AP Human Geography Exam Review

AP Human Geography Exam Review

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

Preview this deck

concentric zone model

Front

Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%
Star 0%

0.0

0 reviews

5
0
4
0
3
0
2
0
1
0

Active users

0

All-time users

1

Favorites

0

Last updated

1 year ago

Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (239)

Section 1

(50 cards)

concentric zone model

Front

The model of urban land use developed by Burgess which demonstrates the invasion and succession processes that occur as the city grows and expands outward

Back

cultural landscape

Front

The unique landscape made up of all parts of a culture-both material and nonmaterial

Back

antecedent boundary

Front

A boundary placed before the cultural landscape was developed

Back

agricultural density

Front

The number of people living in rural areas per unit of agricultural land

Back

assimilation

Front

The process in which immigrants become totally integrated into the host culture

Back

demographic transition model

Front

A model that shows the link between population growth and economic development using four or five stages of economic development

Back

culture region

Front

A portion of the Earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

Back

creative destruction

Front

The reinvestment of funds in new, profitable ventures and regions that were once used to fund ventures and regions that are now not as profitable

Back

artifact

Front

Tangible pieces of material culture

Back

built environment

Front

The material culture of an environment

Back

acculturation

Front

The change that occurs within a culture when it adopts a practice from another culture

Back

crude death rate (CDR)

Front

The number of deaths per 1000 people per year

Back

bid rent curve

Front

The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone

Back

commodity chain

Front

A chain of activities from the manufacturing to the distribution of a product

Back

central business district (CBD)

Front

The business area found at the center of every older central city and urban area

Back

centrifugal force

Front

A strong, divisive force, such as religious differences or a weak communication systems, at work in a country

Back

colonialism

Front

A system in which a country declares control over a territory or people outside its own boundaries, usually for economic purposes

Back

channelized migration

Front

Repetitive pattern of migration not linked to family or ethnicity (senior citizens moving to the Sun Belt)

Back

basic sector

Front

Goods and services produced for individuals outside the urban work area

Back

alliance

Front

An association among countries for the purpose of mutual defense or trade

Back

decolonization

Front

The process by which former colonies gain their independence from the mother country

Back

chain migration

Front

The part of a migrant flow (usually relatives and friends) that follows former migrants to an area

Back

backwash effect

Front

The negative impact to the peripheral region sometimes caused by increased flows of labor and capital into a nearby high-growth region

Back

conservation agriculture

Front

A modern method of farming that balances maximum crop yield with sustainable farming methods and protection of the environment

Back

culture hearth

Front

A place where innovations and new ideas originate and spread outward (diffuse) to other regions

Back

charter group

Front

The first group of settlers to establish a new and lasting culture and society is an area

Back

confederation

Front

A loose association of states organized for the purpose of retaining cohesion, such as the former republic of the USSR

Back

congregation

Front

An ethnic group's grouping together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group

Back

cultural barrier

Front

hindrances to cultural diffusion that occur in a society and keep cultural traits from spreading

Back

absolute location

Front

The actual space a place occupies on Earth's surface

Back

biotechnology

Front

The application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microorganisms to enhance their value

Back

density

Front

The number of an item within a unit of area

Back

culture

Front

The cluster of traits that make a group of people special and unique

Back

creole

Front

A simplified mixture of two or more languages that is adopted in areas of cultural diversity

Back

dependency ratio

Front

The ratio of people under age 15 and those 65 and older to those age 15 to 65

Back

centripetal force

Front

A strong, unifying force, such as a charismatic leader or nationalism, at work in a country

Back

culture trait

Front

A single feature of a culture, such as religion or language

Back

agribusiness

Front

Commercial agriculture in which large corporations own and operate various steps in the production process with an emphasis on profit

Back

crude density

Front

The number of people per unit of land (also called arithmetic density)

Back

animism

Front

The belief that spirits (including ancestral) live within objects such as animals, rivers, rocks, trees, and mountains

Back

demography

Front

The study of the characteristics of a human population

Back

crude birth rate (CBR)

