Terms- AP English Language and Composition

Terms- AP English Language and Composition

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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Figurative Language

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Mar 1, 2020

Cards (90)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Figurative Language

Front

Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid

Back

Satire

Front

A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule. Regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform human behavior, _____ is best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing. It can be recognized by the many devices used effectively by the _____ist: irony, wit, parody, caricature, often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. Some modern satirists include Joseph Heller (Catch 22) and Kurt Vonnegut (Cat's Cradle, Player Piano).

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Allusion

Front

A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. _____s can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of _____.

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Metonymy

Front

A term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name," _____ is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For example, a news release that claims "the White House declared" rather than "the President declared" is using metonymy; Shakespeare uses it to signify the male and female sexes in As You Like It: "doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous to petticoat." The substituted term generally carries a more potent emotional impact.

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Clause

Front

A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent, or main ______ expresses complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent, or subordinate ______, cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent _____. The point that you want to consider is the question or what or why the author subordinates one element should also become aware of making effective use of subordination in your own writing.

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Syllogism

Front

From the Greek for "reckoning together," a _____ (or _____istic reasoning or _____istic logic) is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises (the first one called "major" and the second called "minor") that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. A frequently cited example proceeds as follows: major premise: All men are mortal. minor premise: Socrates is a man. conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is a mortal. A _____'s conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid. _____s may also present the specific idea first ("Socrates") and the general second ("all men").

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Hyperbole

Front

A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. (The literal Greek meaning is "overshoot.") _________s often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, _________ produces irony. The opposite of _________ is understatement.

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Homily

Front

This term literally means "sermon", but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.

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Extended Metaphor

Front

A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.

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Allegory

Front

The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meanin. In some allegories, for example, an author may intend the characters to personify an abstraction like hope or freedom. The ________ meaning usually deals with the moral truth or a generalization about human existence.

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Diction

Front

Related to style, _____ refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. For the AP Exam you should be able to describe an author's _____ (for example, formal or informal) and understand how it compliments the author's purpose. _____, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc., creates an author's style.

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Litotes

Front

A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite. _____ is the opposite of hyperbole. Examples: "Not a bad idea," "Not many," "It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain" (Salinger, Catcher in the Rye).

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Narrative

Front

The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

Back

Invective

Front

an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language. (For example, in Henry IV, Part hill of flesh.")

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Simile

Front

A comparison using like or as

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Denotation

Front

The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color. (Example: the _____ of knife- a utensil for cutting - Connotation - knife - such as knife in the back - anger fear violence betrayal)

Back

Metaphor

Front

A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. _____ical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful.

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Tone

Front

Similar to mood, _____ describes the author's attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. ____ is easier to determine in spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying an author's ____. Some words describing ____are playful, serious, businesslike, sarcastic, humorous, formal, ornate, sardonic, somber, etc.

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Sarcasm

Front

From the Greek meaning "to tear flesh," _____ involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are _____stic (that is, intended to ridicule). When well done,_____can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it is simply cruel.

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Mood

Front

The prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the _____. _____ is similar to tone and atmosphere.

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Personification

Front

A _____ __ ______ in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions. Personification is used to make these abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader.

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Paradox

Front

A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. (Think of the beginning of Dickens' Tale of Two Cities: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times....")

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Archetype

Front

A detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response

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Point of view

Front

In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two general divisions of _____ __ _____, and many subdivisions within those. (1) first person narrator tells the story with the first person pronoun, "I," and is a character in the story. This narrator can be the protagonist, a secondary character, or an observing character. (2) third person narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, "he," "she," and "it." There are two main subdivisions to be aware of: a. third person omniscient, in which the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts and actions of any or all characters b. third person limited omniscient, in which the narrator presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character, presenting only the actions of all the remaining characters. In addition, be aware that the term _____ __ _____ carries an additional meaning. When you are asked to analyze the author's _____ __ ____, the appropriate point for you to address is the author's attitude.

