Section 1

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Euphemism

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (100)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Euphemism

Front

a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. "He went to his final reward" is a common __ for "he died." They are also used to obscure the reality of the situation.

Back

Syllogism

Front

From the Greek for "reckoning together," a __ is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion.

Back

Sarcasm

Front

from the Greek meaning "to tear flesh," ___ involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device.

Back

Invective

Front

an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

Back

Epigraph

Front

The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two. One of them is "You are all a lost generation" by Gertrude Stein.

Back

Parody

Front

A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.

Back

Anecdote

Front

A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point.

Back

Anaphora

Front

repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent.

Back

Transition

Front

a word or phrase that links one idea to the next and carries the reader from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph.

Back

Metaphor

Front

a direct comparison between dissimilar things. "Your eyes are stars" is an example.

Back

Allusion

Front

A reference contained in a work

Back

Situational Irony

Front

a type of irony in which events turn out the opposite of what was expected.

Back

Ad Hominem

Front

In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."

Back

Narrative

Front

The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

Back

Oxymoron

Front

From the Greek for "pointedly foolish," ___ is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms. Simple examples include "jumbo shrimp" and "cruel kindness."

Back

Imagery

Front

The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, __ uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory. For example, a rose may present visual __ while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks.

Back

Homily

Front

This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.

Back

Either-or reasoning

Front

When the writer reduces an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives.

Back

Periodic Sentence

Front

A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety.

Back

Alliteration

Front

The repetition of initial consonant sounds, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."

Back

Equivocation

Front

When a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument.

Back

Satire

Front

A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and convention for reform or ridicule. Regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform humans or their society, ___ is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing. The effect of __, often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition.

Back

Pathos

Front

an appeal based on emotion.

Back

Connotation

Front

the interpretive level or a word based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning.

Back

Irony

Front

The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant. The difference between what appears to be and what actually is true.

Back

Logos

Front

an appeal based on logic or reason

Back

Cumulative Sentence

Front

Sentence which begins with the main idea and then expands on that idea with a series of details or other particulars

Back

Euphony

Front

the pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work.

Back

Cacophony

Front

harsh and discordant sounds in a line or passage in a literary word.

Back

Symbol

Front

generally, anything that represents, stands for, something else. Usually, a ___ is something concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.

Back

Hyperbole

Front

a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement

Back

Understatement

Front

the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.

Back

Synecdoche

Front

. a figure of speech that utilizes a part as representative of the whole. "All hands on deck" is an example.

Back

Onomatopoeia

Front

a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum.

Back

Metonomy

Front

a term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name" __ is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For example: a news release that claims "The White House declared" rather than "The President declared"

Back

Figure of Speech

Front

A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Examples are apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonomy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.

Back

Voice

Front

can refer to two different areas of writing. One refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (active and passive). The second refers to the total "sound" of the writer's style.

Back

Verbal Irony

Front

In this type of irony, the words literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning

Back

Denotation

Front

the literal or dictionary meaning of a word

Back

Paradox

Front

A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity.

Back

Antithesis

Front

the presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be . . ." "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times . . ." "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country . . ."

Back

Argument

Front

A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer

Back

Syntax

Front

The grammatical structure of prose and poetry.

Back

Ethos

Front

an appeal based on the character of the speaker. An __-driven document relies on the reputation of the author.

Back

Infer

Front

To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.

Back

Causal Relationship

Front

In __, a writer asserts that one thing results from another. To show how one thing produces or brings about another is often relevant in establishing a logical argument.

Back

Begging the Question

Front

Often called circular reasoning, __ occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.

Back

Dramatic Irony

Front

In this type of irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or a piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work

Back

Abstract Language

Front

Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places.

Back

Pedantic

Front

An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

overweening

Front

Showing excessive confidence or pride

Back

Exposition

Front

The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.

Back

Deduction

Front

The process of moving from a general rule to a specific example.

Back

Semantics

Front

The branch of linguistics that studies that meaning of words, their historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another.

Back

Style

Front

an evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices.

Back

Mood

Front

This term has two distinct technical meanings in English writing. The first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.

Back

Narration

Front

The purpose of this type of rhetorical mode is to tell the story or narrate an event or series of events.

Back

prodigal

Front

wastefully extravagant

Back

Backing

Front

Support or evidence for a claim in an argument

Back

Colloquial

Front

the use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Huckleberry Finn in written in a __ style.

Back

raconteur

Front

a person who tells anecdotes in a skillful and amusing way

Back

Chiasmus

Front

Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea.

Back

Stream-of-consciousness

Front

This is a narrative technique that places the reader in the mind and thought process of the narrator, no matter how random and spontaneous that may be.

Back

banal

Front

so lacking in originality as to be obvious and boring

Back

Explication

Front

The act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text. __ usually involves close reading and special attention to figurative language.

Back

Genre

Front

The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.

Back

Posit

Front

assume as a fact; put forward as a basis of argument.

Back

capacious

Front

having a lot of space inside; roomy

Back

Antecedent

Front

the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.

Back

Authority

Front

Arguments that draw on recognized experts or persons with highly relevant experience.

Back

Ethical Appeal

Front

When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text.

Back

Dialect

Front

the recreation of regional spoken language, such as a Southern one. Hurston uses this in Their Eyes Were Watching God.

Back

Analogy

Front

a literary device employed to serve as a basis for comparison. It is assumed that what applies to the parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance. In other words, it is the comparison between two different items.

Back

harbinger

Front

a person or thing that announces or signals the approach of another

Back

Balance

Front

a situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences or paragraphs or sections of a longer work.

Back

Argumentation

Front

The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.

Back

ape

Front

Imitate (someone or something), especially in an absurd or unthinking way

Back

pariah

Front

An outcast

Back

Ambiguity

Front

an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way.

Back

Parallelism

Front

refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity.

Back

Attitude

Front

the relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience

Back

Diction

Front

the author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning

Back

Didactic

Front

writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. A ___ work is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns.

Back

Point of View

Front

In literature, the perspective from which a story is told.

Back

Trope

Front

A figure of speech using words in nonliteral ways

Back

Thesis

Front

The sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.

Back

Ellipsis

Front

Indicated by a series of three periods, the __ indicates that some material has been omitted from a given text.

Back

Annotation

Front

explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data.

Back

Asyndeton

Front

Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted; in addition, the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.

Back

Comic Relief

Front

the inclusion of a humorous character or scene to contrast with the tragic elements of a work, thereby intensifying the next tragic event.

Back

Prose

Front

One of the major divisions of genre, ___ refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech.

Back

Deconstruction

Front

a critical approach that debunks single definitions of meaning based on the instability of language. It "is not a dismantling of a structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself."

Back

pedestrian

Front

lacking inspiration or excitement

Back

mercurial

Front

Subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind

Back

Rhetorical Modes

Front

The flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing.

Back

Rhetoric

Front

from the Greek for "orator," this term describes the principle governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.

Back

Wit

Front

In modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. Usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement.

Back

Tone

Front

Similar to mood, __ describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both.

Back

Allegory

Front

A work that functions on a symbolic level

Back

Narrative Device

Front

This term describes the tools of the storyteller, such as ordering events to that they build to climatic movement or withholding information until a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing in creates a desired effect.

Back