Front

The number of babies born per 1000 people per year

Back

compact state

Front

A state that is basically round in shape, such as Poland or Bhutan)

Back

deindustrialization

Front

The reduction in industrial activity that occurs when decreased profits and declining business cause a reduction in industrial employment

Back

dependency theory

Front

A theory of economic development proposed by Andre Gunder Frank based on the periphery's dependence on the core

Back

central place theory

Front

A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states that cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas

Back

cultural diffusion

Front

The process in which culture is spread from one region to another

Back

carrying capacity

Front

The number of people an area can support on a sustained basis

Back

consequent boundary

Front

A type of subsequent boundary that is drawn to accommodate existing linguistic, cultural, or religious boundaries

Back

agglomeration effects

Front

The cost advantages (external economies) for an individual company gained by locating near similar industries or companies

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

gross national product (GNP)

Front

The gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of income from abroad such as earnings from a US company based abroad

Back

ghetto

Front

The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination

Back

ethnic religion

Front

A religion that is part of a particular ethnic or political group (Judaism, for example)

Back

fixed cost

Front

The cost of land, plant, and machinery that is not variable

Back

federal state

Front

A type of government that gives local political units such as states or provinces within a country a measure of power

Back

GIS

Front

The marriage of mapping software with a database for the purpose of overlaying various data layers on a basic, locational map grid

Back

devolution

Front

The breakdown of central authority in a country

Back

human capital theory of migration

Front

The migration theory that states that educated workers often migrate from poor countries to wealthy countries seeking better-paying jobs

Back

developmentalism

Front

The idea that every country and region will eventually make economic progress toward a high level of mass consumption if they only compete to the best of their ability within the world economy

Back

enclave

Front

A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part

Back

gravity model

Front

A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places

Back

elongated state

Front

A state that is long and narrow, such as Vietnam or Chile

Back

domino theory

Front

The theory prevalent during the Cold War Era that once a country became communist, its neighbors were likely to soon become communist also

Back

hierarchial diffusion

Front

The adoption of an official language by the ruler or administration, a language diffused downward into the society

Back

Green Revolution

Front

The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger

Back

gerrymandering

Front

The process of redrawing territorial district boundaries to favor a certain political party

Back

GMO (genetically modified organisms)

Front

An organism that is created when scientists take one or more specific genes from one organism and introduce them into another organism thus creating a new version

Back

functional region

Front

A region with a node, or center hub surrounded by interconnecting linkages. Usually connections relate to trade, communication, transportation, etc.

Back

MDCs

Front

Countries such as the United States, Germany, and Australia who have the highest levels of economic development

Back

host society

Front

The dominant culture group in an area receiving a minority group

Back

ethnocentrism

Front

The belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others

Back

folk culture

Front

A homogenous group of people with a strong family structure who follow a simple, traditional lifestyle of self-sufficiency and independence from the society's cultural mainstream

Back

exclusive economic zone (EEZ)

Front

An expanse of water up to 200 natural nautical miles off a country's coast that is designated for that country's natural resource exploration and exploitation

Back

distribution

Front

The array of items on the Earth's surface. All spatial distributions have density, dispersion, and some type of pattern

Back

fragmented state

Front

A state that has two or more areas of territory separated by another country

Back

Fordism

Front

The process (named after Henry Ford, its founder) of using assembly-line techniques and scientific management in manufacturing

Back

forward capital

Front

A capital city that is located away from the core region for economic or political reasons in a symbolic gesture

Back

exclave

Front

An outlier, or piece of a territory, that is completely enclosed within the borders of another country

Back

footloose firms

Front

Firms that produce something that requires minimal transport costs

Back

GDP

Front

The approximate value of all final goods and services produced in a country per year

Back

doubling time

Front

The length of time it takes for a country's population to double in size if the growth rate stays the same

Back

ghetto

Front

An ethnic enclave where the residents live segregated (separated) by race, religion, or ethnicity in a voluntary or sometimes, forced, manner