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Imagery

Front

The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, _____ uses terms related to the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory. On a broader, deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing. For example, a rose may present visual imagery while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks and/or symbolizing some degree of perfection. An author may use complex _____ while simultaneously employing other figures of speech, especially metaphor and simile. In addition, this term can apply to the total of all the images in a work. On the AP language exam, pay attention to how an author creates imagery and to the effect of this _____.

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Irony/Ironic

Front

The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true. _____ is often used to create poignancy or humor. In general, there are three major types of _____ used in language: (1) verbal _____ - when the words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) meaning (2) situational _____ - when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen (3) dramatic _____ - when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.

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Apostrophe

Front

A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, "Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour:/ England hath need of thee." Another example is Keats' "Ode to Grecian Urn," in which Keats addresses the urn itself: "Thou still unravished bride of quietness". Many apostrophes imply a personification of the object addressed.

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Alliteration

Front

The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells"). Although the term is not frequently in the multiple choice section, you can look for _____ in any essay passage. The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, supply a musical sound, and/or echo the sense of the passage.

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Oxymoron

Front

From the Greek for "pointedly foolish," an _____ is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox. Simple examples include "jumbo shrimp" and "cruel kindness." This term does not usually appear in the multiple-choice questions, but there is a chance that you might find it in an essay. Take note of the effect that the author achieves with the use of _____.

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Symbol/Symbolism

Front

Generally, anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually a _____is something concrete -- such as an object, action, character, or scene - that represents something more abstract. However, _____s (1) natural _____s are objects and occurrences from nature to _____lize ideas commonly associated with them (dawn _____lizing hope or a new beginning, a rose _____izing love, a tree _____lizing knowledge). (2) conventional _____s are those that have been invested with meaning by a group (religious _____s such as a cross or Star of David; national _____s, such as a flag or an eagle; or group _____s, such as a skull and crossbones for pirates or the scale of justice for lawyers). (3) literary _____s are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a variety of works and are more generally recognized. However, a work's _____s may be more complicated, as is the jungle in Heart of Darkness. On the AP exam, try to determine what abstraction an object is a _____ for and to what extent it is successful in representing that abstraction.

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Syntax

Front

The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. _____ is similar to diction, but you can differentiate them by thinking of _____ as groups of words, while diction refers to the individual words. In the multiplechoice section of the AP exam, expect to be asked some questions about how an author manipulates _____. In the essay section, you will need to analyze how _____ produces effects.

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Onomatopoeia

Front

A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur. If you note examples of onomatopoeia in an essay passage, note the effect.

Back

Atmosphere

Front

The emotional nod created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described. Even such elements as a description of the weather can contribute to the _____. Frequently _____ foreshadows events. Perhaps it can create a mood.

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Didactic

Front

From the Greek, _____ literally means "teaching." They have the primary aim of teaching or instructing,especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.

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Theme

Front

The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usually _____ is unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction, the _____ may be directly state, especially in expository or argumentative writing.

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Colloquial/Colloquialism

Front

The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, ____________ give a work a conversational, familiar tones. __________ expressions in writing include local or regional dialects.

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Connotation

Front

The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. _____s may involve ideas, emotions or attitudes

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Antecedent

Front

The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun. The AP language exam occasionally asks for the _____ of a given pronoun in a long, complex sentence or in a group of sentences. A question from the 2001 AP test as an example follows: "But it is the grandeur of all truth which can occupy a very high place in human interests that it is never absolutely novel to the meanest of minds; IT exists eternally, by way of germ of latent principle, in the lowest as in the highest, needing to be developed but never to be planted." The _____ of "IT" is...? (answer: all truth)

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Understatement

Front

the ironic minimalizing of fact, ___________ presents something as less significant than it is. The effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic. _____________ is the opposite of hyperbole. Example: Jonathan Swift's A Tale of a Tub: "Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her person for the worse."

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Euphemism

Front

From the Greek for "good speech", ________s are a mor agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. The _________ may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or iroinic understatement. Saying "earthly remains" rather than "corpse" is an example of __________.

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Aphorism

Front

A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle. (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.) An _____ can be a memorable summation of the author's point.

