses near the equator are. Often viewed as a political statement-an attempt to focus attention on the world's poorest countries.

Back

Generalization

Front

Averaging over details; in a cartographic context generalization results from scaling changes. Small-scale maps have high generalization whereas large-scale maps have less generalization. A map of the entire U.S will not show the small towns and villages that would appear on a map of a local area.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Spatial Perspective

Front

An intellectual framework that allows geographers to look at the earth in terms of the relationships between various places.

Back

Cairo Plan

Front

In 1994, the United Nations, at the U.N. International Conference on Population and Development, endorsed a strategy to stabilize global population at 7.27 billion no later than 2015.

Back

Spatial Association

Front

Describes the distribution of two or more features and how they do or do not correspond to one another. Powerful concept in spatial analysis as it allows geographers to understand why certain spatial patterns exist.

Back

Stimulus Expansion Diffusion

Front

Describes the pattern by which a concept is diffused but not in the same form as in original contact. For example, some Native American groups' exposure to written language stimulated them to develop their own written language.

Back

Global Growth Doubling Time

Front

Doubling is the amount of time it will take a particular population to double in size. Countries with growth rates of 1 percent take approximately 70 years to double their population, whereas countries with 2 percent growth rates take on 35 years to double. When the growth rate is graphed, it produces a J-curve. When growth rates decline, it produces an S-curve.

Back

Topographic Map Showing Elevation Contours

Front

Back

Life Expectancy

Front

Average number of years a person can be expected to live. Number varies globally with highly developed countries experiencing much higher life expectancies than developing countries. Varies within countries, within cities, among ethnicities, and even between sexes.

Back

Relative Location

Front

Describes a place's location in terms of its relationship to places around it. it is more common in everyday language.

Back

Robinson Projection

Front

An example of an attempt to balance projection errors. Does not maintain accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but minimizes errors in each.

Back

Preference Maps

Front

Show people's ideas about environmental, social, or economic quality of life in various places. In general, most Americans rate their home state highly, and most show preferences for coastal areas, especially California, and the East Coast.

Back

HIV/AIDS

Front

A major and dramatic exception to recent population growth trends, particularly in the developing world, where the epidemic is having great effects on birth rates, death rates, and life expectancy. Sub-Saharan Africa has been hit hard by this disease.

Back

Channelized Migration

Front

Flows between a particular origin and destination are larger than would normally be the case, but are not the result of family or kinship ties as is the case with chain migration. For example, occurs between Texas and California, large numbers of people move from Texas to California and vice versa.

Back

Infant Mortality

Front

Number of deaths during the first year of life per thousand live births. Tends to be much higher in developing regions as it is strongly related to a country's access to health care services. Overall, rates have decreased significantly over the last fifty years.

Back

Illegal Immigration

Front

Can be characterized as involuntary but unforced migrants. Individuals choose to risk their lives in the migration decision; a decision that is motivated by dire economic situations within their own country.

Back

Dependency Ratio

Front

A measure of the economic impact of younger and older cohorts on the economically productive members of a population. Younger cohorts are typically children and older cohorts are over the age of sixty-four.

Back

"Cornucopians"

Front

Many argued that stricter population controls needed to be placed on countries with high total fertility rate in order to stimulate development. Many economists argued that increasing populations stimulate rather than hinder economic development.

Back

Antinatalist Population Policies

Front

Encourage couples to limit the number of children they have. Most often, these policies discourage growth through the provision of contraception or abortion or through establishment of specific disincentives, such as steep penalties for couples bearing more children than allowed by the state.

Back

Global Refugee Patterns

Front

Post-September 11th security issues have led many countries of the world, particularly Western Europe and North America, to tighten borders to individuals seeking asylum.

Back

Systematic Geography

Front

Study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead of focusing on particular processes in a single place.

Back

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

Front

Number of deaths in a country per 1,000 people. It is "crude" because it does not take into account the age structure of a population. For example, several countries in Western Europe have relatively high death rates because of a high proportion of individuals in older-age cohorts.

Back

Chain Migration

Front

Describes the migrant flows from a common origin to the same destination. Family or friends move first and get established within an area, paving the way form ore friends and family to follow the same path.

Back

Time-Distance Decay

Front

The idea that the longer it takes for something to spread or move over space, the less likelihood of interaction with or spread of that phenomena. Essentially description of time as a barrier to spatial distribution.

Back

Demographic Transition Model

Front

Back

Internal Migration History of the United States

Front

Wave 1: beginning with colonization, movement of population westward, from rural to urban. Wave 2: from the early 1940s through 1970s from the rural south to cities in the South, North, and West. Wave 3: post-WWII to the present day movement to the sun belt states.

Back

Internally Displaced Person

Front

People who have had to leave their home because of conflict, human rights abuse, war, or environmental catastrophes, but do not leave their country to seek safety. A good example in the U.S is the individuals whose homes were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina.

Back

Reference Maps

Front

Used to navigate between places and include topographic maps, atlases, road maps, and other navigational maps.

Back

Simplification

Front

Refers to level of detail portrayed on a map. Level of simplification depends on the purpose of the map and the size of the area the map is portraying.

Back

Global Population Distribution Patterns

Front

Sixty percent of the world's population lives within 60 miles of the ocean. Population concentrates in areas with high soil arability/fertility, which also tend to have mild climates. Population is becoming more urban.

Back

Resolution

Front

Refers to a map's smallest discernable unit; basically it is the smallest thing visible on a map.

Back

Proportional Symbols Map

Front

Size of the chosen symbol (e.g, circle, triangle, or flow line) indicates relative magnitude of some value for a given geographic region. Flow lines often used to show movements of goods or people over space; lines get relatively thinner and thicker as values shrink or expand.

Back

Guest Workers

Front

Individuals who migrate temporarily to take advantage of job opportunities in other countries. Send a significant portion of their pay, called remittances, back home to support friends and family.

Back

Demographic Momentum

Front

Tendency of a population to continue to grow in spite of stringent population policies or rapid fertility decline because of the large number of individuals in their childbearing years.

Back

Regional Geography

Front

Regional geography, or Pattison's area-analysis tradition, is the study of regions. Regions vary in size; a region may be an entire continent, for example, North America, or a smaller area, such as southern Florida.

Back

Region

Front

One of the fundamental units of analysis in human geography. Regionalizing allows geographers to group pieces of the earth's surface together according to certain similarities. Regions do no exist as well-defined units in the landscape.

Back

Ecumene

Front

The proportion of the earth's surface that's inhabited by humans.

Back

Projection

Front

Refers to the process by which the three-dimensional surface of the Earth is transferred to a two-dimensional map.

Back

Baby Bust

Front

Following the Baby Boom, the Baby Bust was a period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped. This is due to large numbers of women receiving better education and pursuing more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life and having fewer children.

Back

Thematic Maps

Front

Display one or more variables across a specific space such as population variables, voting patterns, or economic welfare.

Back

Crude Birth Rate (CDR)

Front

Number of live births in a single year for every 1,000 people in a population. Birth rates tend to be highest in least developed regions where both number of women at or near reproducing age and fertility rates are high. Places with high birth rates tent to be countries where women's access to education is low.

Back

Time-Space Convergence

Front

The idea that with increasing transportation and communications technology, absolute distance between certain places is, in effect, shrinking.

Back

Scale

Front

Geographic scale is a general concept that refers to a conceptual hierarchy of spaces, from small to large, that reflect actual levels of organization in the real world.

Back

Demographic Transition Model Part 2

Front

Stage 1 (preindustrialization), a country is characterized by high birth and death rates with little growth. In Stage 2, as the country industrializes, birth rates remain high, death rates drop and growth is rapid. In stage 3, birth rates begin to drop as a country becomes fully industrialized. Stages 4 and 5 describe highly developed countries across the globe where population growth is stable or negative.

Back

Carrying Capacity

Front

Essentially the number of people an area can sustain without critically straining its resource base.