Back

ecumene

Front

The part of the Earth that is fit for humans to live

Back

formal region

Front

A region with a high level of consistency in a certain culture of physical attribute

Back

heartland-rimland theory

Front

Halford Mackinder's theory that the country that dominated the landmass of Eurasia (heartland) would eventually rule the world (rimland)

Back

gentrification

Front

The process of renovating an older, run-down neighborhood near the center city by middle-class and high-income families

Back

first effective settlement

Front

The first group (charter group) of settlers who establish a new and lasting culture and society in an area

Back

desertification

Front

The transformation of agricultural lands into deserts because of overgrazing and soil erosion

Back

dialect

Front

A speech variants of a language, which reflects the local region in which it is spoken

Back

growth pole

Front

An urban center deliberately placed by a country's government to stimulate economic growth in the hinterland

Back

First Agricultural Revolution

Front

The domestication of plants and animals and the resulting start of a sedentary society (also called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution)

Back

hinterlands

Front

The surrounding trade area of an urban area

Back

globalization

Front

The increasing interconnection of all regions in the world through politics, communication, transportation, marketing, manufacturing, and social and cultural processes

Back

export-processing zones (EPZs)

Front

Small areas of a country with exceptional investment and trading conditions that are created by its government to stimulate and attract foreign investors and business

Back

environmental determinism

Front

The theory that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment

Back

edge city

Front

A new urban complex that consists of a large node of office buildings and commercial operations with more workers than residents

Back

ethnic enclave

Front

A residential community where the residents either voluntarily live, or are forced to live, in a segregated (separated) fashion due to race, religion, or ethnicity

Back

ethnic island

Front

A small ethnic settlement centered in the middle of a larger group of the population

Back

gateway city

Front

A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power

Back

distance decay

Front

The principle that says migrants try to minimize the friction of distance by moving to locations closer to them rather than father away

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

metes-and-bounds land survey system

Front

A land survey system used in North America where natural boundaries such as rivers, trees, and large rocks were used to mark land boundaries

Back

LDCs

Front

Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth

Back

nonmaterial culture

Front

Mentifacts (language, religion, artistic purposes, folk stories, myths, etc.) and sociofacts (educational and political institutions, religious organizations, family structure, etc.) that comprise a culture

Back

life course theory of migration

Front

A theory that states that the interaction effects of family life course events (became married, had a child, became divorced) with migration have important repercussions on a society

Back

material culture

Front

The artifacts (tangible things) of a culture such as tools, weapons, and furniture

Back

model

Front

A simplified generalization of something in real life

Back

commercial agriculture

Front

Large-scale agricultural production for profit using specialized methods, technologies, and genetically engineered seeds

Back

mediterranean agriculture

Front

A form of specialized agriculture in which crops grown in a Mediterranean climate of warm year-round temperatures and sunny summers (grapes, olives, figs, dates, citrus fruits, etc.) are grown

Back

locational interdependence theory

Front

A theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests that competitors in their effort to maximize sales, will try and limit each other's territory by locating close to each other in the middle of their combined customer base

Back

longitude

Front

The distance east or west from the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds using lines of identical longitude, called meridians

Back

maquiladora

Front

A foreign-owned assembly company located in the United States-Mexico border region in order to take advantage of cheaper labor, favorable tax breaks, and lax environmental regulations

Back

migration

Front

The movement of humans from one place to another

Back

organic farming

Front

The process of producing good naturally without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and other inputs

Back

neo-Fordism

Front

The evolution of mass production into a more responsive system geared to the nuances of mass consumption by using flexible production systems that allow production processes to shift quickly between various products

Back

non basic sector

Front

Goods and services produced by urban workers for people employed within the urban area

Back

neo-colonialism

Front

The periphery's continued exploitation by, and dependency on, the core in modern times even though they are no longer colonies

Back

nationalism

Front

A strong love of, and loyalty to, one's country

Back

offshoring

Front

The practice of contracting with a third-party service provider in another country to take over or supervise part of the business operations

Back

monotheism

Front

A religion that worships one God

Back

language family

Front

A group of languages that are related and derived from a single, earlier language

Back

intervening opportunity

Front

The idea that migrants will choose a location closer rather than farther if all other factors are roughly the same

Back

perceptual region

Front

A region defined by feelings and prejudices that may or may not be true. A region derived from one's mental map.