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Conceit

Front

A fanicful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. A _______ displays intellectual cleverness as a result of an unusual comparison being made.

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Figure of speech

Front

A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Could include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, understatement.

Back

Caricature

Front

A verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person's distinctive physical features and other characteristics.

Back

Antihero

Front

A protagonist (main character) who is markedly unheroic: morally weak, cowardly, dishonest, or any number of other unsavory qualities.

Back

Antithesis

Front

The opposition or contrast of ideas; the direct opposite

Back

Genre

Front

The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. However, _____ is a flexible term; within these broad boundaries exist many subdivisions that are often called _____s themselves. For example, prose can be divided into fiction (novels and short stories) or nonfiction (essays, biographies, autobiographies, etc.). Poetry can be divided into lyric, dramatic, narrative, epic, etc. Drama can be divided into tragedy, comedy melodrama, farce, etc. On the AP Language exam, expect the majority of the passages to be from the following _____s: autobiography, biography, diaries, criticism, essays, and journalistic, political, scientific, and nature writing. There may be fiction or poetry.

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Generic Conventions

Front

This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and a political writing. On the AP Language Exam, try to distinguish the unique features of a writer's work from those dictated by convention.

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Thesis

Front

In expository writing, the _____ statement is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or position. Expository writing is usually judged by analyzing how accurately, effectively,and thoroughly a writer has proven the thesis.

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Analogy

Front

A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An _____ can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. _____s can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.

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Section 2

(40 cards)

Parody

Front

A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule. It exploits peculiarities of an author's expression (propensity to use too many parentheses, certain favorite words, etc.) Well-written ______ offers enlightenment about the original, but poorly written parody offers only ineffectual imitation. Usually an audience must grasp literary allusion and understand the work being ______ed in order to fully appreciate the nuances of the newer work. Occassionally, however, ______es take on a life of their own and don't require knowledge of the original.

Back

Periodic Sentence

Front

The opposite of loose sentence, a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase of clause that cannot stand alone. The effect of the ________ ________ is to add emphasis and structural variety. It is also a much stronger sentence than the loose sentence. (Example: After a long, bumpy flight and multiple delays, I arrived at the San Diego airport.)

Back

Parallel syntactic structures

Front

using the same part of speech or syntactic structure in (1) each element of a series, (2) before and after coordinating conjunctions (and, but, yet, or, for, nor), and (3) after each of a pair of correlative conjunctions (not only...but also, neither...nor, both...and, etc.). Below are examples for definitions (1) and (3):Over the hill, through the woods, and to grandmother's house we go. (3) That vegetable is both rich in vitamins and low in calories.

Back

RHETORICAL STRATEGIES

Front

Any tools used by the author to make his/her point more convincing. Rhetorical strategies help the author to make his claim (Logos) more convincing by appealing to Pathos and Ethos.

Back

Rebuttal/Refutation(nouns) rebut/refute (verbs)

Front

an opposing argument; a contradiction. To prove an argument wrong.

Back

Subordinate Clause

Front

Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subjec and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases or modifiers), but unlike independent clauses, the ___________ ______ cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought. The ___________ ______ depends on a main clause (or independent clause) to complete its meaning. Easily recognized key words and phrases usually begin these clauses. For example: although, because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, while, who, when, where, how, and that. Example: Yellowstone is a national park in the West 'that is known for its geysers'. Parenthesed phrase= ___________ ______

Back

Euphemism

Front

the substitution of an inoffensive, indirect, or agreeable expression for a word or phrase perceived as socially unacceptable or unnecessarily harsh. "overweight" rather than "fat," "disadvantaged" rather than "poor"

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Pedantic

Front

An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, bookish (language that might be described as "show-offy"; using big words for the sake of big words).

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Speaker's Stance

Front

a "stance" is a position, where you stand on an issue. You might, for example, disagree with Bush's stance on Iraq and believe instead that we should withdraw our troops. That belief, then, would be your stance.

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Rhetoric

Front

From the Greek for "orator", this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.