Back

Arithmetic Density

Front

Number of people in a given unit of area. Does not take into account physiographic differences in that area.

Back

Relative Distance

Front

Relative distance is when less precise but often meaningful measures are used to describe separation between two points. For example, New York might be five hours by plane from Los Angeles, but over three days by car.

Back

Visualizations

Front

Exist digitally and use sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive.

Back

Baby Boomers

Front

Consist of individuals born post World War II (between 1946 and 1964). Baby boomers are the largest population cohort in United Stated demographic history. As this generation of individuals enter retirement, the burden is increasingly falling on the economically productive members of the country.

Back

Remote Sensing

Front

Process of capturing images from Earth's surface from airborne platforms such as satellites or airplanes. Images can be digital or analog photographs and date can be collected from several bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Back

Site vs. Situation

Front

Sit refers to the physical and cultural features of a place, independent of other places around it. Situation describes a place's relationship to other places around it.

Back

Demographic Accounting Equation

Front

Predicts population change within a particular area as a function of natural increase/decrease and in/out migrations.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Denominations

Front

Subgroups of a larger belief system that have slightly different rituals or interpretations from other subgroups. Common Christian denominations include Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, Methodist, and Lutheran among many others.

Back

Ethnic Provinces

Front

When entire regions become associated with ethnic or racial aggregations. Include French Canadians in Quebec; African Americans in the U.S. southeast; Native Americans in Oklahoma, the southwest, the northern plains and prairies; and Hispanics in the southwestern border states.

Back

Refugees

Front

Individuals who cross national boundaries to seek safety and asylum. Typically reluctant or forced migrants who leave their country because of war, famine, environmental catastrophes, or religious persecution.

Back

Rust Belt

Front

In the 1960s and 1970s, large number of white, middle-class Americans moved from older northeastern and midwestern cities to the South and the West Coast (the sun belt). The area people weere moving from in the upper Midwest became known as the rust belt.

Back

Cultural Imperialism

Front

Dominance of one culture over another. Historically, often occurred as a result of colonization. Occurs in present day as pop culture which is so easily diffused across national boundaries. Sometimes called cultural homogenization as pop culture continually pervades the globe.

Back

Cultural Assimilation

Front

When adoption of economic and cultural from the host society is complete. Behavioral assimilation is essentially acculturation. Structural assimilation involves two-way full acceptance of cultural values and practices.

Back

Population Centroid of the United States

Front

The geographic center of the United States; essentially the balancing point of the U.S. population if the country is conceived of as a place. Historically, has been on the East Coast, with continued migration west and south. The center is progressively moving and is currently thought to be somewhere in south-central Missouri.

Back

Christianity

Front

World''s most widespread religion. Monotheistic with its origins from Judaism. Three major categories include Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and Roman Catholic. Roman Catholicism is prominent in Central and South America, North America, and Western Europe. Protestantism includes prevalent North America. Eastern Orthodox is dominant in Eastern Europe and Russia.

Back

Cultural Traits

Front

Specific customs that are part of everyday life, including language, religion, ethnicity, and social institutions. All have hearths, or places of origin, May expand from diffusion, adoption, and assimilation which is all called transculturation. A cultural complex is the group of traits that define a particular culture.

Back

Thomas Malthus

Front

Carrying capacity is limited by food available. Food production grows arithmetically, whereas population grows geometrically or exponentially, meaning eventually food supplies cannot support an ever-increasing population. He was partly wrong because due to the industrial revolution, advancements in food production occurred, expanding the globe's carrying capacity.

Back

Population Geography

Front

Similar to demography in its focus on demographic rates except that population geographers investigate patterns from a spatial perspective--why patterns exist, where they exist, and the implications of current population patterns.

Back

Voluntary Migration and Push-and-Pull Factors

Front

Pull factors are characteristics that draw a migration to a place. Include housing opportunities, climate, educational opportunities, and employment opportunities. Push factors include negative environmental characteristics, unemployment, lack of good services, and high cost of living.

Back

Sustainablitity

Front

Using resources in a manner that supplies existing populations while not compromising availability of resources for future generations. Problem with this is that global consumption patterns are unpredictable.

Back

Pronatalist Population Policies

Front

Typically exist in countries where population is declining. In Europe, where negative population is common, countries have instituted programs that encourage births. Countries outside of Europe such as Singapore are instituting pronatalist population policies in response to dramatic results of antinatalist policies in the past.

Back

Artifact, Mentifacts, and Sociofatcts

Front

Artifacts comprise the technological subsystem of culture; consisting of material objects. Mentifacts compromise the ideological subsystem including ideas, beliefs, and knowledge, Sociofacts compromise the sociological subsystem of culture, including the expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relationship within a people or group.

Back

Built Environment

Front

Refers to spaces that have been modified by human activity. Includes houses and other structures but also includes reservoirs, parks, damns, and other facilities that reflect human-induced change in the landscape.

Back

Diaspora

Front

Experiences of people who come from a common ethnic background but live in different regions or ethnic neighborhoods. Often used to refer to Jews or Blacks of African descent, who maintain aspects of their common heritage despite living outside their home community.

Back

Ethnic Neighborhoods

Front

Concentrations of people from the same ethnicity in certain pockets of the city. Result from friends and relatives who have immigrated, encouraging friends and relatives back home to join them where opportunities or freedom are more available.

Back

Ethnic Enclaves

Front

A relatively small area occupied by a distinct culture or ethnicity, which largely results from chain migration. "Little Italy" or "Chinatown" are common names of ethnic enclaves that exist in numerous American cities.

Back

Natural Increase Variations

Front

Economic development has profound implications on health care, available employment opportunities, and nutrition among other factors contributing to growth. Population with better education tend to have lower rates of natural increase. Gender empowerment: when women have more economic and political access, fertility rates drop.

Back

Population Density

Front

Crude density, also called arithmetic density, is the total number of people divided by the total land area. Crude density is a "crude" number because it does not provide a full picture of the relationship between people and the land.

Back

Ethnic Islands

Front

Small, rural areas settled by a single ethnic group as opposed to ethnic neighborhoods or enclaves, which are urban. Leave their imprint in rural areas through housing, barn style and farmstead layouts. Refer to card #146 for additional information.

Back

Buddhism

Front

Originated in the sixth century B.C. in northern India. Traces from Hinduism. While still centered in East Asia, has gained an increasingly large following in Europe and North America since the 1950s. Nearly half of Buddhists in the United States live in southern California.

Back

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Front

Average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. TFR provides a more accurate picture of fertility in a country than CBR as it allows demographers to predict the birth rates of a particular cohort over time. Replacement level fertility: a fertility rate typically slightly higher than two (to account for infant/childhood mortality and childless women).

Back

Dialects

Front

A single language that varies somewhat from parent form. English contains numerous dialects, reflecting historical, social, and geographic differences between many diverse peoples. When the primary language in Houston, London, New York, Sydney, and Toronto is English, speakers in each place have difference words for the same thing and different ways of saying the same word (as reflected in their accent).

Back

Migration

Front

Defined as movement to a new activity place or movement from one administrative region to another. International migration involves movement over country borders. Migratory movement within a country is called internal migration.

Back

Acculturation

Front

Refers to adoption of cultural traits by one group under the influence of another. May occur as a result of immigration, when immigrant populations take on the values, customs, and other cultural traits of a receiving society. Can result from colonization where the cultural traits are impost on the population under control.

Back

Population Data

Front

Includes total population counts and rates such as crude birth rate, crude death rate, and so on: from the United Nations Statistical Office, the World Bank, the Population Reference Bureau, and from national censuses. In developing regions, date from censuses can be unreliable.

Back

Confucianism

Front

Belief system derived from the 5th century BCE by Confucius, Followers of Confucianism believe strongly in filial piety, or respect for elders.

Back

Ravenstein's Migration Laws

Front

Every migration flow generally generates a counterflow. The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move long distances tend to choose big city destinations. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.