Back

megacity

Front

A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations

Back

mentifact

Front

Nonmaterial parts of a culture such as language, religion, artistic pursuits, folk stories, myths, etc.

Back

Meridian

Front

A line of identical longitude

Back

innovation

Front

A new invention

Back

monoculture

Front

The production of a single crop for commercial markets (corn, wheat, rice, etc.)

Back

land survey

Front

A method for parceling out land to its occupants (differs according to the charter group's ethnicity in the United States and Canada)

Back

irredentism

Front

The destabilizing situation that arises when an ethnic group supports and seeks to unite with its ethnic population in another country

Back

import substitution

Front

The production of goods and services internally by the periphery country that were once supplied by the core

Back

internally displaced person

Front

A person who is forced out of the home region due to war, political or social unrest, environmental problems, etc., but who does not cross any international boundary

Back

Millenium Development Goals

Front

The United Nations mandate of eight development goals designed to eliminate poverty by the year 2015

Back

latitude

Front

The degrees north or south from the equator for a location on the surface of the Earth. Measured in parallels.

Back

nation

Front

A unified group of people with a common culture

Back

mental map

Front

A map in one's mind

Back

megalopolis

Front

A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area

Back

outsourcing

Front

The production of goods and parts abroad for sale in one's own country

Back

Industrial Revolution

Front

The movement from homebased cottage industries to factory industries with several workers under one roof that the use of machines facilitates in England in the late 1700s

Back

long-lots system of land survey

Front

A land survey method used by French and Spanish charter groups in North America in which long lots of land extended outward from river frontage

Back

lingua franca

Front

A language that is not part of the culture of the country but is one that is informally agreed upon as the language of business and trade

Back

imperialism

Front

The use of military threat, cultural domination, and economic sanctions to gain control of a country and its resources

Back

nation state

Front

A state in which over 90 percent of the population is comprised of a specific culture or group of people

Back

multiplier effect

Front

The ratio of non-basic jobs to basic jobs that shows the effect basic job creation has on the creation of non-basic jobs

Back

localization economies

Front

The cost savings for individual industries as a result of grouping together in a certain location

Back

least cost theory

Front

A theory, developed by Alfred Weber, that states that three main expenses-labor, transportation, and agglomeration-must be minimized when locating an industry

Back

pidgin

Front

A simplified language created by merging two other languages

Back

New Urbanism

Front

An urban design movement that emphasizes the pedestrian-friendly return to earlier close-knit neighborhoods and a sense of community

Back

multiple nuclei model

Front

A model of urban land use developed by Harris and Ullman based on separated and specialized multiple nuclei

Back

pastoralism

Front

A form of subsistence agriculture in which animals are herded in a seasonal migratory pattern

Back

intensive subsistence agriculture

Front

A form of agriculture heavily depends on heavy inputs of fertilized and human labor on a small piece of land for substantial crop yield

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

relict boundary

Front

An old boundary between countries that is no longer used

Back

Second Agricultural Revolution

Front

An agricultural revolution starting in the 17th century that increased efficiency of crop production and distribution through use of new machinery

Back

relative location

Front

The location of a place in relation to the location of other places

Back

place utility

Front

A person's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a place

Back

perforated state

Front

A state that totally surrounds another country, such as South Africa (which surrounds Lesotho) or Italy (which surrounds San Marino)

Back

Rostow's model of economic development

Front

A model of development for countries based on stages of economic growth and modernization. Also called modernization theory.