Back

Qualification (noun)

Front

to modify, restrict or limit. A qualification of an assertion or claim means that you agree in part, or you wish to redefine or reshape the assertion. If you were asked your opinion of Canada's assertion, or claim, you might agree that guns have held an important place in the defense of America, but that "love affair" is too strong a term to describe Americans' feelings for guns. So you would express your opinion as a qualification of Canada's argument: while it is true that guns have played an important part in American history, the reason is not Americans' love for guns but rather their desire for safety and security.

Back

Appeals to authority

Front

using the endorsement , approval or voice of an authority to make an argument seem more convincing. When students voice their opinions in a synthesis essay, they often quote from authority figures to support their opinions.

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Synesthesia

Front

When one kind of sensory stimulus the subjective experience of another. Ex: The sight of the red ants makes you itchy. In literature, __________ refers to the practice of associating two or more different senses in te same image. Red Hot Chili Pepper's song title,"Taste the Pain" is an example.

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Style

Front

The consideration of _____ has two purposes: 1) An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. Some authors' _____s are so idiosyncratic that we can quickly recognize works by the same author. we can analyze and describe an author's personal _____ and make judgments on how appropriate it is to the author's purpose. _____s can be called flowery, explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace, incisive, laconic, etc. 2) Classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors. By means of such classification and comparison, we can see how an author's _____ reflects and helps to define a historical period, such as the Renaissance or the Victorian period, or a literary movement, such as the romantic, transcendental, or realist movement.

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Inference/Infer

Front

To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. When a multiple choice asks for an _________ to be drawn from a passage, the most direct, most reasonable _________ is the safest answer choice. If an __________ is implausible, it is unlikely to be the correct answeer. Note that if the answer choice is directly stated, it is not ______ed and it is wrong. You must be careful to note the connotation-negative or positive- of the choices.

Back

Litotes (understatement)

Front

deliberately representing something as less than it is in order to create a particular effect. Canada relates an incident which begins with the claiming of a basketball and escalates into the confrontation of a man with a gun. He watches as the older boys reach for their knives and face down an opponent who has a much more powerful weapon. Later, when Geoffrey wants to talk about this incident, Mike and Junior deliberately understate the severity of what happened: '"He was an ***. Forget it."'(42). Their use of litotes or understatement is meant to teach an important lesson: you must keep your emotions under control in order to survive on the streets

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Recapitulate

Front

to repeat briefly; to summarize. Often when you write an argument essay or give a speech, you recapitulate, or sum up your points, in your conclusion. After describing his experience as a teacher with some difficult students (Ch. 4), Canada recapitulates by comparing these students to those he had grown up with in the Bronx and restating his claim that "Violence is a learned response"(28).

Back

Semantics

Front

The branch of linguistics that studies the meanings of words, their historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another.

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Jargon

Front

refers to a specialized language providing a shorthand method of quick communication between people in the same field. The basis of assessment for Schedule D Case I and II, other than commencement and cessation, is what is termed a previous year basis. (legal jargon)

Back

Juxtaposition

Front

a device by which a writer or speaker juxtaposes, or places two items side by side. This is done to create an ironic contrast or effect. A famous photograph from the Depression shows a long line of men waiting for bread who are standing in front of a billboard that says, "America, Land of Opportunity." The picture of men who are out of work and must rely on food hand-outs is juxtaposed with the message that America provides opportunities for all.

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Wit

Front

In modern usage, intllectually amusing language that surprises and delights. A ___ty statement is humorous, while suggesting the speakers verbal power in creating ingenious and perceptive remarks. ___ usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement. Historically, ___ originally meant basic understanding. Its meaning evolved to include speed of understanding, and finally, it grew to mean quick perception including creating fancy and a quick tongue to articulate an answer that demanded the same quick perception.

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Synechdoche

Front

A figure of speech in which a part of something us used to represent the whorle, or occassionally, the whole is used to represent a part. Examples: To refer to a boat as a "sail"; to refer to a car as "wheels"; to referr to the violins, violas, etc. in an orchestra as "the strings". **Different tan metynomy, in whcih one thing is represented by another thing that is commonly physically associated withi it (but is not necessarily part of it), i.e., regerring to a monarch as "the crown" or the President as "The White House".