Back

Charter Group

Front

The first ethnic group to establish cultural norms in an area. Sometimes called the "first effective settlement" or "first self-perpetuating society," whose imprints affects modern cultural geography of an area.

Back

Environmental Determinism

Front

Claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions. Certain types of people who come from cultures that arose in certain physical environments, may be smarter, more attractive, or more able to govern themselves as a result.

Back

Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide

Front

Cleansing involves the effort to rid a country or region of everyone of a particular ethnicity either through forced migration or genocide. Genocide is a premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group.

Back

Population Pyramid

Front

Four different Shapes: rapid growth, distinguished by a wide base (most common in developing countries). Stability, characterized by a rectangular shape indicating stable growth (common in developed countries). Decline, in which the base is smaller than the previous cohorts. Disrupted growth, which shows significant gaps in the pyramid, usually as a result of war, strict population policies, or other drastic events.

Back

Countering Language Extinction

Front

In parts of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, native languages are being brought back from extinction. In Israel, Hebrew was revived after WWII. Native Americans from Alaska to South America maintain distinct and unique linguistic heritage.

Back

Culture

Front

Derives from Latin "cultus," meaning "to care about." Dates back to Enlightenment, when culture referred to a variety of human endeavors, such as agriculture. Currently defined as all the ideas, practices, and material objects associated with a particular group of people.

Back

Architectural Structure

Front

The style of a particular culture or society's buildings, which varies dramatically over space and time. For example, sacred buildings or houses of worship, through their form or structure, can easily reveal the type of religion being practiced in that building. Mosques differ dramatically from cathedrals or Hindu temples.

Back

Neo-Malthusians

Front

Neo-Malthusians, believe population growth to be a problem and provide the foundation for many antinatalist population policies. They advocate "zero population growth" (ZPG) in which number of births and immigrants are equally counteracted by the number of deaths and emigrants.

Back

Diffusion

Front

Process by which and idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group across space. Relocation diffusion involves spacial spreading as a result of physical movement to a new place. Expansion diffusion typically involves the spreading of an innovation through communication.

Back

Christian Denominations in the United States

Front

Refer to card #131, has all the information

Back

Overpopulation vs. Underpopulation

Front

Overpopulation is essentially a value judgement reflecting an opinion that an area does not have adequate resources to support the existing population: If an area is overpopulated, it has exceeded its carrying capacity. Underpopulation describes scenarios in which areas or regions do not have enough people to fully exploit the local resource base.

Back

Population Growth Rate

Front

A country's growth rate is determined by its natural increase, (birth rate minus the death rate), expressed as a percentage. Currently, high growth rates are in developing countries such as El Salvador, Mozambique, and Oman, where growth rates are above 2%.

Back

Sun Belt Migration

Front

Movement of the U.S. population in the last several decades to the sun belt states has dramatically altered the balance of political and economic power as California, Florida, and Texas )all sun belt states), are now three of the four most populous states in the country. They carry a disproportionate number of electoral votes, have large congressional delegations, and are dominant in many economic sectors such as technology, energy production, and agriculture.

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Place Utility

Front

In the migration decision, "place utility" refers to the benefits a place offers to pull people to that destination. Benefits include things like good school systems, good climate, job opportunities, recreational opportunities, etc.

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Reluctant and Forced Migration

Front

In forced migration,, an individual migrates against his or her will. Somewhere between voluntary and forced migration where an individual reluctantly chooses to move because certain factors prohibit them from staying at their current location. One example is the "Trail of Tears".

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Natural Increase vs Natural Decrease

Front

The difference between CBR and CDR indicates natural growth or decline within a population. When births outnumber deaths, natural increase is occurring; when deaths outnumber births, a country experiences natural decrease. High rates of natural increase occur in developing countries. Developed countries such as countries in Western Europe experience natural decrease.

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Ethnicity

Front

Refers to a group of people who share a common identity. Involves more than physical characteristics associated with race; also includes a person's perceived social and cultural identity.

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Population Growth Since 1750

Front

Low since 1750 to around 1925. Sudden increase. Less-Developed regions start to gain exponentially whereas More-Developed regions have little to no increase. Overall, the world total has grown the highest.

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Population Pyramid: U.S.

Front

Notice the bump located at the mid-section due to the Baby Boomer generation after WWII.

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Ethnocentrism

Front

Tendency to evaluate other cultures against the standards of one's own, implying superiority of one's ethnic group. Can be negative in multiethnic societies by provoking social discord and isolation. Can be positive when ethnic groups exist in relative isolation by providing familiarity through traditions, friends, business opportunities, and political identification.

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Section 4

(50 cards)

Language Dominance

Front

When European nations had colonial power over certain African and South American countries, they easily imposed their languages on native populations because of well-establish European alphabets. After decolonization, most European languages remained dominant in former colonies.

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Language Extinction

Front

Occurs when a language is no longer in use by an living people. Colonialism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and economic globalization in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have driven many languages to premature extinction. Causes the loss of a tremendous amount of history and knowledge.

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Cores and Capitals

Front

Most states contain a core area, which is the oldest area in a state, typically containing the most developed economic base and transportation services. Strong core regions include Paris, France, and London. Often a country's capital is in the core region, and serves as the center of political and economic power. Most European countries follow this model and most tend to be unitary states.

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Folk Culture

Front

Refers to cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in traditional societies in which they developed. Usually rural, with strong family ties and interpersonal relationships. Usually form a subsistence economy where goods are handmade. Elements vary dramatically from place to place but do not change much over time.

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Language

Front

The oldest most geographically diverse cultural traits of Earth. Estimated about five thousand remaining languages with Africa and Asia being most linguistically diverse. Papua, New Guinea, has the most linguistic diversity with approximately nine hundred languages.

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Pidgins and Creoles

Front

When two groups of people with different languages meet, a new language with some characteristics of each may result; this is a pidgin language. If a pidgin evolves to the point of being the primary language of the people who speak it, it becomes a Creole. Creole languages frequently developed in colonial settings where linguistic traditions of indigenous peoples and colonizers blended.

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Balkanization

Front

Contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries. Term comes from conflicts in the Balkans that caused that territory to break up.

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Country Shapes

Front

Fragmented: a state that is not a contiguous whole. Elongated: a state that is long and narrow Compact: a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions. Prorupt: a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory.

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Boundaries and Political Stability in Africa

Front

When European nations colonized in Africa, territories were divided according to which land belonged to which European colonizer without regard for existing spatial patterns of different tribes and ethnicities. After decolonization, boundaries remained in places.

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Language Groups

Front

A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics. For example, Spanish and Italian are both part of the Romance language group; they are both derived from Latin, they have many related words, and they contain similar grammatical structures.

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Possibilism

Front

Different environmental conditions offer both restraints and opportunities to people living in various regions. People control their own destinies and deal with various environmental factors in ways that are dynamic and contingent and that unfold unpredictably over history.

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Syncretism

Front

Development of a new cultural trait as a result of the fusion of two distinct but interacting cultures. Huge factor in cultural change as authentic cultural traits are modified to make them more appealing to receiving societies. Example would be in America how many ethnic cuisines are not eaten in their authentic form; they have been modified to be more pleasing to the typical American's palate.

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Religion

Front

All religions have some set of teachings that imply a value system, include some notion of the sacred, and include ideas about the place of human beings in the universe. It is more than a cultural trait. Ties all aspects of human culture and social systems, geography of religion provides insight into population growth, international politics, and design and structure of cities.

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Segregation

Front

Measure of the extent to which members of a particular minority ethnic group are not uniformly distributed among the total population. Measured using the segregation index or index of residential dissimilarity. Index indicates the percentage difference between two ethnic groups.

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Islam

Front

Centered in Middle East and North Africa. A monotheistic religion descending from Judaism. Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the birthplace of Muhammad and the base for the nation of Islam.

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Interfaith Boundaries and Intrafaith Boundaries

Front

Interfaith boundaries refer to boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Intrafaith boundaries refer to boundaries within a single major faith, such as boundaries that separate Christianity denominations.

