1.2

____________ is the process of reducing complexity by focusing on the main idea. By hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand and bringing together related and useful details, it reduces complexity and allows one to focus on the idea

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Sep 10, 2021

1.2

(1 card)

____________ is the process of reducing complexity by focusing on the main idea. By hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand and bringing together related and useful details, it reduces complexity and allows one to focus on the idea

Abstraction

1.3

(5 cards)

_____________ determines which parts of an algorithm are executed based on a condition being true or false. It uses _____________ _____________ (if-statements) affect the sequential flow of control by executing different statements based on the value of a Boolean expression

Selection, conditional-statements

___________ is the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the code statements are given

Sequencing

All algorithms are characterized by the basic elements of ___________, ___________, & ___________

sequencing, selection, and iteration

____________ are a finite set of instructions that accomplish a specific task & is a step by step process. They need a format, imperative statements, and descriptive qualifiers

Algorithms

_________ is the repeating portion of an algorithm & will repeat for a specified number or until given condition is met. This can be either through _________ loops where it explicitly states number of times loop will be executed using “repeat N times” or _________ loops which the number of times that loop will execute is not specified, using “repeat until”

Iteration, definite, indefinite

1.4

(4 cards)

The __________ __________ method is known as a substitute method because it substitutes each letter of the original, unencrypted message, the cipher text. It works by aligning two alphabets against one another and offsetting them by a number of positions. This can be broke through a brute force attack

Caesar Cipher

__________ is the process of encoding data to prevent unauthorized access while __________ is the process of decoding the data

Encryption, decryption

What three things you need to know to decrypt a message

- Cipher-text message
- Method of encryption
- the number of positions by which the plaintext and cipher-text alphabets have been offset

A ___________** **___________ is** encryption that involves one key for both encryption and decryption. Using the key to encrypt the message into a cipher-text secures the message and protects it from prying eyes**

Symmetric Key

1.5 & 1.6

(15 cards)

The __________ __________ took idea of a Caesar cipher and added a key to make it more secure

Vigenére cipher

The _____________ phase is when the algorithm is written with code in an appropriate high-level or low-level programming language

prototype phase

Using a __________ ___________, algorithms can be executed

programming language

__________ __________ __________ is trying all possibility of the key or shifts

Brute Force Attack

The development of process to making a program are ordered in ______________, ______________, ______________, and ______________

Investigating/Reflecting, Designing, Prototype, Testing

The _______ _______ consist of confidentiality, integrity, and availability

CIA triad

______________ programming uses binary code underplaying hardware, more efficient for computers. They are unambiguous and easy for the computer to read, but hard for programmers.

Low-level

The _________ phase incorporates investigations to determine the requirements of the program and should outline how to accomplish a given program specification

design phase

The __________ phase runs a small portion of the algorithm in the programming language and then test the code for correctness, efficiency and error catching, among other aspects as a flawed algorithm is a flawed program

Testing phase

_________ languages make lousy programming languages. An example would be English or French, but _________ languages are developed among whole societies and are much simpler and structured/explicit than natural languages.

Natural, Artificial

_______________ limits access to information, allows certain people to see it

Confidentiality

______________ programming languages are visual programming and textual programming that are Relatively easy for humans to read, write, and parse, guaranteed to be unambiguous, less natural for humans, but still readable to the trained eye and easy for machines to parse.

High-level

___________ ensures that the information is correct

Integrity

___________ is the reliability of the information

availability

The ________________ phase turns an idea into reality, analyze the problem. Ask questions, collect information, gather data, look for existing solutions, and think through the situation thoroughly before a solution.

investigating/reflecting phase

1.7

(1 card)

__________: It is a method used to express an algorithm in an informal language. It aims to mimic general style of programming language without worrying about the exact syntax or structure of the language

Pseudocode

1.8

(15 cards)

A __________ __________ algorithm starts in the middle of a sorted data set of numbers and eliminates half of the data; this process repeats until the desired value is found or all elements have been eliminated. In order to implement a this, data must be sorted in order. This uses logarithmic solution & more efficient than linear search

binary search

An _________ of a problem is a specific task that needs to be solved with specific input

instance

_________: As the size of the problem grows, the amount of extra work required increases much more quickly

Linear & Quadratic

A _________ is a general description of a task that can be solved algorithmically

problem

A _________ problem is one which no algorithm can be constructed that always leads to a yes or no answer

undecided

__________: No matter how much a problem grows, the amount of work stays more or less the same

Constant

How do we know which algorithm is bettter

Scalability and Efficiency

A liner/_________ search algorithms checks each element of a list, in order, until the desired value is found or all elements inn the list have been checked(may need to be checked by a million items)

sequential

_____________: Every doubling of the size of a problem only requires one extra unit of work

Logarithmic

An _________ problem is a problem with the goal of finding the best solution among many

optimization

The __________ __________ proved that you cannot write a program that tell you which computation programs will halt and which one will continue forever

Hating Problem

__________ is the estimation of the amount of computational resources used by an algorithm expressed as a function of the size of the input. Algorithms efficiency is determined through formal or mathematical reasoning

Efficiency

_______ law allows us to predict the future through observations of trends

Moore's

What are four comparisons that are true about algorithms

- Algorithms can be written in different ways and still accomplish the same task
- Algorithms that appear similar can yield different side effects or results
- Different algorithms can be developed or used to solve the same problem
- Different correct algorithms for the same problem can have different efficiencies’

___________: The capacity for a system to change in size and scale to meet new demands. (If this algorithm is efficient on this data set, what about this data set?)

Scalability

1.9 & 1.10

(2 cards)

__________** **__________** occurs when a computing innovation systematically discriminates against certain individuals or groups and creates unfair outcomes for some and favorable outcomes for others. **

Algorithmic Bias

__________ is an approach to a problem that produce a solution that is not guaranteed to be optimal and is not produced at a reasonable time, but may be used when techniques that are guaranteed to always find an optimal solution are impractical.

Heuristic