Back

shamanism

Front

A form of tribal, or traditional, religion that reveres a particular person, the shaman, as one with special healing or magic powers

Back

placelessness

Front

The loss of a place's unique flavor and identity due to the standardizing influence of popular culture and globalization

Back

protolanguage

Front

A reconstructed ancestral language that forms the basis for a language family

Back

sector model

Front

The model of urban land use developed by Hoyt that shows urban growth in pie-shaped wedges, or sectors, based on transportation improvements

Back

representative fraction

Front

The scale of a map represented as a ratio or fraction, such as 1:25,000

Back

prorupt state/protruded state

Front

A state, such as Thailand or Myanmar (Burma), that is round in shape with a large extension

Back

scale

Front

The degree of generalization on a map. Scale can also mean the size of a unit on a map as a ratio of its size on the map to the same units on the Earth's surface.

Back

site

Front

The physical location of a place

Back

pull factor

Front

Factors such as better job opportunities or a more pleasant climate that "pull" or attract a migrant to a new area

Back

rural to urban migration

Front

The movement of people from the countryside to the city usually in search of economic opportunities (jobs) and a better life (both "pull" factors of migration)

Back

population density

Front

The number of persons per unit of land area

Back

primary economic activity

Front

An economic activity that takes something from the ground (farming, mining, forestry, etc.)

Back

projection

Front

A type of map based on representing a round Earth on a flat piece of paper with the resulting inaccuracies determining the best use of the particular type

Back

place

Front

Another word for location

Back

polyculture

Front

The production of several crops

Back

rank-size rule

Front

The rule proposed by Zipf that states that if all cities in a country are placed in order from the largest to the smallest, the second largest city would have about 1/2 the population of the largest city, the third largest city would have about 1/3 the population of the largest city, the fourth largest city about 1/4 the population of the largest city, etc.

Back

possibilism

Front

The theory that the physical environment merely establishes limits of what is possible on the human population

Back

public housing

Front

Government-constructed and regulated low-income housing in urban areas

Back

pop culture

Front

The ever-changing cultural norms associated with a large, diverse group of people who are very influenced by mass media, mass production, and mass merchandising

Back

sedentary

Front

The condition where a group of humans is able to live in one location and grow crops and raise animals

Back

physiologic density

Front

The number of persons per unit of agricultural land

Back

sense of place

Front

The special perception we have of a certain place based on our feelings, emotions, and associations with that place

Back

rectangular land survey system

Front

A system using rectangular grid divisions to divide new land settlements after The United States won independence from England

Back

polytheism

Front

A religion that worships more than one God

Back

situation

Front

The location of a place based on its relation to other places

Back

replacement level

Front

The population level necessary to assure the population continues to replace itself

Back

secondary economic activities

Front

Economic activities that involve the processing of raw materials into finished goods by manufacturing

Back

natural increase rate

Front

the crude birth rate minus the crude death

Back

quaternary economic activities

Front

Economic activities that deal with information and knowledge processing

Back

primate city

Front

A city that is at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant (not just the largest city in a country)

Back

secularism

Front

The rejection of all religious beliefs and is spreading rapidly in certain areas of the world such as Europe

Back

specialty farming

Front

Farming that grows crops to provide small upscale niche markets with fresh produce

Back

segregation

Front

The physical separation of two groups of a population (in the United States this is usually based on race)

Back

shifting agriculture

Front

The form of subsistence agriculture in which crops are grown in different fields on a rotating basis

Back

push factor

Front

Factors such as war, high crime, or overcrowding that "push" a migrant to a new region

Back

population momentum

Front

The propensity for a growing population to continue growing even through fertility is declining because of their young age distribution

Back

race

Front

A group of people with a common biological ancestor

Back

population pyramid

Front

A model that shows the composition of a population by age and sex. Also called an age-sex pyramid.

Back

sequent occupance

Front

The concept that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

Back

region

Front

An area that displays a common trait such as culture, government, language, landform, etc.