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Toponymy

Front

The names different cultures give to various features of the earth including settlements, terrain features, streams, and other land features. Reveals interesting aspects of the spatial patterns of different languages and dialects.

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Fundamentalism vs. Extremism

Front

Fundamentalism is strict and literal adherence to a set of principle, beliefs, or teachings. Members of any religion are fundamentalists. Extremism is violent fundamentalism and is becoming more prevalent across the globe.

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Language Families

Front

A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue. About 50 percent of global population speak languages belonging to the Indo-European family. Twenty percent speak languages from Sino-Tibetan family.

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Monotheistic vs. Polytheistic Religions

Front

Monotheistic focuses on a single god; Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are monotheistic religions. Polytheistic religions teach numerous gods or spiritual powers; many Native American religions are polytheistic.

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Vernacular Regions

Front

A perceptual region defined by perceived unique physical and cultural characteristics in that area. Overlap often occurs among people as to where these regions exist because they are not politically defined. Example would be the "Deep South" in the United States. Many of the defining characteristics are based on stereotypes.

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Sense of Place

Front

Used to connote attachment to and comfort in a particular place. Typically individuals have strongest sense of place to where they grew up. Many argue that individuals are losing it as "placeless" landscapes of pop culture increasingly take over the unique characteristics of local landscapes.

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Gender and Sex

Front

Gender refers to socially created distinctions between masculinity and femininity. Sex connoted biological differences between males and females. Females, for safety reasons, may be less willing to travel alone in certain parts of a city as compared to males. Culture can play a strong role in determining a woman's role in society.

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Apartheid

Front

Official system of segregation instituted by the white (European) minority again the black (African) majority in South Africa. Officially ended in 1994 with multi-racial democratic elections which established Nelson Mandela president of the country, but effects of this system still linger today.

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Devolution

Front

The transfer of some central powers to regional or local governments. Many separatist movements in Western Europe seek regional autonomy or devolution rather than complete interdependence from the state. France, Spain, and the United Kingdom have developed programs of devolution for their minority groups.

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Colonialism

Front

The expansion and perpetuation of an empire. Austria, Britain, China, France, Japan, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and Sweden were colonial powers. Has tremendous effects on political geography in terms of boundaries, cores, and capitals, and international economic relationships.

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Universalizing vs. Local Religions

Front

Universalizing religions claim global applicability and actively seek new converts. Local religions pertain to a specific area. Examples would be ethnic religions such as Hinduism and Judaism, others are tribal and often polytheistic.

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Placelessness

Front

Loss of distinct local features in favor of standardized landscapes. Happens as a result of pervasiveness of pop culture and mass production. Communities fighting placelessness work to promote local businesses and local characteristics to keep their place unique as opposed to pop culture elements such as big box stores.

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Administration as a Centripetal Force

Front

Effective leadership involves establishment of a domestic police force that ensures domestic tranquility, a fair and reliable justice system, the equitable distribution of resources within a country, and provision of social welfare resources. For example, in the U.S., every individual has the right to a fair trial.

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Indo-European Language Family

Front

Major language: Albanian, Celtic, Germanic, and Italic, among others. Each language is an ancestor to other language such as Latin, in the case of the Italic language branch. Latin is the progenitor of French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. English descends from the Low German branch of Germanic offspring.

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Lingua Franca

Front

An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more complex languages, usually for trade purposes. Typically lacks fundamental features common to most full-fledged languages, like verb tense.

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Judaism

Front

FIRST major monotheistic religion. In 1948, Jewish people established their own state in Israel, which, in addition to the United States, is where most Jews reside.

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World's Major Religions

Front

Hindu is the most dominant in the Indian subcontinent. Islam is dominant in Middle East, and Northern Africa. Christianity is dominant in Australia, Europe, and North and South America. Buddhism is dominant in parts of South Asia. Shaminist religions are found in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South America.

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Sacred Spaces

Front

Areas or places of religious or spiritual significance. Some are historical, such as the Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall in Jerusalem. Some are current including all places of worship. Cemeteries are often included in this category as death and the afterlife are an integral part of many religions.

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Conference of Berlin

Front

Meeting that took place in 1884 among 14 European countries. The meeting established boundaries throughout Africa according to colonial interests, boundaries that completely disregarded existing cultural and ethnic boundaries.

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Popular "Pop" Culture

Front

Conveys a notion of cultural productions fueled by mass media and consumerism. Does not reflect local environment; looks virtually the same anywhere it appears. Rapidly changes over time as evidenced by terms such as fed or trend commonly used in pop culture lingo.

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Spread of Islam

Front

Began in Saudi Arabia near Mecca and Medina and spread originally through expansion diffusion to surrounding areas, including other parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa. Diffused by relocation diffusion later to Indonesia and Malaysia. In recent decades, Muslim populations in Europe have been growing, primarily through relocation diffusion.

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Social Distance

Front

Measure of the perceived differences between an immigrant ethnic group and the charter or host society. When distance is high, ethnic neighborhoods or enclaves exist for much longer than when it is low.

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Official Language

Front

Language in which all government business occurs. Belgium and Switzerland have multiple official languages. Polyglots are multilingual states like Canada where differing languages cause conflict between secession activists.

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Domino Theory

Front

Idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse.

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Asymmetric Federalism

Front

Also called regional government. System of government that allows some level of autonomy to cultural subdivisions within those countries. Central government still retains control over nationwide concerns. United Kingdom bestows some regional autonomy on Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

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Confederation

Front

A voluntary grouping of states or communities for some common purpose. Initially, usually created by treaty, which later typically evolves into a constitution.

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Shamanism and Animism

Front

Local religion types associated with particular places. Tend to attract small, localized followings. In Shaminism, a single person fulfills the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and claims a conduit to the supernatural world. Animism is most prevalent in Africa and the Americas; animists see the world as being infused with spiritual and supernatural powers.

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Centrifugal Forces

Front

Forces within a state that destabilize or weaken it. In general, if a country does not have effective administration, organization, communication, or transportation networks, it will be politically unstable.

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Challenges to the Modern State

Front

Globalization and rise of transnational corporations threaten state authority authority as economic power. Rise of international and supranational institutions, which involves surrendering some state autonomy. Emergence and rise of nongovernmental organization and pressure they exert. Magnitude of international migration flows decreases nationalism; people exchange attachment to homeland in exchange for membership in a global community.

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Antarctica

Front

Several countries have "claimed" territory over it but none of these claims are internationally recognized. Countries include Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Norway, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. The arbitrary dividing lines correspond to lines of longitude and have little relationship to physical features or human impacts.

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Boundary Disputes

Front

Positional disputes involve disagreement over interpretation of position of the boundary line. Territorial disputed involve disagreement over ownership of land. Resource dispute arise when a valuable resource lies within a border region. Functional disputes involves argument over policies to be applied in a boundary region, such as immigration.

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Global vs. Ethnic Religions

Front

Global religions have numerous members, are widespread, and their doctrines have global appeal. Examples are Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are global religions. Ethnic religions appeal to small groups of people with a common heritage or to large groups of people living in a single region. Hinduism and Judaism are ethnic religions.

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Centripetal Forces

Front

Forces within a state that promote unity and national stability. Nationalism, in a positive sense, along with an effective administration system, unifying institutions, and a well-developed transportation and communications system generally lead to political stability.

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Hinduism

Front

OLDEST major religion at approximately four thousand years. The caste system is an important aspect. Each caste defines individual's occupations, social connections, where they can live, clothes they wear, and food they eat.

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Section 5

(50 cards)

Forward Capitals

Front

When a capital city is relocated to encourage population growth and economic development in other parts of the country. Sometimes forward capitals are established in an effort to achieve political neutrality.

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Subsequent vs. Antecedent Boundaries

Front

Subsequent boundaries are lines established after cultural landscape exists. Consequent subsequent boundaries accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences between countries. Antecedent boundaries are lines established before an area is populated.