Back

Logical Fallacies

Front

methods of pseudo-reasoning that may occur accidentally or may be intentionally contrived to lend plausibility to an unsound argument.

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Doublespeak

Front

language used to distort and manipulate rather than to communicate. "Not doing so well" instead of very sick or injured

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Prose

Front

One of the major divisions of genre, _____ refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms. In _____ the printer determines the length of the line; in poetry, the poet determines the length of the line.

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Antithesis

Front

the contrast of opposites within parallel clauses or phrases. Canada uses antithesis to point out the contrast between his innocent belief that the police would help him and his growing awareness that they didn't care about people in his neighborhood: "It was nothing they did, it was what they didn't do"(14).

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Rhetorical Modes

Front

This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of major kinds of writing. The four most common _________ _____ (often referred to as the modes of discourse) are as follows: 1) The purpose of 'exposition' (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. The AP Language exam essay questions are frequently expository topics. 2) The purpose of 'argumentation' is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having an additional aim of urging some form of action. 3) The purpose of 'description' is to recreate, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in a description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive imaging may be straightforward and objective, or highly emotional and subjective. 4) The purpose of 'narration' is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mod frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.

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Lending Credence

Front

In arguing her point, a writer or speaker should always give the opponent some credit for his / her ideas.

Back

Assertion/claim (noun)/ assert (verb)

Front

Assertions are opinions stated as facts—the basis of all arguments. Assertions are always arguable. Another word for an assertion that controls an argument is claim."America has long had a love affair with violence and guns"(x). Canada begins his book by claiming, or asserting that an important part of America's experience has been their love of violence and guns.

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Shift or Turn

Front

a change or movement in a piece resulting from an epiphany, realization, or insight gained by the speaker, a character, or the reader

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Ellipsis

Front

The omission of a word or words necessary for complete construction but understood in the context. "The eyes of others our prisons; their thoughts our cages."

Back

Spin

Front

twist and turn so as to give an intended interpretation"The President's spokesmen had to spin the story to make it less embarrassing"

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Anecdote

Front

the retelling of a brief incident that may illustrate or prove a point made in an argument.

Back

Parallelism

Front

Also referred to as parallel construction or parallel structure, this terms comes from Greek roots meaning "beside one another". It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. This can involve, but is not limited to, repetition of a grammatical element such as preposition or verbal phrase. (Again, the opening of Dickens' Tale of Two Cities is an example: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of believe, it was the epoch of incredulity...") The effects of ___________ are numerous, but frequently they act as an organizing force to attract the reader's attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide a musical rhythym.

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Loose Sentence/Non-Periodic Sentence

Front

A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the clause would be a complete sentence. A work containing many _____ ________s often seems informal, relaxed, or conversational. Generally, _____ ________s create loose style. The opposite of a _____ ________ is the periodic sentence. Example: I arrived at the San Diego airport after a long, bumpy ride and multiple delays. Could stop at: I arrived at the San Diego airport.

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Anaphora

Front

A sub-type of parallelism, when the exact repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of successive lines or sentences. MLK used anaphora in his famous "I Have a Dream" speech (1963).

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Transition

Front

A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially, although not exclusively, in expository and argumentative writing, __________s effectively signal a shift from one idea to another. a few commonly used __________al words or phrases are furthermore, consequently, nevertheless, for example, in addition, likewise, similarly, on the contrary,etc. More sophisitcated writers use more subtle means of __________.

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Ethnocentric

Front

The belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture.

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Subject Complement

Front

The word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes the subject of the sentence by either (1) renaming it(the predicative nominative) or (2) describing it (the predicate adjective). These are defined below: 1) The predicate nominative- a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject. It, like the predicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence. Example: Julia Roberts is a movie star. movie star= predicate nominative, as it renames the subject, Julia Roberts 2) The predicate adjective- an adjective, a group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb. It is in the predicate of the sentence, and modifies, or describes, the subject. Example: Warren remained optimistic. optimistic= predicate adjective, as it modifies the subject, Warren

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Repetition

Front

The duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.

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