Back

plantation agriculture

Front

Monocropping, or planting a single crop for profit, is a specialized form of agriculture and is usually located near the former colonial markets

Back

quinary economic activities

Front

The economic activities that deal with the highest-level of decision-making in both the government and private sectors of the economy

Back

remote sensing

Front

The process of detecting the nature of an area from a distance

Back

separatism

Front

The striving to become separate from a larger group

Back

Section 5

(39 cards)

world systems theory

Front

The theory, developed by Immanual Wallrstein, that there is only one world system in which all nation-states historically compete for capital and labor

Back

Von Thünen's Agricultural Land-Use Model

Front

A model of agricultural land use that illustrates the relationship between the cost of land and transportation costs involved in getting a product to market

Back

supercity

Front

A very large city

Back

subsequent boundary

Front

A boundary drawn after a cultural landscape is already in place

Back

urban subsistence farming

Front

The cultivation of small city gardens for food in the cities of the developing world

Back

universalizing religion

Front

A religion in which anyone can become a member

Back

space

Front

The extent of area that is occupied by something

Back

truck farming

Front

Commercial gardening and fruit farming in the United States

Back

suburbanization

Front

The movement of people from urban core areas to the surrounding outer edges of the cities

Back

tipping point

Front

The point at which a critical number of minority inhabitants is reached and triggers an outmigration of charter group

Back

transculturation

Front

An equal exchange of traits or influence between two culture groups occurs

Back

spatial diffusion

Front

The spread of something over time or space

Back

unitary state

Front

A state with a strong central government that retains most of the political power

Back

state

Front

A country, or political unit in which the Earth is divided

Back

uneven development

Front

The huge contrast of wealthy neighborhoods and poor neighborhoods found within urban areas and the continuing uneven allocation of funds to foster this condition

Back

sovereignty

Front

The internationally recognized exercise of a country's power over its people and territory

Back

transnational corporations (TNCs)

Front

Global corporations that have facilities and processes spread among several companies in a global assembly line

Back

superimposed boundary

Front

A boundary forced on a territory after existing boundaries are already in place

Back

vernacular region

Front

A popular region that is named for the way people perceive it

Back

step migration

Front

The series of small moves of a migrant to reach a destination

Back

transhumance

Front

The constant movement of herds in a set seasonal pattern of grazing

Back

vertical integration

Front

Contracts between farmer and producer in the agricultural industry

Back

supernationalism

Front

The association of three or more states for mutual benefit

Back

sustainable development

Front

The concept that it is possible to balance economic growth without jeopardizing the environment and equitable human access

Back

terrorism

Front

The use of violence in a controlled and intentional way to force attention attention onto issues

Back

sustainability

Front

The principle that we must meet our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

Back

urban sprawl

Front

A separate-use system of residential housing neighborhoods on the outskirts of urban areas that do not contain retail activities. Also called conventional suburban development (CSD)

Back

urban renewal

Front

The process of identifying properties in inner city neighborhoods that are then acquired, cleared of residents and structures, and handed over to private investors or public agencies for construction of parks, schools, or new housing

Back

urbanization

Front

The rapid growth of, and migration to, large cities

Back

subsistence agriculture

Front

A form of agriculture in which everything that is produced is consumed by that population. Forms of subsistence agriculture including shifting, swidden/slash-and-burn, and intensive subsistence

Back

spread effects

Front

Benefits to the peripheral region that accrue because of economic development in the nearby core region

Back

sociofacts

Front

The educational and political institutions, religious organizations, family structure, etc. that make up the nonmaterial aspects of a culture

Back

syncretism

Front

The birth of a new culture trait from blending two or more cultural traits

Back

swidden agriculture

Front

The form of subsistence agriculture in which crops are grown in different fields on a rotating basis. Also called shifting agriculture or slash-and-burn agriculture

Back

zero population growth

Front

A condition is which births plus immigration equals deaths plus emigration for individual countries

Back

uniform region

Front

A region with a high level of consistency in a certain cultural or physical attribute (also a formal region)

Back

world city

Front

A global city that serves as an important linkage or connection point in the global economic system

Back

tertiary economic activities

Front

Economic activities that provide services

Back

taboo

Front

A potent form of cultural barrier that prevents certain habits or new ideas from establishing themselves in a society due to already-established prohibitions, customs, and rules

Back