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Unitary States

Front

State governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers. Often are countries with few cultural conflicts and with strong senses of national identity. Many European countries are unitary states; boundaries are typically both political and cultural.

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European Union

Front

International Organization in Western Europe that formed out of the EEC and begin in 1958. Initial purpose was economic, and free trade was encouraged. Increasingly becoming both a political and economic organization. Euro was accepted by twelve countries in 2002.

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Capital-Intensive vs. Labor-Intensive Agriculture

Front

Capital-intensive methods use mechanical goods including machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods, a process requiring very little human labor. Labor-intensive goods use human hands in large abundance to produce.

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Reapportionment

Front

Process of reallocation of electoral seats. After every decennial census, the 538 electoral votes are redistributed according to population shifts. Despite population growth or decline, every state has at least three electors: two senators and at least one member in the House of Representatives. California, New York, and Texas consistently have large populations and consequently a large portion of the electoral vote.

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Nationalism as a Centripetal Force

Front

A sense of national price and acceptance of national goals. Sates purposefully try to instill a sense of nationalism, through celebration of the country's heritage or independence.

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Electoral College

Front

System of representation in the United States. Consists of a specific number of electors from each states, proportional to that state's population. Each state's number of electoral votes is equal to number of senators (two per state) plus number of representatives which varies according to population. Total number of electors is 538.

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Iron Curtain

Front

Imaginary wall or boundary that divided the people from Western (democratic/capitalist) Europe from Eastern (communist Europe from 1946-1990 (the years of the Cold War).

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Electoral Geography

Front

Investigation and analysis of the election process including how district boundary lines are drawn and the spatial patterns of election results and how they correspond to variables such as socioeconomic status.

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Aquaculture

Front

Fish farming, increasingly responsible for global fish production; accounts for over 30 percent of fish production in the recent years. Carries negative environmental risks, damage that often results to wild fish from interacting with farmed fish that have escaped from fish farms.

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Microstates

Front

State or territory that is small in both population and area. The Vatican, Andorra, and all the various island states in the South Pacific are good examples of microstates or ministates. The smallest sate in the world is Nauru, at 8.2 square miles.

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Supranationalism

Front

Trend toward creation of associations of three or more states developed for mutual benefit and to achieve shared objectives. Example is the United Nations.

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Territorial Organization

Front

Geographically based political organization that bestows relative power on hierarchy of local government agencies. Efficiently allows delegation of administrative functions. Allows some autonomy to local territories.

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Frontier

Front

An area where borders are shifting and weak. Where people of different cultures and nationalities meet and lay claim to the land. Antarctica is essentially the last one on Earth. No state has internationally recognized sovereignty over the territory although several states have claimed such.

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Biotechnology

Front

Includes all tech improvements on biological systems. Example include genetically modified organisms in which tech is used to alter genetic make-up of plants or animals, production and introduction of enzymes that increase speed of fermentation in wines or yogurt.

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Separatism

Front

Also known as autonomous nationalism. When a minority group seeks total or partial secession from the state. Separatist movements exist in both traditionally politically stable countries as well. Separatist movements are strong centrifugal forces in India, Israel, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka.

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Geopolitics

Front

Study of interplay between political relations and territorial context in which they occur. Lebensraum, a political theory used by Hitler, means "living space," justified his quest for territories and resources from Eastern Europe. Heartland and Rimland are two other dominant historical geopolitical theories that sought to determine the geographic center of political power.

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Federalism

Front

System of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government. Federal states vary in the degree of autonomy they give to local territories. Examples include provinces in Canada and estados in Mexico.

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Agribusiness

Front

Defined as an industrialized, corporate form of agricultural production. Largely a result of globalization, demonstrates agriculture's extension in all sectors of economy through food production (secondary), marketing and distribution of food products (tertiary), and agricultural research (quaternary).

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Redistricting

Front

The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes. Each elector ideally represents a similar number of people; after each census, district lines are redrawn to maintain this relationship. District lines are also drawn in an effort to establish "majority-minority" districts such as a state's electors reflect its population. Gerrymandering is the term describing an advantage for a particular political party.

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Landlocked States

Front

A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states. Disadvantaged in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes.

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Unifying Institutions as a Centripetal Force

Front

Include schools, armed forces, and occasionally a national church. An effective school system unifies a state as it provides education for its citizens and teaches them the history of the country.

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Biomass

Front

Alternative energy source which involves converting a variety of biological materials-crops, vegetation, and human and animal waste into fuel for automobiles and engines.

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Agriculture

Front

Defined as the growing of crops or tending of livestock for subsistence or producers. Most economically significant primary economic activity. In both developed and developing country, total labor force employed in agriculture is declining. It is much higher in developing regions.

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State

Front

Synonymous with "country"; an administrative region with internationally recognized sovereignty. Currently about 200 states across the globe, depending on what is considered a state. One hundred ninety-three members of the United Nations. Almost always compromised of more than one nation, and called multinational states. Nation-states are sovereign states compromised of citizens with a common heritage, identity, and set of political goals.

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Evolution of the State

Front

Political organization dates back far beyond what the European model of statehood suggests. Idea of the modern state developed in Europe by political philosophers in eighteenth century and coincided with the French Revolution. The modern state ideal held that people needed to be loyal to a state and its people rather than to a leader.

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Commercial Agriculture

Front

Involves food production primarily for sale from a farm. Often involves sale of farm goods to food-processing companies rather than directly to consumers. Extensive includes grain, farming, grazing and other activities that require minimal inputs and large pieces of land. Intensive include dairy products, fruits, vegetables, flowers, factory-farmed mean, and any other good requiring high input (labor and capital).

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Physical vs. Geometric State Boundaries

Front

Physical boundaries correspond to prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers. Geometric boundaries are defined and delimited by straight lines.

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Territoriality

Front

Individual or group attempt to establish authority over a piece of land considered a partially or wholly exclusive domain. In some stateless nations, strong sense of territoriality can lead to separatist movements.

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Theocracies

Front

Governments controlled through divine guidance or religious leadership. For example, some Middle Eastern countries, such as Iran, owe their organizational structure to the teachings of Islam.

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Imperialism

Front

The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign. Describes countries that exert cultural or economic dominance over others without the aid or official government institutions.

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Political Geography

Front

Political geographers use the spatial perspective to study political systems at all geographic scales, from local governments to international political systems. They look at how economic, cultural, and physical geography impacts political systems, or, the reverse.

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Agricultural Production in the United States

Front

Truck and fruit farming exists in the relatively mild climates of central California and the southeast coast. Livestock dominates in the western region. Midwest states produce feed grains and livestock. Mixed farming such as cotton, dominate in the southeast. Wheat and small grains are common in the Midwest.

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Regional Alliances

Front

Multinational systems in which systems relinquish some autonomy in order to participate in regional alliances that have political, economic, or military purposes. NAFTA and the EU are examples. Some exist for political, social, and cultural objectives such as the League of Arab Nations

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Terrorism

Front

Calculated use of violent acts against a civilian population and symbolic targets. For example, many terrorist acts at the national level arise from centrifugal forces such as strong separatist movements or organized religion.

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Exclaves, Enclaves, and Perforated States

Front

Exclaves: a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state. Enclaves: any small and relatively homogenous group, region, or state surrounded by another larger and different group, region, or state. Perforated: a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.

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Relic Boundaries

Front

Old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography.

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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Front

Signed n 1992, this trade agreement between the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico, allowed for free trade and a shared economic market between the three member countries.

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Nation

Front

Consists of a group of people with a common political or ethnic identity. Not all nations have sovereignty over a piece of space. These are called stateless nations.

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Nationalism as a Centrifugal Force

Front

Nationalism can become negative when a nation perceives itself as superior to others. Subnationalism is when a multinational state contains people that giver their primary allegiance to a group or nation smaller than the population. When subnational groups are not able to peacefully coexist, nationalism becomes a divisive force within a country.

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Heartland Theory vs. Rimland Theory

Front

Heartland Theory was proposed by Halford Mackinder in the beginning of the twentieth century and stated that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world. Rimland Theory, proposed by Nicholas Spykman in response, stated that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest.

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Irredentism

Front

When a state wants to annex a territory whose population is ethnically similar to that of the state but is under sovereignty of a different country.

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Military Aliiances

Front

Developed to ensure mutual assistance in times of aggression. For example, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) includes many European countries and the U.S. It provides land for military bases among member states.

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State's Rights

Front

Rights and powers believed to be in the authority of that state rather than the federal government. At several times in United States history have become an issue of much political debate. During the early days of the Republic, divided country during Civil War, Divided country during Civil Rights Movement. Surround issues of environmental regulation and management of natural resources.

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Transportation and Communication as a Centripetal Force

Front

Well-developed transportation and communication systems allow for participation in the political process and encourage interaction, both socially and economically, between members of the state. In general, the more advanced transportation and communications technology, the more economically advanced the country.

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International Agreements

Front

One goal of international organizations is establishment of international protocols for various world-related issues, such as the environment, health, economic development, and foreign aid. For example, the Kyoto Protocol, developed at the U.N. meeting in 1997, cut the amount of greenhouse gasses countries could emit into the atmosphere.

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United Nations Law of the Sea

Front

Established states' rights and responsibilities concerning ownership. Territorial sea to 11 miles over which coastal states have sovereignty, including exclusive fishing rights. Contiguous zone to 23 miles, in which states can enforce customs, immigration, and sanitation laws. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to 230 mile, in which a state has the right to explore, exploit, conserve, and manage resources.

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State Shapes: Examples

Front

Chile with its long, lean, shape is an example of an "elongated" state. Poland being relatively compact and circular is an example of a "compact" state. Thailand, with its lean leg jutting off the southwest coast exemplifies a "proprupted" state. The Philippines being comprised of many islands, exemplify a fragmented state. South Africa is a "perforated" state that completely surrounds the "enclave" of Lesotho.

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East/West Divide

Front

During the Cold War (1945-1989), used to describe the geographic separation between largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from Communist and Socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia. Ending with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dismantling of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Section 6

(50 cards)

Resource Terminology

Front

Distribution of most natural resources is geographically uneven. Renewable resources include food, forests, grassland, and animals. Nonrenewable resources include minerals and renewable resources that have been exploited past the point of being able to replenish themselves.

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Nuclear Energy

Front

In this form of energy, a nuclear reaction generates tremendous heat; which is used to create steam, which in turn is used to power turbines that create electricity.

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Forestry

Front

Generally restricted to forests in upper mid-latitudes of Northern Hemisphere and equatorial zones of Central Africa, South and Central America, and Southeast Asia. Half of global logging harvest is for industrial consumption; majority of this wood comes from developed countries including Canada, Russia, and the U.S. Other half of logging harvest is for fuel-wood and charcoal.

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Von Thunen Results

Front

For local food production economies, the model predicts agricultural patterns in that intensive goods are generally grown close to market. Model can be altered to account for transportation networks and competing markets. With globalization of agriculture, the model becomes nearly obsolete as local food economies are replaced by large-scale agricultural production.

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Desertification

Front

When marginal land, typically on the fringes of the desert, such as the Sahel Region south of the Sahara desert in Africa, are over-cultivated or over-grazed, the soil gets stripped of any existing vegetation and becomes increasingly desert-like.

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Organic Agriculture

Front

Farming without aid of artificial inputs such as pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and genetically engineered seeds. Organic farming has grown tremendously over the last couple of decades.

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Agglomeration Diseconomies

Front

Negative economic and social effects stemming from concentration of industry in a particular area. These effects include high traffic, high pollution, high cost of living and land, and other negative effect associated with population and industrial concentration.

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Wind Farms

Front

Sometimes called "Windmill Parks," these areas of land use giant wind turbines that convert wind energy into a renewable energy resource.

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Urban Sprawl and Agriculture

Front

In many areas of the U.S. and throughout the developed world, urban sprawl has and continues to overtake formerly productive agricultural areas, converting fields and orchards to parking lots and subdivisions.

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Mineral Fuels

Front

Include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Energy derived from these fuels strongly associated with economic development. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel; not at risk to run out any time is near future. currently, China and the United States lead globe in coal production.

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Transhumance

Front

Pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock )e.g., goats, sheep, yaks, etc.) between mountains in summer and lowland pasture areas during winter.

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Feedlots/CAFOs

Front

Animals concentrated in small spaces and given antibiotics, hormones, and other fattening grains to prepare them for slaughter. Increasingly criticized as speculation regarding links to antibiotic resistance, and certain bacterial outbreaks. Emit large amounts of greenhouse gasses and tremendous amount of waste.

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Maladaptive Diffusion

Front

Diffusion of an idea or technology that works well in one area or region but is not suitable for the area it diffuses to. For example, hybrid seeds diminished local plant diversity.

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Economic Systems

Front

In subsistence economies, goods and services created for use of producer and his or her family. In commercial economies, producers produce goods and services with goal of making a profit. In planned economies, government determines both supply and price of goods and services produced by citizens of that country.

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Hydroelectric Power

Front

In this form of energy, water turns turbines that generate electricity. Typically, hydroelectric power is generated from dams.

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Luxury Crops

Front

Include luxury food items not necessary for everyday living. Include bananas, coffee, cocoa, pineapples, and flowers. Often grown on plantations or other land in developing countries where labor is cheap and then exported to developed regions. Productions often controlled by foreign agribusinesses.

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Mixed and Specialty Crop Farming

Front

Truck farms or market gardens produce mixed and specialty crops; in both types climate largely determines production. Truck farming involves large-scale production of particular fruits or vegetable for sale. Market gardening involves small-scale growing of fruits or vegetable for sale at local markets. Mediterranean agriculture is prevalent in climates of California, Western Europe, and portions of Australia, Chile, and South Africa exemplify both systems.

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Local Food Production

Front

Refers to a food production system where food )crops and animals) are produced locally for local consumption.

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Rural Settlements

Front

Sparsely settled areas removed from the influence of large cities. Residents usually live in villages, hamlets, farms, or other isolated housing. Economy usually based on primary activities such as agriculture forestry, mining, or fishing.

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Primary Economic Activities Besides Agriculture

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Include fishing, forestry, and the mining and quarrying of minerals. They are all gathering industries based on harvest of renewable resources, which, despite their renewable characteristics, are all at risk of depletion. Mining and quarrying are extractive industries involving removal of nonrenewable resources.

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Food Production vs. Agriculture

Front

Agriculture does not always lead to food and food is not necessarily always produced through agriculture. Some common agricultural goods are raised for nonfood purposes: corn for ethanol, rubber for tired, leather for shoes, and so on. Many food products are not produced through agricultural methods, such as artificial sweeteners, processed cheeses, and so on.

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Deforestation

Front

In rapidly growing developing countries, forestation occurs. Occurs in tropical areas at a rate exceeding reforestation by ten to fifteen times. Significant portions of tropical forests being converted to agricultural production. In Central and South America millions of hectares converted to pasture on an annual basis, primarily for beef cattle destined for American meat market.

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Commercial Grain Farming

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Includes wheat and corn; especially prevalent in American Great Plains, southern Russia, and increasingly in China. Large portion of output goes toward feeding livestock. In general, meat generates more profit than grain at market, thus many farmers choose to convert grain into meat by feed it to livestock.

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Tropical Plantations

Front

Grow crops such as sugarcane and coffee. Widespread throughout the tropics, in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Typically have some form of foreign control, either through investments, management, or marketing. Many of their crops are not native to it and almost always exported to other countries rather than consume locally.

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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

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Plants or animals whose DNA has been genetically modified. Have several advantages including less need for chemical inputs and greater outputs on smaller pieces of land, allowing for greater food security for growing populations. Have several disadvantages including unknown health effects, effects on pollinating insect populations, and can be cost-prohibitive for small-scale farmers or farmers in developing regions of the globe.

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Origins of Agriculture

Front

Involved a transition from hunting and gathering societies to sedentary agricultural societies through domestication of plants and animals. some argue that women were most likely first to domesticate plants as their duty in hunting and gathering societies. Carl Sauer, in Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, proposed several independent hearth of agriculture in the Middle East, South and Central America, Southeast Asia, and West Africa.

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Extensive Subsistence Agriculture

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Nomadic herding and shifting cultivation are subgroups. Nomadic herding involves seasonal movement. Shifting cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn or swidden, involves hacking down existing vegetation, burning it to release nutrients into the soil. Shifting cultivation is prevalent in equatorial regions across the globe.

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Intensive Subsistence Agriculture

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People producing food or raising animals to provide for themselves and their families. Supports higher population density through much labor on small plots of land.

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Environmental Implications of Agriculture

Front

Pesticides have harmed wildlife population. Topsoil loss, or erosion, is particularly problematic in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains. Salinization occurs when soils in arid areas are heavily irrigated. Applied water quickly evaporates leaving salty residues, rendering soil infertile. Desertification is the process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desertlike.

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Primary Economic Activities

Front

Involve direct extraction or harvesting of resources from the land. Includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining. Location of primary economic activities generally limited to location of natural resources.

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The Green Revolution

Front

To increase food availability to rapidly growing populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, higher-yield seeds, expanded use of chemical inputs, and other agricultural technologies were diffused from developed to developing regions (where population growth was greatest) in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Petroleum

Front

Modern industrial and postindustrial society heavily dependent on it. Geographically uneven resource. Dependence on this source is risk as amount available is both quickly depleting. There is a drive for cleaner and cheaper energy sources. Middle East controls more than two-thirds of the world's total.

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Crop Rotation

Front

A farming method that involves rotating the sequence of crops planted in a particular field to avoid depleting nutrients in the soil as different crops use different nutrients in the growing process. Through rotation, the soil can be replenished with less synthetic fertilizers.

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Hunting and Gathering

Front

Before domestication of plants and animals, human subsisted on hunting and gathering; human diet consisted of animals captured ad a collection of wild plants. Typically males were hunters while females performed gathering duties. Has been largely replaced by agriculture; a few tribes still sustain themselves this way.

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Globalization of Agriculture

Front

Globalization affects agriculture through improvements in transportation and communications technologies. Agribusiness functionally integrate agricultural production on a global scale, which, along with increasing free trade, allow for easy exchange of agricultural goods in a global economy.

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Mining and Quarrying

Front

Relatively recent economic activities due to dependence on fairly sophisticated knowledge of the environment. Provide energy base for way of life existent in advanced economies, as this includes harvesting of fossil fuels.

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Fishing

Front

Global fish supply, accounts for about 15 percent of human animal protein consumption, comes from either inland catch, fish farming, or marine catch. The United Nation reports that all seventeen of the world's major oceanic fishing areas are fished at or beyond capacity. Overfishing and effects of pollution on fish stocks have led to dramatic decrease in fish stocks over last couple of decades.

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Von Thunen Model

Front

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Commercial Livestock Production

Front

Two major forms are livestock ranching and dairying. Livestock ranching is widespread throughout much of Australia, western north America, South America, southern Africa, and western Asia. Transhumance is seasonal movement of livestock between ranges. Dairying is especially prevalent in northern Europe and the northern United States.

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Industrial Revolution's Effect on Agriculture

Front

Millions of people migrated from rural areas into cities of England, France, Germany, and the U.S., creating enormous new markets for agricultural products from adjacent rural areas. Mechanization replaced human hands allowing farmers to produce more crops with less work. Increased access to efficient transportation allowed farmers to ship their products farther at lower costs.

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Rural Settlement Type

Front

Dispersed settlements are characterized by widespread farms, relatively isolated from neighbors. Nucleated settlements contain a number of families living closer together with fields surrounding the settlement. Building materials for rural settlements are typically indigenous to the local area.

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The Boserup Hypothesis

Front

Boserup observed that agricultural production can accommodate growing populations through increases in soil fertility (by using various chemical inputs), which allow land to produce more food for more people.

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Extensive vs. Intensive Agricullture

Front

Extensive involves large areas of land and minimal labor input. Produces less and supports smaller populations than intensive. Intensive involves cultivation of smaller plots of land with much labor inputs, and typically more chemical inputs; produces more food per acre to support higher populations.-

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Negative Impacts of the Green Revolution

Front

New machinery, "miracle" seeds, elaborate irrigation systems, and potent fertilizers devastated much of the local land, destroying traditional modes of agricultural production, and may likely lead to future problems with food security through decreases in local biodiversity. Multinational corporation involvement steered local economies away from producing food for local consumption and toward producing specialty crops for export, such as peanuts, pineapples, and bananas.

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Geothermal Power

Front

The type of energy uses heat from the interior of the earth in the form of steam, which powers turbines to create electricity.

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Metallic and Nonmetallic Minerals

Front

Metallic minerals include copper, lead, and iron ore. Production affected by quantity available, quality of ore, and distance to markets. Nonmetallic minerals include sand, gravel, building stone, gypsum, and limestone; used for construction purposes. Generally only mined near site where they will be used due to relative availability.

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Transportation and Agriculture

Front

Beginning with the Industrial Revolution, transportation has hand dramatic impacts on commercial agriculture. Today, many isolated spots on Earth's surface remain subsistence simply because of limited access to other parts of the world. Modern technological advances in transportation, such as refrigerated trucks, have allowed farms to ship items at great distances.

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Fertile Crescent

Front

Located in the Middle East, the area's fertile soils were attributed to its location in the Euphrates, Nile, and Tigris River floodplains.

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Land Survey Patterns

Front

Long-lot surveying is French and houses exist on narrow lots perpendicular to a river, giving each household equal access to river resources. Metes and bounds are English and use local geography with directions and distances to define boundaries for a particular piece of land.

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Agglomeration

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Grouping together of many firms, in a similar industry, in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources. Hollywood, which has many entertainment firms concentrated in one space for mutual benefits. Leads to multiplier effect, or cumulative causation, meaning more firms locate to the same place providing jobs both within the firm and in ancillary activities, or services that support the firm.

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Section 7

(50 cards)

Brain Drain

Front

When people of high education or with high-level professional positions pursue economic opportunities outside their home country, instead of encouraging development and economic growth locally.

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Cottage Industry

Front

Industry in which production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories. The dominant industrial model before Industrial Revolution. Today, produces specialty goods, which are assembled individually or in small quantities.

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Base Ratio

Front

Ratio of basic to nonbasic employees in a local area. Expands with increasing population, but almost always the number of new jobs in basic sector leads to higher number of new jobs in nonbasic sector.

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Economic Sectors: Globally

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Countries that are more economically developed typically transition from being focused on primary and secondary economic activities to tertiary and quaternary. Highly developed regions generate much more revenue from service-based activities. Developing countries focus on secondary economic activities and increasingly in the service sector.

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Deindustrialization

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Loss of industrial activity in a region, typically because of relocation to developing countries with cheaper labor and relaxed environmental standards. For example, the Rust Belt, the United States' main manufacturing region, is currently debilitated because of deindustrialization.

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Industrial Revolution

Front

Profound technological and economic changes that arose in England during the late eighteenth century and rapidly spread to other parts of Europe and North America. Modern factories,mass-produced goods, and modern forms of capital investment are all products of this time period.

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Deglomeration

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The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration. For example, after the dot-com bust in the late twentieth century, many high-tech industries that had been agglomerated in the San Francisco Bay region relocated to places where the cost of living was cheaper.

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Fast World vs. Slow World

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Fast world includes areas of the world, usually in economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies. Slow world includes developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed telecommunications and transportation technology.

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Cumulative Causation

Front

Synonymous with multiplier effect. With increased concentration of industrial activity comes the increased need for ancillary services. This leads to population growth, leading to more money for the local tax base, which leads to better infrastructure and public services, encouraging more industrial concentration in that area, causing the cycle to continue.

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Global Distribution of GNP

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The areas with the highest GNP are found in the core regions of the world. Semiperipheral regions, such as large parts of South America, and parts of north and east Asia, have mid-level GNP values. The regions with the lowest GNP are found in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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Least-Developed Countries

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Includes Africa, except for South Africa, and parts of Asian and South America. All have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. Economy tends to focus on primary activities.

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Four Tigers

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Refers to the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. They are all export-driven economic development countries.

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Call Centers

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Industries that experience a large volume of telephone-related interactions, increasingly set up operations in developing countries with highly education populations but lower wage standards. India increasingly known for its concentration of call centers, where college-educated labor is much cheaper than in highly developed countries.

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Export Processing Zones (EPZ)

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Areas where governments creates favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-orientated industries. Example would be maquiladoras. Much of the income goes back to TNC's.

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Comparative Advantage and Regionalization

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Regionalization describes the process by which regions develop economic activities that differentiate them from others within the same country. Principle of comparative advantage states that areas or regions should produce goods for which they have the greatest relative advantage over other areas. With secondary economic activities, comparative advantage dictates that certain industries locate near necessary raw materials. With tertiary activities, comparative advantage means locating industry where labor is cheapest.

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Core, Periphery, and Semiperiphery

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Core includes national or global regions where economic power relies. Periphery includes countries with low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. Semiperiphery includes newly industrialized countries with median standards of living.

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Basic vs. Nonbasic Sector

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Basic sector of a local economy includes any industry that brings in money from outside the area. Example would be a large aerospace industry. Nonbasic sector includes all industry that supports and services the local community; money is not generated from the outside, but rather circulated among local community members. Includes industries like grocery stores, barbershops, and dog groomers.

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Offshore Financial Centers

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Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions, making them centers for banking and finance. Provide a low-profile way for companies and individuals to conduct financial transactions and avoid high taxes. All provide conducive environments for conducting international business.

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Industrialized Countries

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Include Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. These countries still account for a large portion of the world's industrial output.

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Outsourcing

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Sending industrial processes out for external production, typically where labor is cheaper than internal labor. Secondary activities is the most outsourced sector activity. Increasingly, firms are outsourcing service-based jobs.

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Core-Periphery Model

Front

Models the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core.

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Industrialization

Front

Describes how countries evolve economically from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At high levels of development, countries outsource much of their secondary labor.

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Ecotoursim

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Form of tourism based on enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders. Aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way. Increasingly popular in developing regions as a way to develop in an economically and environmentally sustainable way.

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Brick-and-Mortar Business vs. E-commerce

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Brick and mortar refers to traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs. E-commerce refers to web-based economic activities. Brick and mortar must consider factory or retail location, whereas e-commerce is footloose.

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Factory Location Considerations

Front

Must have easy access to materials for production. Must have supply of labor. Must be close to shipping and markets. Site should minimize production costs. For certain factories, physical geography limits location. For certain factories, history and a leader's personal inclinations may influence factory location.

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Net National Product (NNP)

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Measure of all goods and services produced by a country in one year, including production from its investments abroad, minus loss or degradation of natural resource of natural resource capital as a result of productivity. Product with NNP is the difficulty of calculating monetary values for various ecosystem services.

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Formal vs. Informal Economic Activities

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Informal economic activities are not legally registered or taxed. Informal activities are a strong part of economies in developing regions even though income from them is not legally registered.

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Ancillary Activities

Front

Economic activities that surround and support large-scale industries. Include activities such as delivery, food services, and accounting services. Essentially synonymous with nonbasic industry. As the basic industry within a region expands, so does that region's need for ancillary services.

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BRICS

Front

Refers to Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa which are all rapidly growing economies in the developing world. BRICS account for 1/4 of the world's land and 2/5 of the world's population.

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Footloose Industry

Front

Manufacturing or other industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining location of the firm.

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Gender Equity

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Measure of opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country. Japan, Kuwait, and Italy have high GN but low gender equity because of cultural traditions. UN created GEM that evaluates women's status in a country. GEM criticized for being Western-centric and not considering standards and values accepted in other cultures.

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Globalization

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The idea that the world is becoming integrated on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete.

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Human Development Index (HDI)

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Measure used by UN that calculates development in terms of human welfare. Evaluates based on life expectancy, education, and income.

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GDP, GNP, PPP

Front

GDP is the total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country. GNP is the total value of goods and services including income received from abroad, produced by residents of a country. PPP is a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries.

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Localization Economies

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Type of agglomeration economy. Benefits of this type of agglomeration include concentration of an appropriate labor pool, knowledge spillovers, and ability to share the cost of a specific infrastructure.

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Backwash Effect

Front

Negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region experiencing the negative effect are called economic backwaters. With deindustrialization in the American Midwest, many moved from the Great Lakes region, which greatly debilitated the local economy. Migration resulting from backwash effects causes a loss of investment capital and shrinking of the local tax base.

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Digital Divide

Front

Term used to describe tremendous gap in access to communications technologies between the highly developed and least developed regions of the globe. Divide also exist at regional scales, with cities exhibiting high levels of connectivity and rural backwaters demonstrating little to no access to communications technologies. Essentially determines who does and does not benefit from the process of globalization.

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NAFTA

Front

Refers to International treaty made 20 years ago between Canada, the U.S., and Mexico that lessens trade restrictions between the three countries to increase business in the global marketplace.

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Geography of Tourism

Front

Developing countries concentrate in primary and secondary activities but many are focusing on tourism. Benefit of globalization is greater access to previously inaccessible areas. Ecotourism is becoming increasingly popular in developing regions.

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Fordism

Front

System of standardized mass production. By early twentieth century, mass production and assembly lines had replaced many specialty goods.

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Industrialization and Urbanization

Front

Prior to industrialization, most work was either on family farms or in home-based cottage industry. Industrialization created concentrations of jobs outside of the home. Job availability increased urbanization.

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Manufacturing Region

Front

A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. Exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere.

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Foreign Direct Investment

Front

Overseas business investments made by private companies; typically involves purchase or construction of factories by TNC's in areas where labor is typically cheaper than on the homeland. Used in regions of Asia such as China.

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Intervening Opportunities

Front

A closer, alternative supply source between a demand point and the original supply source.

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Economic Development

Front

Process of economic growth, expansion, or realization of regional resource potential. Measured in a variety of ways and describe in a variety of models. Common measures include economic ones, such as gross national or domestic product and noneconomic ones, which generally measure social welfare and include things related to education levels, health care, public services, and technology.

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Infrastructure

Front

The set of technological support and services that maintain and advance a society. Include roads, water supply, sewage treatment, communications, waste collection and treatment, and power grids among other services. Typically the higher developed an area, the greater the extent of its available infrastructure. Industries often located in urban areas.

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Neocolonialism

Front

Refers to the economic, political, or military dependencies that exist between developed and developing countries even after most countries under colonial achieved independence.

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Downfalls of Sustainable Development Model

Front

Model is anthropocentric, focusing only on humans, without consideration of other animals or ecosystems humans depend on. Many criticize it for being too vague and not attentive enough to the needs of local people. No guarantee that it will actually result in conservation of natural resources and biological diversity.

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Break of Bulk Point

Front

Location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers, for example, ports. Often, manufacturing facilities concentrate at break of bulk point to minimize transportation costs of raw materials as each time a shift in transportation mode occurs.

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Bulk-Gaining and Bulk-Reducing Industries

Front

Bulk-gaining industries produce goods that weigh more after assembly than in their constituent parts. Bulk-gaining industries are located close to market to minimize transportation costs. Bulk-reducing industries produce goods that weigh less than their constituent parts. Bulk-reducing industries are located close to natural resources to minimize transport costs.

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